the CONNECTING BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS TO TECHNOLOGY
Advanced Business Ask the Experts Book Review Business Analyst
Analysis Workshop Requirements Software Requirements: Certification
Management Tools Styles and Techniques
letter from the editors
elcome to our first issue of the bridge. We have decided that it is time for Business Analysts and those
W doing requirements gathering to have a publication that focuses on analyzing, documenting and
recommending solutions for our organizations. Our goal for this publication is to enhance your job by providing
you with the latest information, tools, and techniques used by Business Analysts around the country. The
importance and visibility of Business Analysts has become heightened, while the scope of their work in the
software application development process is expanding. Whether your title is Project Manager, Operations
Manager, Systems Analyst, Quality Assurance Analyst, or Marketing Associate, you may be performing the role
of a Business Analyst.
In this issue, you will find an article describing how B2T Training and other industry experts have seen the
Business Analyst role change over the years and our predictions for the future of this role. We discuss the important
issue of Requirements Management in our Ask the Experts section. Managing requirements continues to be a
challenge as we try to streamline our processes and expand our businesses globally. We have highlighted two
Requirements Management tools, DOORS and iServer, that are helping many organizations maintain control of
this important corporate asset. Our column, called Did you Know?, provides tips for utilizing Visio to enhance your
In late 2002, we began offering our Business Analyst Certification Program. This program is unique in the
industry in that it certifies Business Analysts in two areas: their knowledge of business analysis techniques and
their ability to perform the essential or critical skills to be a Certified Business Analyst. This has been a very
successful program and we are pleased that so many are enrolled and completing the program. As an
opportunity to continue the development of experienced Business Analysts, we have developed a new course:
Advanced Business Analysis Workshop. See our detailed outline on page 7.
We hope you find this publication informative and helpful with your analysis work. We encourage you to
write to us with your questions for our Ask the Experts column and offer suggestions for future articles that
would be of interest to you.
TINA JOSEPH BARBARA CARKENORD
We are excited to announce a new professional association called the International
Institute of Business Analysis. The group held its first annual meeting in Toronto,
in March 2004. The purpose of the association is “To be the leading world-wide
professional association developing and maintaining standards for the practice of
Business Analysis and for the certification of practitioners. Their first order of business is to develop a
Business Analysis Body of Knowledge.
B2T Training has joined this association because our vision of the role of the Business Analyst is consistent
with the proposed goals of the IIBA. We feel that it is critical for Business Analysts to have a professional
organization to support their career efforts. One of the committees that we will be working with will be defining
the industry accreditation and we will work towards making the B2T Training Certification transferable to the
To learn more about IIBA, visit the website at www.iiba.com. We encourage you to join and participate through
active involvement in the committees and various groups.
What has happened over the last few years and
what to look for in the future.
oftware application development working in the IT organization. They under-
has only been around since the late stood the software development process and
1970’s. Compared to other industries often had programming experience. They
and professions the software industry is still used textual requirements along with ANSI
very young. Ever since organizations began flowcharts, dataflow diagrams, database dia-
to use computers to support their business grams, and prototypes. The biggest com-
tasks, the people who create and maintain plaint about software development was the
those “systems” have length of time required to
become more and more What is a Business develop a system that didn’t
sophisticated and special-
Analyst? always meet the business
ized. This specialization A business analyst is a needs. Business people had
is necessary because person who acts as a become accustomed to
as computer systems liaison between business sophisticated software and
become more and more people who have a wanted it better and faster.
complex, no one person business problem and In response to the
can know how to do technology people who demand for speed, a class
everything. know how to create of development tools
One of the “special- automated solutions. referred to as CASE
ties” to arise is the (Computer Aided
Business Analyst. Although some organiza- Software Engineering) were invented.
