HR: Leading People, Leading Organizations

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  • Ask how many are already national SHRM members Ask them if they think they know about all the online benefits that SHRM offers. This presentation will cover how you can use SHRM as a resource to help you do your job better every day.


  • 1. Human Resources Certification
    • Shelly Prochaska, SPHR
    • Manager, Southeast Region
  • 2.
    • Certification is a public recognition of professional achievement -- both within and ultimately outside of the profession.
    • For many, achieving certification becomes a personal professional goal -- a way to test one's knowledge and to measure oneself against one's peers.
    • To a lesser extent, others use it as an aid to career advancement.
  • 3.
    • SPHR/PHR certification is a symbol of professional achievement
    • Signifies you have mastered the HR body of knowledge
    • Nearly 70,000 individuals currently certified
    • Member discount on exam fee and learning materials through SHRMStore
    • Online registration now available
  • 4. HR Certification Institute
    • SHRM’s credentialing body
    • Maintains nationally recognized standards set by individuals working in HR
    • Administers exams in major cities around the U.S.
    • Online at
  • 5.
    • The PHR ® and SPHR ® says that the holder has demonstrated mastery of the HR body of knowledge and has accepted the personal challenge to stay informed of new developments in the HR field.
    • To be successful in their jobs, HR professionals must know how to deal effectively with strategic management and planning issues, international competition, management staffing and family and social issues that affect the workplace.
  • 6. FAQs
    • Why does the exam cover areas of HR that I don’t deal with? Why must I test in areas I don’t deal with?
    • Passing the exam shows that you know the HR BODY OF KNOWLEDGE
    • It covers “what an HR practitioner should know and be able to apply to be considered a competent HR generalist"
    • CPAs don’t only have to know tax accounting!
  • 7. Which Exam?
    • The PHR examination focuses more on the operational and technical aspects of human resource management.
    • The SPHR examination addresses HR issues at the strategic and policy level.
    • To be eligible for either examination, candidates must have a minimum of two years of exempt-level HR work experience as a practitioner, educator, researcher or consultant.
  • 8. The Ideal PHR Candidate
    • Focuses on program implementation.
    • Has tactical/logistical orientation.
    • Has accountability to another HR professional within the organization.
    • Has a minimum of two to four years of exempt-level generalist HR work experience, but because of career length, may lack the breadth and depth of a more senior level generalist.
    • Has not had progressive HR work experience by virtue of career length.
    • Has an impact within the HR department, rather than organization-wide.
    • Commands respect through the credibility of knowledge and the use of policies and guidelines to make decisions.
  • 9. The Ideal SPHR Candidate
    • Designs and plans rather than implements.
    • Focuses on the "big picture."
    • Has ultimate accountability in the HR department.
    • Has a minimum of six to eight years of progressive HR experience.
    • Has breadth and depth of HR generalist knowledge.
    • Uses judgment obtained with time and application of knowledge.
    • Is not specialized; rather, the SPHR candidate typically has generalist role within organization.
    • Understands the level of impact one's decisions make within and outside of the organization.
    • Understands the business, not just the HR function.
    • Manages relationships; has influence within overall organization.
    • Commands credibility within organization, community and field by experience.
    • Possesses excellent negotiation skills.
  • 10. Student Exams
    • HRCI allows students and recent graduates within one year of graduation to take the PHR examination at a reduced student fee.
    • Upon passing the examination, student candidates are not considered PHR-certified until they obtain two years of exempt-level HR work experience.
    • Students and recent graduates who already have two years of exempt-level HR work experience may not take the examination as a student/recent graduate.
  • 11. When and Where
    • In 2004, take the exam at any of the 250 Prometric Test Centers (97 now)
    • Two eight-week periods from the beginning of May through the end of June, and from mid-November through mid-January
    • Test centers are open Monday through Friday, and evening and weekend hours
  • 12. Computer-Based Testing
    • Receive an official pass/fail notification in the mail two to three weeks after the exam—with their certificates if you passed—and detailed breakouts of performance in the functional areas of the exam
    • Exams will no longer be offered at the SHRM Annual Conference or Leadership Conference
    • Take a tutorial before the exam
    • Take exam at individual workstation
  • 13. NEW!
