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Electronic Commerce Electronic Commerce Document Transcript

  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Fall 2003 SYLLABUS & COURSE OUTLINE Lecturer: Dr. She-I Chang Office Address: Room 405 College of Management Lecture Hours: 15:10 - 16:00 Tue. (Room 217 – Computer Center) Lecture Hours: 14:10 – 16:00 Thur. (Room 006 – College of Management) Office Hours: 13:00-15:00 (Tue), 14:00 – 16:00 (Wed), 12:00 – 14:00 (Thur) Phone: 05-2720411 ext. 34510 Fax: 05-2721197 E-mail: actsic@ccu.edu.tw COURSE DESCRIPTION The course emphasizes a practical approach to learning systems analysis and design. In it (the textbook) the students will find an educationally sound and easy-to-follow pedagogy that artfully combines full-color pictures, drawings, and text to produce a visually appealing and straightforward presentation of systems analysis and design. The World Wide Web and the textbook integrate to offer students current information and links to Web-based resources, as well as a continuing Internet-based case study. This course allows students to do systems analysis and design right from the start. Examples and cases are drawn from actual systems projects that enable students to learn in the context of solving problems, much like the ones they will encounter on the job. A blend of traditional development and current techniques, such as client-server and object-oriented development, graphical user interfaces, and electronic data interchange are provided. The clear writing style makes systems analysis and design easy to understand and the Student Study Tools provides the reinforcement needed. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Systems Analysis and Design, Fourth Edition is intended for a three-credit point introductory systems analysis and design course. • To present a practical approach to systems analysis and design using a blend of traditional development with current technologies • To define and describe in detail the five phases of the systems development life cycle (SDLC): system planning, systems analysis, systems design, systems implementation, and systems operation and support • To present the material in a visually appealing, full-color format and an exciting, easy-to- read style that invites students to learn • To provide students with a comprehensive Systems Analysis Toolkit that highlights the importance of communications, economic analysis, and project planning skills across all phases of the SDLC, in addition to alternate development methodologies • To give students an in-depth understanding of how information technology (IT) supports operational and business requirements in today’s intensely competitive environment © She-I Chang Fall, 2003 Department of Accounting, NCCU 1
  • • To provide examples of important IT developments and trends, using numerous screen shots of selected Web sites and Internet links • To use the World Wide Web as an online information source and learning tool • To teach real-world systems analysis and design skills in the context of solving realistic problems and present practical guidelines and tips for career success • To provide a clear picture of how systems analysts interact with users, management, and other IT professionals in a typical business organization • To offer interesting case studies and exercises that promote critical-thinking skills and encourage student participation While providing broad coverage of the systems development life cycle, this course also presents topics that should be covered in any introductory systems analysis and design course. Such topics include business information systems concepts; mission statements; strategic planning; feasibility studies; fact-finding techniques; data flow diagrams; structured English; decision tables; decision trees; object-oriented analysis and design; enterprise computing; make or buy decisions; employee empowerment; prototyping; CASE tools; systems flowcharts; the use of codes; reducing input errors; data security; automated design tools; entity-relationship diagrams; cardinality; normalization; UML notation; database design and management; traditional file organization; online versus batch processing; centralized versus distributed processing; LANs and WANs; client/server systems; software engineering; unit, link, and system testing; documentation; training; systems changeover; post-implementation evaluation; support activities; maintenance activities; capacity planning; communication tools; feasibility and cost analysis tools; and project management tools. Each of these topics is covered in detail and clearly linked to the appropriated phase or phases of the SDLC, so that students understand where they fit with the larger systems development life cycle. PREREQUISITES None REQUIRED TEXTBOOK AND MATERIALS • Shelly, G.; Cashman, T. and Rosenblatt, H. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN, 4th Ed., Course Technology – Thomson Learning, 2001, ISBN: 0-7895-5957-9 • Packet of Real World Case Links, Course Materials: Powerpoint Presentations, Chapter Objectives, Practice Test and other Extra Resources are available on the Course Technology –Thomson Learning Website MyCourse.com http://www.mycourse.com (Students need to register/enroll on the website by using the Access Key #: rig99b25. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY Academic integrity is the pursuit of scholarly activity free from fraud and deception and is an educational objective of this institution. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to: cheating, plagiarizing, fabricating of information or citations, facilitating acts of academic dishonesty by others, having unauthorized possession of examinations, submitting work of another person or work previously used without informing the instructor, or tampering with the academic work of other students. At the beginning of each course it is the responsibility of © She-I Chang Fall, 2003 Department of Accounting, NCCU 2