tions have used this title in non-IT areas of These tools were designed to capture
the business, it is an appropriate description requirements and use them to manage a
for the role that functions as the bridge software development project from begin-
between people in business and IT. The ning to end. They required a strict adher-
use of the word “Business” is a constant ence to a methodology, involved a long
reminder that any application software learning curve, and often alienated the
developed by an organization should further business community from the development
improve its business operations, either by process due to the unfamiliar symbols used
increasing revenue, reducing costs, or in the diagrams.
increasing service level to the customers. As IT teams struggled to learn to use
CASE tools, PCs (personal computers)
History of the Business began to appear in large numbers on desk-
Analyst Role tops around the organization. Suddenly
In the 1980’s when the software develop- anyone could be a computer programmer,
ment life cycle was well accepted as a neces- designer and user. IT teams were still per-
sary step, people doing this work typically fecting their management of a central
came from a technical background and were mainframe computer and then suddenly
3 Summer 2004 l the bridge
had hundreds of independent computers In addition, the quality movement that our organizations, it becomes necessary to
to manage. Client-server technologies had started in the 70’s with TQM, came accurately and completely define the
emerged as an advanced alternative to the into focus again as companies looked for requirements in more detail than ever
traditional “green screen,” keyboard-based ways to lower their before. A consistent
software. cost of missed require- Who Makes a Great structured approach,
The impact on the software develop- ments as they expand- Business Analyst? while nice to have in the
ment process was devastating. Method- ed globally. The ISO past, is required to be
• Must be an outstanding
ologies and classic approaches to develop- (International successful in the new
ment had to be revised to support the new Standards environment. Most
• Must understand the SDLC
distributed systems technology and the Organization) set organizations will main-
increased sophistication of the computer quality standards that • Must enjoy very detailed tain the Business
research and recording
user prompted the number of software must be adhered to Analyst role as an “in-
requests to skyrocket. when doing interna- • Must be skilled at house” function. As a
Many business areas got tired of waiting tional business. organizing and managing result, more IT staff
large amounts of
for a large, slow moving IT department to Carnegie Mellon are being trained as
information in various
rollout yet another cumbersome applica- created a software Business Analysts.
tion. They began learning to do things for development quality
themselves, or hiring consultants, often standard CMM • Must be customer-focused The Business Analyst
called Business Analysts, who would report (Capability Maturity • Must be flexible role will continue to
directly to them, to help with automation Model). Additionally, • Must come prepared with shift its focus from
needs. This caused even more problems for Six Sigma provided a a toolkit of techniques to “Software” to
IT which was suddenly asked to support disciplined, data-driv- elicit excellent requirements “Business System.”
software that they had not written or en quality approach to Most Business Analysts
approved. Small independent databases process improvement aimed at the near- today are focused on software development
were created everywhere with inconsistent, elimination of defects from every product, and maintenance, but the skills of the
and often, unprotected data. During this process, and transaction. Each of these Business Analyst can be utilized on a larger
time, the internal Business Analyst role was quality efforts required more facts and rigor scale. An excellent Business Analyst can
minimized and as a result many systems during requirements gathering and analysis study a business area and make recommen-
did not solve the right business problem which highlighted the need for more skilled dations about procedural changes, person-
causing an increase in maintenance expens- Business Analysts familiar with the business, nel changes, and policy changes in addition
es and rework. IT, and quality best practices. to recommending software. The Business
New methodologies and approaches Analyst can help improve the business
were developed to respond to the changes, Future of the Business system not just the business software.