    • New NOW!
      • Online certification assessment
        • Take a sample timed exam to assess your readiness for the exam
        • Receive feedback showing where you need to focus your study
    • Coming in May 2004 . . .
      • International/Global Certification (GPHR)
  • 14. Test Dates
    • Two testing windows, each eight weeks in duration, are offered annually.
    • Candidates who register for the Spring testing window can schedule their exam at a Prometric testing center between May 1 and June 30.
    • Candidates who register for the Winter testing window can schedule their exam between November 15, 2004 and January 15, 2005.
  • 15. Deadlines
    • Exam Window Regular Deadline Late Deadline
    • Spring 5/1 – 6/30 3/5/04 4/23/04
    • Winter 11/15 – 1/15 9/20/04 11/5/04
  • 16. Exam Content
    • The most recent study identified changes in the profession in four major areas:
      • reliance on Internet technology
      • employee training and retraining needs, based on experience levels
      • strategic involvement in aspects of the business
      • demands associated with managing a diverse workforce that includes an increasing number of international employees
  • 17. Exam Content
    • The change in practice prompted a restructuring of the body of knowledge into six, compared with the former seven, functional areas
      • strategic management
      • workforce planning and employment
      • human resource development
      • compensation and benefits
      • employee and labor relations
      • occupational health, safety and security
  • 18.
    • Costs
      • PHR
        • $250 for SHRM members
        • $300 for non-SHRM members
        • $120 for students
      • SPHR
        • $375 for SHRM members
        • $425 for non-SHRM members
  • 19. Pass Rates 1992-2002
  • 20. Functional Area % PHR Exam % SPHR Exam Strategic Management 12% 26% Workforce Planning and Employment 26% 16% Human Resource Development 15% 13% Compensation and Benefits 20% 16% Employee and Labor Relations 21% 24% Occupational Health, Safety and Security 6% 5%
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. How to Prepare
    • Self-Study
    • Workshops/Seminars
    • Chapter Study Groups
    • College Courses
  • 24. HR Certification Guide
    • HRCI Certification Guide , available through , the Barnes and Noble online bookstore and the SHRMStore .
    • The guide costs about $25 and includes more in-depth discussion about how to choose a study method, a bibliography of recommended resources, sample study schedules and sample questions and answers.
    • It is the only guide prepared by HRCI for the examinations and should be referenced before candidates determine their study approach.
  • 25. HR Certification Guide
    • HR Certification Guide contains about 120 test questions
    • Get the “feel” for the types of questions
    • Answers in back of book
    • Excellent resource for “testing your knowledge”
  • 26. Study Methods
    • The educational services offered by SHRM include the following:
      • SHRM Certification Preparation Course. These three- and four-day courses are designed to refresh candidates on the HR body of knowledge and cover the functional areas included in the HRCI test specifications. For details, see .
      • SHRM Learning System. This computer-based study tool reviews the functional areas on the HR body of knowledge. For details, see .
  • 27. Study Methods
    • The educational services offered by SHRM include the following:
      • College/University Program. Participating colleges and universities offer these courses, held a few months before each national test administration. They are 10 weeks in length. The courses are designed to prepare candidates for the PHR and SPHR examinations and are also modeled from the HRCI test specifications. For details, see
  • 28. Study Methods
    • Other resources:
      • Textbook: Human Resource Management by Mathis & Jackson
      • Also comes with Study Guide
      • Available online through the SHRMStore
  • 29. Sample Questions
    • An applicant who was previously fired for misconduct by another employer does not list that employment experience on the application form and is subsequently hired. One month later, this omission is discovered. How should this situation be handled?