  • the instructor to provide a statement clarifying the application of the academic integrity to that course. (Policies and Rules: A Handbook for Students) GRADING Your grade will be determined as follows: Assignment Weight Due Date Class and Tutorial 20%(5x4) Each Class Participations - “Your Turn,” or 20% Week 8 and Week 16 - “Case Studies” Project Log Team Project 30% Week 17 Final Exam 30% Week 18 Class and Tutorial Participations The Management Division requires regular attendance by students in each course. Class attendance is useful to the student as a means of acquiring knowledge and clarification, and is a prerequisite for class participation. Class participation is the active engagement in questions and answers, taking part in analyses of business situations, and contributing comments in class sessions. The participation grade will be based on the quality of comments made during the class discussions and discussions of “Chapter Review” and “Discussion Topics”, but not the quantity of comments. “Your Turn” or “Case Studies” Project Log When students complete their coursework and enter the workforce, they need to understand the specific business operations of a company and how the systems analyst role can differ from company to company. By providing “Your Turn” or “Case studies” in every chapter, it offers students an opportunity to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support information systems involving human resources administration, health care recreational facility management, and technology training. The SoftWear Limited case study provides an opportunity for students to work as members of a systems development team and complete the “Your Turn” assignments following in each chapter. Case Studies offer an opportunity for students to practice specific skills and knowledge learned in the chapter and provide practical experience for you as a systems analyst. Two of the case studies (New Century Health Clinic and Ridgeway Company) are continuing case studies that appear in each chapter. The New Centruy Health Clinic and Ridgeway Company case studies allow students to work as systems analysts in realistic settings, and apply their knowledge and skills to develop new information systems. During the Week 8 and 17, each student will prepare written report and presentation of their selected Project Log. The written report should focus analyzing the materials in the case, evaluating the strategy employed by the company, making appropriate recommendations, and summarize the material in the case. Use the material in the case only to support your evaluations, and conclusions. In some case, there might be several alternative recommendations. In these situations, evaluate the pros and cons of the alternatives and use these evaluations to form your recommended approach. © She-I Chang Fall, 2003 Department of Accounting, NCCU 3
  • Team Project System Requirements Report. To be further advised Final Exam The final examination will be open book, open notes. It will consist of multiple-choice questions, true or false questions, answer questions addressing concepts and applications discussed in the textbook and lectures. REQUIREMENTS Class Meetings You are required to attend all class meetings. If you miss a meeting, it is your responsibility to obtain notes from a fellow student. Office hours are not meant for individual lectures. Readings You should read the chapters and/or articles and cases listed in the schedule before the class in which they will be discussed. Web Sites Whenever you have to read a case, you must also log on to the site of the organization that is the subject of the case, and update your knowledge about the organization’s activities as part of preparing for class discussion. It is your responsibility to look the site up on the Web. OUTSIDE CLASS COMMUNICATION You are encouraged to exercise your right to own a College user ID and use it for electronic mail. (Note that students are also entitled to maintain their own Web site, up to 50MB in size.) Please feel free to communicate with me by phone, e-mail, fax, and my mailbox on campus. Use my office hours whenever you feel you need to. If you wish to meet with me outside my office hours, contact me and I will make every effort to work out a time to fit your schedule. PROHIBITION ON SOFTWARE COPYING Students in this course will use the College’s Microcomputer Laboratory and software designed to run on personal computers. Much of this software is of a proprietary nature, and its duplication is strictly prohibited. Unauthorized copying is prohibited by the University, and may violate the University’s software licensing agreements and various government laws. Any student who engages in unauthorized software copying will be subject to harsh penalties. CELLUAR PHONES, BEEPERS, AND OTHER ANNOYNACES Cellular phones and beepers must be turned off before entering the classroom. If your device emits any sound during class session, you will be invited to leave the classroom and not return. © She-I Chang Fall, 2003 Department of Accounting, NCCU 4