RAD (rapid application development), Analyst Role
JAD (joint application development), and Today we see Business Analysts coming The Business Analyst role will continue
OO (object oriented) tools and methods from both the IT and business areas. In the to evolve as business dictates.
were developed. best situations, the Business Analyst today Future productivity increases will be
As we began the new millennium, the has a combination of IT and business skills. achieved through re-usability of require-
Internet emerged as the new technology Each organization has unique titles for ments. Requirements Management will
and IT was again faced with a tremendous these individuals and the structure of become another key skill in the expanding
change. Once again, more sophisticated Business Analyst groups are as varied as the role of the Business Analyst as organiza-
users, anxious to take advantage of new companies themselves. However, there is a tions mature in their understanding of
technology, often looked outside of their core set of tasks that most Business Analysts this critical expertise.
own organizations for the automation they are doing regardless of their background or The Business Analyst is often described
craved. The business side of the organiza- their industry. as an “Agent of Change.” Having a detailed
tion started driving the technology as never understanding of the organization’s key
before and in a large percentage of organi- The Business Analyst role becomes more initiatives, a Business Analyst can lead the
zations began staffing the Business Analyst critical as project teams become more way to influence people to adapt to major
role from within the operational units geographically dispersed. changes that benefit the organization and
instead of from IT. We now have Outsourcing and globalization of large cor- its business goals. The role of a Business
Marketing Directors, Accountants, porations have been the driving factors for Analyst is an exciting and secure career
Attorneys, and Payroll Clerks performing much of this change recently. When the IT choice as U.S. companies continue to
the role of the Business Analyst. development role no longer resides inside drive the global economy. I
the bridge l Summer 2004 4
ask the experts
What is a Requirements Management Tool? Why would I buy one?
equirements Management refers to the times. These requirements are available and to another or to a test case (created in their
R creation, storing, and maintaining of
application software requirements.
re-useable on future projects.
The organizations that can quickly
tool called TAU). In addition, graphic
requirements from tools like VISIO can
Requirements consist of all the information adapt their software to changing business be linked into DOORS.
in a Requirements Package including needs accomplish this feat by maintaining www.telelogic.com
corresponding notes, diagrams, or and re-using requirements. A Requirements
prototypes. Software vendors offer tools Management tool is essential in offering
that store and manage these requirements, this flexibility. Below are two Requirements Tool: iServer
called Requirements Management tools. Management tools currently available. One of the newest Requirements
Management tools to come into the
Why buy a tool? Documenting marketplace is
requirements is a time consuming and Tool: DOORS iServer by
detailed process. Keeping requirements up The Requirements Management tool called Orbus. Orbus
to date is even more challenging. Anyone DOORS is sold by Telelogic, Inc. Telelogic was started
who has ever created a Requirements has been offering application development by several
Package has asked herself or himself “What tools for over 20 Requirements
will happen to all this work that I have DOORS years. They hold a Management
done when the project is over?” strong experts who saw the need for an open
Requirements Management is necessary market requirements repository that would be able
because business needs often change. They position, to manage and link requirements that were
change while the project is still in process especially in Europe. DOORS: Dynamic created in various tools. The iServer
and they change after the software has been Object Oriented Requirements, includes a interface uses MS VISIO to enter
installed. In addition, when multiple repository for storing requirements and a requirements and manage them. The
analysts are working on the same project, it set of tools to maintain the requirements. database stores requirements from MS
is difficult for more than one person to DOORS was originally designed to Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and VISIO.
update a traditional word processing support textual requirements. It looks and Links between requirements can be built.
document. works like a MS office product. This makes VISIO users will be able to quickly learn
A Requirements Management tool entering requirements very easy for anyone the iServer menu options.
addresses these problems. The tool stores who is familiar with MS Word. Each www.orbussoftware.com I
requirements and allows them to be requirement is assigned a unique number.
revised, changed, and tracked so that DOORS keeps track of this unique Send your questions to Ask the Experts at
analysts can keep them up to date at all number and uses it to link one requirement firstname.lastname@example.org.
A few of the major features of Requirements Management tools are outlined below:
Repository or database When a requirement is named and stored in a database, it becomes a business asset that can be
tracked like any other asset. The repository keeps track of the date it was created, who created it,
when it was revised, who it was revised by, etc. Multiple analysts can work on each requirement.
In addition, centralized storage allows for easy backup and recovery.