    • A. The incident should be overlooked and considered a casual omission. B. The employee should receive a written disciplinary letter about the omission. C. The employee should be fired for falsification of the application. D. The previous employer should be contacted to determine the cause of the prior dismissal.
  • 30. Sample Questions
    • C. The employee should be fired for falsification of the application.
    • A commonly recognized principle at law is that fraudulent misrepresentation on an application form is grounds for immediate dismissal. Additionally, falsification of official records is viewed as a serious violation of work rules. If an applicant intentionally lies or conceals information and was previously terminated by another employer for misconduct, assume more problems will occur. The best indicator of future performance is past performance. The employee should be terminated.
  • 31. Sample Questions
    • A performance appraisal approach that best meets EEO guidelines is one that is oriented to:
    • A. Job content. B. General job characteristics. C. The traits of the person in the job. D. Using the same criteria for all positions.
  • 32. Sample Questions
    • A. Job content.
    • Performance appraisals are subject to the Uniform Guidelines for Employee Selection Procedures. As such, they must be job-related and based on job analysis. General job descriptions are not specific enough to be legally defensible. Using a trait approach focuses on personal characteristics rather than job performance.
  • 33. Sample Questions
    • Which of the following would least likely occur with the implementation of a cafeteria-style benefits program?
    • A. Reduced turnover B. Less wasted or unused benefits C. Reduced administrative costs D. Increased employee understanding of benefit costs
  • 34. Sample Questions
    • C. Reduced administrative costs
    • Cafeteria-style benefit plans allow employees some degree of freedom of selection in the type of benefits for which they may enroll. These plans allow the employee to tailor the benefit package to their particular life situation, providing a more efficient utilization of benefits. The downside of such plans are increased record-keeping and administration and the potential for adverse selection.
  • 35. Sample Questions
    • Job enrichment and job enlargement are two means of enhancing jobs through job design. What is the basic difference between the two techniques?
    • A. Enriching a job involves adding more tasks to an existing job while enlarging a job involves adding more responsibilities. B. Enlarging a job indicates an increased rate of pay will accompany the new job responsibilities. C. Enlarging a job involves adding more tasks at the same level while enriching a job involves adding more responsibilities. D. The two terms mean the same, there is no basic difference between them.
  • 36. Sample Questions
    • C. Enlarging a job involves adding more tasks at the same level while enriching a job involves adding more responsibilities.
    • Enlarging a job involves adding more tasks at the same level while enriching a job involves adding more responsibilities. Job enlargement is generally considered an increase in the number and variety of tasks in a job. It is also known as horizontal loading because the new tasks are at the same responsibility level as the previous tasks. Job enrichment involves adding more and often higher levels of responsibility to a job. It generally increases a worker's degree or control over planning, execution and evaluation of work. It also known as vertical loading.
  • 37. Sample Questions
    • The future demand for employees is essentially derived from the anticipated:
    • A. supply of external employees B. demand for the organization's products and/or services C. competitive forces in the labor market D. changes in federal legislation
  • 38. Sample Questions
    • B. demand for the organization's products and/or services
    • Other factors influencing the future demand for employees include the organization's productivity and its productivity improvement goal.
  • 39. Sample Questions
    • Collective bargaining issues that fall within the NLRA's definition of wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment are classified as what type of issues?
    • A. mandatory B. permissive C. voluntary D. prohibited
  • 40. Sample Questions
    • A. mandatory
    • Permissive or voluntary issues are those that may be raised but neither side may insist that they be included in the collective bargaining process. Prohibited issues are those that have been specifically excluded.
  • 41. Sample Questions
    • In a firm's training and development program, the trainee must believe that improved skills will lead to desired outcomes and that efforts in the training program will result in improved skills. These assumptions are related to which motivation theory?