  • COURSE OUTLINE WEEK TOPIC READING ASSIGNMENT 1 COURSE INTRODUCTION 2 Topic: Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design Chapter 1 This chapter provides an introduction to systems analysis and design. Students learn business process modeling and why IT professionals must understand a company’s business operations. Next, students examine information systems characteristics, including hardware, software, data, processes, and people. Students explore material on business information systems, describe the growth of e-commerce, and list the main characteristics of information systems. Additional business-related material explains various types of information systems and organizational structures. Students then examine various systems development techniques and tools, including modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools. They discover JAD and RAD techniques and note that they will be explained later in the book. Students then discuss the structure of the IT department and typical responsibilities, skills, and career opportunities of the systems analyst position. Finally, students are introduced to SoftWear, Limited, which is a continuing case study that shows students how to apply the concepts and techniques of information systems development. Learning Objective • Discuss the impact of information technology on business operations • Define an information system and describe its components and characteristics • Identify common types of information systems and explain who uses them • Distinguish between structured analysis and object-oriented methodology • Explain systems development techniques and tools, including modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools • Describe the systems development life cycle • Discuss the role of the information technology department and the systems analysts who work there PHASE SYSTEMS PLANNING 1 3 Topic: Preliminary Investigation Chapter 2 This chapter begins the study of the systems development life cycle (SDLC). Systems planning is the first phase in the SDLC. In this chapter, students learn why it is important to understand business operations and requirements, how IT projects support a company’s overall strategic plan, and how systems projects get started and initially are reviewed. Learning Objective • Describe the strategic planning process, and why it is important to IT managers • Explain the purpose of a mission statement • Explain the SDLC as a framework for systems development and business modeling • Explain the reasons for information systems projects and the factors that affect such projects • Describe the initial review of systems requests and the role of the systems review committee • Describe the internal and external factors that affect information systems projects • Define operational feasibility, technical feasibility, and economic feasibility • Describe the steps and end product of a preliminary investigation PHASE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS © She-I Chang Fall, 2003 Department of Accounting, NCCU 5
  • 2 4 Topic: Requirement Modeling Chapter 3 Requirements modeling is the first of four chapters in the systems analysis phase. This chapter describes the process of gathering facts about a systems project and creating models and documentation that will be used to design and develop the system. Learning Objectives • Explain systems analysis phase activities and the end product of the systems analysis phase • Describe joint application development (JAD) • Describe the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and explain use case diagrams and sequence diagrams • Explain how functional decomposition diagrams (FDD) are used during systems development • List and describe system requirements, including outputs, inputs, processes, performance, and controls • Explain the importance of scalability in system design • Define total cost of ownership (TCO) and explain the concept • Describe how to conduct a successful interview • Explain when and how to use fact-finding techniques, including interviews, documentation review, observation, questionnaires, sampling, and research • Develop effective documentation methods to use during systems development 5 Topic: Data and Process Modeling Chapter 4 This is the second of four chapters in the systems analysis phase. This chapter explains how to represent system data and processes graphically.Learning Objective • Describe data and process modeling concepts and tools • Explain how structured analysis describes an information system • Describe the symbols used in data flow diagrams and explain the rules for their use • Explain the sequence of data flow diagrams, from general to specific • Explain how to level and balance a set of data flow diagrams • Draw a complete set of data flow diagrams for an information system • Describe how a data dictionary is used and what it contains • Use process description tools, including structured English, decision tables, and decision trees • Explain the interaction among data flow diagrams, the data dictionary, and process description • Describe the relationship between logical and physical models 6 Topic: Object Modeling Chapter 5 Chapter 5 is the third chapter in the systems analysis phase of the SDLC. In this chapter, students use object-oriented methods to document, analyze, and model the information system.Learning Objective • Explain how object-oriented analysis can be used to describe an information system • Define object modeling terms and concepts, including objects, attributes, methods, messages, classes, and instances • Explain relationships among objects, including dependency, association, aggregation, and inheritance • Draw an object relationship diagram • Describe Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools and techniques, including use cases, use case diagrams, class diagrams, sequence diagrams, state transition diagrams, and activity diagrams • Explain the advantages of using CASE tools in developing the object model • Explain how to organize the object model 7 Topic: Transition to Systems Design Chapter 6 © She-I Chang Fall, 2003 Department of Accounting, NCCU 6