Traceability Each requirement can be linked to related requirements and to other design components such as
test cases. This traceability is referred to when a requirement is changed to make sure that all
related components are also changed.
Revision tracking Each revision to a requirement is saved and documented. This allows the project team to look
back at how the requirement evolved on its way to completion.
Change control When a business change requires a change to an automated procedure, existing requirements
from previous projects are available for re-use.
Security A user id or logon id is assigned to each user so that the name of the user who made each
change is recorded.
5 Summer 2004 l the bridge
new course 3 Days This course is intended for
Analysts who want to
Advanced Business Analysis Workshop enhance their skills.
Business Analysts are constantly striving to improve their skills and increase the quality of Prerequisites
their project requirements. This course enhances the effectiveness of Business Analysts by BAs registering for
giving them additional techniques and strategies for gathering, documenting, and reviewing this course must have
requirements. Techniques such as advanced data definition, traceability, and gap analysis help attended the three core
courses or have at least
BAs to document more accurate and complete requirements.
2 years experience in
The course also presents the concept of Requirements Management and requirement reuse. requirements gathering
and documentation using
Implementing a requirements management process into your organization can significantly
reduce the time required to make software changes and develop software interfaces.
Introduction Advanced Business Rule Requirements
• What are the challenges faced by Business Analysts? • Review of business rule types
• Review requirements gathering and documentation • Learn about language structures
process • Group workshop - Refine the business rules in the
• Define requirements management and re-usability requirements package
Conducting a Requirements Review Workshop Advanced Functional Requirements
• Review rules for conducting a review and the roles • Review the design area scope
involved • Review documenting system functionality using
• Group workshop - Maintenance project requirements Use Case Descriptions
• Conduct a formal, structured review of the case • Learn about screen usability principals in designing
study requirements package prototypes
• Formulate follow up questions and a revision plan • Group workshop - Refine the functional
• Present findings to the class requirements in the requirements package
Advanced Project Initiation Requirements Assuring a Complete Requirements Package
• Learn to assess a project request and select the • Learn about traceability matrices
appropriate requirements components • Group workshop - Create traceability matrices
• Review objectives for measurable and clear
descriptions Project Cost Benefit Analysis
• Review context level dataflow diagram. How do • Learn the purpose of cost benefit analysis
external agents differ from user classes and actors? • Use the requirements package to estimate project
• Learn a technique to help subject matter experts costs and benefits
scope a project with unclear boundaries • Group workshop - Write a simple cost benefit
• Group workshop - Revise the requirements package analysis
project initiation section
Advanced Data Requirements • What is requirements management? Why is
• Review of the core data components requirements management important?
• Discuss data ownership issues • How are requirements managed?
• Discuss the use of data in process requirements • Group workshop - Initiating a maintenance project
• Learn about involuted and ternary relationships
• Learn techniques for data generalization Requirements Gap Analysis
• Discuss the reusability of data components • Learn about gap analysis and where it can be useful
• Group workshop - Refine the data requirements • Show gaps in data, process, and business rule
• Use gap analysis to document requirements for
Advanced Process Requirements COTS (Custom Over The counter Software)
• Discuss typical problems with process descriptions • Group workshop - Perform gap analysis on case
• Review event partitioning study project
• Group workshop - Refine the process requirements
For more information on this course visit www.b2ttraining.com, call 865-675-2125 or email email@example.com
the bridge l Summer 2004 6
Business Analyst Certification Program
2T Training offers a program for two years work experience and receive two
B Business Analysts certifying that the
individual has the skills necessary to perform
recommendations from peers or co-workers
validating their experience and knowledge.