    • A. expectancy theory B. reinforcement theory C. motivation-hygiene theory D. equity theory
  • 42. Sample Questions
    • A. expectancy theory
    • Reinforcement theory holds that the consequences of behavior influence that behavior. To be most effective, reinforcement needs to be provided as soon after the desired behavior as possible. Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory focuses on satisfiers (motivator factors, such as achievement and responsibility) and dissatisfiers, hygiene factors, which are important in preventing demotivation but do not positively motivate performance. Other hygiene factors are company policy, working conditions and pay. Equity theory suggests that individuals compare their rewards and the efforts required to attain them with the rewards and efforts of other relevant individuals.
  • 43. Sample Questions
    • Upon what piece of federal legislation are labor laws primarily based?
    • A. The Norris-LaGuardia Act B. The Walsh-Healey Act C. The Davis-Bacon Act D. The Wagner Act
  • 44. Sample Questions
    • D. The Wagner Act
    • The National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) declared legislative support of the right of labor to organize and engage in collective bargaining. The Norris-LaGuardia Act specifies when injunctions can be used in labor disputes and outlaws so-called yellow dog contracts. The Walsh-Healey Act sets wages, hours, and working conditions for government contractors and the Davis-Bacon Act regulates wages for workers of government contractors on public works projects.
  • 45. Sample Questions
    • What is the primary advantage for an employer to provide vesting in its profit sharing program on a gradual basis?
    • A. Reduces cost B. Encourages interest in the plan C. Improves employee morale D. Reduces turnover
  • 46. Sample Questions
    • D. Reduces turnover
    • Vesting rights refer to the percent of profit an employee actually owns in his or her account. It is often established on a graduated basis. For example, an employee may become 20 percent vested after two years with an additional 20 percent every year thereafter until the employee is 100 percent vested. This approach tends to encourage employees to stay with the organization.
  • 47. Sample Questions
    • When regression analysis is used in human resource research, a potential dependent variable might be:
    • A. biographical data B. personal goals C. length of employment D. test scores
  • 48. Sample Questions
    • C. length of employment
    • Biographical data, personal goals and test scores would most likely serve as independent variables that might have an affect on dependent variables, such as satisfaction, productivity and tenure. The purpose of regression analysis is to use the correlation existing between two or more variables as a means of predicting one dependent variable from the independent variables.
  • 49. Re-Certification
    • Once certified, it is required that you re-certify every 3 years
    • 60 hours of learning credit
    • Hour-for-hour basis
    • If you do not submit the re-certification form on time, your only option is to retake the exam
    • NO supporting documentation should be submitted
  • 50. Re-Certification
    • Credit is awarded for HR-related activities in these categories:
      • Continuing Education: Credit awarded hour for hour.
      • Instruction: 1 hour taught = 1.5 credit hours awarded.
      • On-the-Job Experience: Credit awarded for first-time work activity if it broadens your knowledge of the field of HR.
      • Research/Publishing: Conduct research, write, or publish for the industry.
      • Leadership: Your external leadership activities count.
      • Professional Membership: Become a member of a national HR-related professional association and earn your credit hours.
  • 51. Re-Certification
    • Regarding Continuing Education, HR-related seminar, workshops, courses, etc., COUNT toward re-certification credit, as long as they are not during a meal.
    • The program you attend DOES NOT need to be “pre-certified” for re-certification credit.
    • CEUs DO NOT equal re-certification hours.
    • Re-certification credits are hour-for-hour.
    • 1 hour of learning equals 1 hour of credit.
  • 52. Re-Certification
    • Re-certification allows candidates to maintain their designation and the privilege of using the designation on business correspondence.
    • PHR and SPHR certified professionals who do not re-certify must immediately stop using the PHR and SPHR credentials.
    • Failure to do so not only puts the user in violation of trademark laws, but violates the HRCI code of conduct and the SHRM code of ethics.
  • 53. Re-Certification
    • Answers to ALL your re-certification questions can be found at
    • A re-certification form can be found at
    • There is a $100 processing fee.
  • 54. HR Certification
    • Thank you! Any questions?
    • Shelly Prochaska, SPHR
    • Manager, Southeast Region
    • [email_address]