New Certified Business
We are pleased to highlight those
analysis and complete a Business All of our exams and verification individuals who have earned the title
Requirements Document for application information are reviewed by a Certified of Certified Business Analyst. The
development. The program consists of Instructor/Business Analyst. Certified program began in late 2002, and we
completing three proficiency area tests and a Business Analyst may use the B2T Training are excited that so many Business
comprehensive case study final exam. In certification as proof of their proven Analysts are enrolled and working
addition, the candidate must have completed capabilities. I toward certification. To date, we have
more than 700 people in the program
and over 100 of these are expected to
Detailing Process and
Essential Skills for the Detailing Business complete all the requirements by the
Business Analyst Data Requirements*
Requirements end of 2004.
4 day class 3 day class
4 day class
Pass class exam Pass class exam Sue Andrews Christine Miali
Pass class exam
Terrie Brosmith Thomas Nevlud
Alphonso Brown Paul Olesak
Christina Chew Anjali Ravuri
Submit application Lynn Donnelly Barb Ryan
for certication Karen Durney Beth Shafer
Certification • 2 written Cheryl Enslin Becky Stich
Exam Scott Garner Angie Strid
• Verify work exp. Receive BA Certification
Stephanie Griffiths Roy Swinehart
(2 years min.)
Noreen Kelly Marsha Wolfberg
*You may substitute Logical Data Modeling David Kinser Rachelle Zani
Software Requirements: Styles and Techniques
by Soren Lauesen
R E V I E W E D F O R B 2 T T R A I N I N G BY BA R BA R A A . C A R K E N O R D
was initially attracted to Lauesen’s book well established techniques such as options along with suggestions for
I because he covers numerous requirements
documentation techniques. Many authors
dataflow diagrams and data modeling along
with newer, less proven techniques such as
validating your requirements.
If you are looking for a step by step
only focus on one particular approach or UML class diagrams and collaboration approach to documenting requirements,
methodology but in reality a Business diagrams. Lauesen’s examples are clear, this is not it. But if you are looking for a
Analyst needs to be familiar with various understandable, realistic description of the advantages and
techniques and able to select the and yet complex disadvantages of various approaches, I
appropriate technique for each enough to show would highly recommend this book as a
requirement’s need. the challenges in reference. I
Lauesen has an excellent understanding documenting
of the difficulty of documenting accurate Barbara A. Carkenord is the Vice President,
requirements so that they are detailed requirements. To Training at B2T Training. She has worked
enough for the IT team to use and yet help with in the requirements gathering and
understandable for the SME team to gathering documentation field for over 20 years and has
review and approve. This balance is requirements, conducted hundreds of seminars for Business
addressed in every chapter of the book, This book is available Lauesen covers Analysts. Comments are welcome at
with every technique covered. He discusses at b2ttraining.com. many elicitation firstname.lastname@example.org.
7 Summer 2004 l the bridge
did you know?
MS Visio Professional Supports
UML Modeling and Diagramming
O utlined below are the steps within Visio necessary to get started
creating Use Case Diagrams.
1. In Visio when you create a New file, choose Software and then
choose UML Model Diagram.
2. The new file will be created with one initial page. New pages can
be added for different diagrams within the same project.
3. All of the stencils and shapes associated with UML diagramming
are available on the left hand side of the tool. Below these stencils
is the Model Explorer window. This will show all of the diagrams
and shapes (objects) that have been created in your model.
4. The stencil: UML Use Case contains the
shapes that are available for Use Case
Diagrams. Simply click on a shape and
drag in onto your page.
5. Once a shape is on your page, double
click on it to open its Properties window
where you can name it and supply
additional information about the object.
Visit our website
Business Analyst Conference
Boston, MA in Fall 2004
6. Visio diagrams can be copied into MS Word documents allowing
graphical requirements along with your text.
M Announcements and Updates
New Training Classes and Schedules
White Papers on Business Analysis
the bridge l Summer 2004 8
certified core courses
Essential Skills for the Business Analyst
This course covers the critical skills for the Business Analyst. Students will learn
to define what is, and what is not included in the project, how to ask the right
questions, when and how to hold interviews and facilitated sessions, how to
write excellent requirements, how to verify that requirements are testable, how
to conduct a requirements review, and have an overview of various application
development methodologies. Additionally, students will be introduced to various
documentation techniques and plan an approach for documentation.
Detailing Business Data Requirements
The Data portion of the business requirements is a critical component to defining
complete requirements. Every process uses data and almost all business rules
are enforced by data. Missing a critical piece of data or incorrectly defining a
data element contributes to the majority of maintenance problems and results in
systems that do not reflect the business needs. This course teaches students an
in-depth approach to identify and define all necessary data components using
both textual templates and an entity relationship diagram.
Detailing Process and Business Rule Requirements
This course continues the development of the requirements package by defining
the processes and business rules for the project. Students will learn to identify
and define the processes from a business and functional perspective. Various
techniques are taught including decomposition diagrams, templates, workflow
models, and Use Case diagrams and descriptions. Additionally, this course
teaches techniques to ensure that requirements have not been missed.
More detailed outlines are available on our website, www.b2ttraining.com
9 Summer 2004 l the bridge
additional course offerings
Requirements Testing for the Business Analyst
This course provides an excellent foundation for Business Analysts who are
involved in software quality assurance (SQA). The course will improve the
Business Analyst's development of requirements so that they can be used to
build quality test cases. It will also enable the Business Analyst to create specific
test cases from the requirements. The course includes a workshop case study
that provides a cohesive learning experience.
This course provides Business Analysts the knowledge to:
• Understand the basic SQA terms and definitions as defined by international
• Understand the link between requirements and testing
• Understand the testing life cycle
• Correct/update requirements for use in development of tests
• Define and create test documentation using IEEE/ISO formats
• Understand common testing techniques
• Review and assist with the development of project test plans
• Design and create usability tests
• Understand the difference between manual and automated testing
4 Hour Seminar
Overview of Business Analysis
This seminar presents the Business Analyst role to managers and others who
lead and work with Business Analysts. In order for the Business Analysts to be
successful, both the IT and business community must embrace the business
analysis process. The seminar can be used as a working session to discuss how
your organization will implement the business analysis process and approaches
for documenting the requirements.
Both large and small organizations are realizing the benefits of using Business
Analysts on all of their application development projects. A Business Analyst acts
as a liaison between business people who have a business problem and
technology people who know how to create automated solutions. Improving the
communication between your business areas and your IT team significantly
increases the quality of the systems developed.
A Business Analyst's main responsibility is to gather, detail, and document
requirements in a format that is useful to their business area experts and the
technical developers. Analysis is a very important and time-consuming phase of
every project. This seminar provides strategies for how management can support
the business analysis process.
For more information on these courses visit www.b2ttraining.com
the bridge l Summer 2004 10
public class schedule
Essential Skills for the Business Analyst - $1,980/per student
• Jun 14 – Jun 17, 2004 New York, NY
• Jul 26 – Jul 29, 2004 Atlanta, GA
• Sep 13 – Sep 16, 2004 Louisville, KY
• Dec 6 – Dec 9, 2004 Atlanta, GA
Detailing Business Data Requirements - $1,485/per student
• Aug 23 – Aug 25, 2004 Atlanta, GA
• Sep 13 – Sep 15, 2004 New York, NY
• Oct 13 – Oct 15, 2004 Louisville, KY
Detailing Process and Business Rule Requirements - $1,980/per student
• Aug 9 – Aug 12, 2004 San Francisco, CA
• Oct 4 – Oct 7, 2004 Atlanta, GA
• Nov 15 – Nov 18, 2004 Louisville, KY
• Dec 6 – Dec 9, 2004 New York, NY
Register – www.b2ttraining.com/Training-Courses
On-site classes are also available.
Call 865-675-2125 or email us at sales@B2Ttraining.com
B2T Training Knoxville, TN
11795 Northfall Lane, Suite 601
Alpharetta, GA 30004