  • In this, the final chapter in the systems analysis phase, students learn about evaluating software alternatives, preparing the system requirements document, prototyping, and preparing for the transition to the next SDLC phase — systems design. Learning Objective • Evaluate software alternatives and development strategies • Explain advantages and disadvantages of developing in-house software versus purchasing and customizing a software package • Describe how companies use outsourcing and user applications • List the steps in purchasing and evaluating a software package • Explain the differences between a request for proposal (RFP) and a request for quotation (RFQ) • Describe the system requirements document and the presentation to management at the end of the systems analysis phase • Explain the transition from systems analysis to systems design, and the difference between logical and physical design • Explain the importance of prototyping and describe various prototyping methods, tools, and techniques • Discuss the systems design process and provide guidelines for system design • Create and use appropriate codes during systems design and development 8 “Your Turn” or “Case Studies” Project Log Presentation 9 Mid-Term Exam Week PHASE SYSTEMS DESIGN 3 10 Topic: User Interface, Input, and Output Design Chapter 7 This chapter is the first of three chapters in the systems design phase of the SDLC. During systems design, students construct a physical model of the information system based on the logical model they developed in the systems analysis phase. In this chapter, students focus on how to design the user interfaces, input procedures, and output required to support business requirements. Learning Objective • Explain the concept of user interface design and human-computer interaction • Define user-centered interface design principles • Describe guidelines for user interface design • Describe user interface controls • Explain input design concepts, techniques, and methods • Describe guidelines for data entry screen design and validation checks for reducing input errors • Design effective source documents and input controls • Discuss output design issues and various types of output • Design various types of printed reports, and suggest necessary output control and security 11 Topic: Data Design Chapter 8 Data design is the second of three chapters in the systems design phase of the SDLC. In this chapter, students will focus on data design and management issues that are necessary to construct the physical model of the information system. Learning Objective • Explain data design concepts and data structures • Describe file processing systems and various types of files • Describe database systems, their characteristics, and advantages • Define the components of a database management system (DBMS) • Explain the concepts of data warehousing and data mining • Understand data design terminology, including entities, fields, common fields, records, files, tables, and key fields © She-I Chang Fall, 2003 Department of Accounting, NCCU 7
  • • Explain data relationships and draw an entity-relationship diagram • Define cardinality, cardinality notation, and crow’s foot notation • Explain normalization, including examples of first, second, and third normal form • Describe hierarchical, network, relational, and object-oriented database models • Differentiate between logical and physical records, and discuss data storage formats and date fields • Explain data control measures 12 Topic: Application Architecture Chapter 9 Application architecture is the last of three chapters in the systems design phase. In this chapter, students learn how to translate the logical design of an information system into a physical plan. In this process, students learn about servers, clients, processing methods, networks, and related issues. Learning Objective • List the main issues that a systems analyst should consider when selecting an application architecture, including enterprise resource planning, initial costs and TCO (total cost of ownership), scalability, Web integration, legacy interface requirements, security, and processing options • Describe servers, server-based processing, clients, and client-based processing • Explain client/server architecture, including the difference between fat and thin clients • Discuss client/server tiers, cost-benefit issues, and performance considerations • Explain the impact of the Internet on application architecture • Describe online and batch processing • Define network topology, and provide examples of hierarchical, bus, star, and ring network models • Explain network protocols and licensing issues • Describe tools for modeling application architecture • Explain system management tools and techniques, including performance management, system security, fault management, backup, and disaster recovery • Describe the systems design specification and explain the contents of each section PHASE SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION 4 13 Topic: Application Development Chapter 10 Systems implementation is the fourth phase in the systems development life cycle. In the previous phase, systems design, students completed a physical model of the system. Now, in systems implementation, students perform a series of application development tasks, followed by system installation and evaluation. Chapter 10 describes application development and Chapter 11 explains system installation and evaluation. During application development, all necessary programs and code modules are designed, written, tested, and documented. The system installation and evaluation stage includes user training, file conversion, the actual changeover to the new system, and an evaluation of the results. Learning Objective • Describe the major tasks and activities that are completed during the systems implementation phase • Discuss the role of the systems analyst during application development • Explain the importance of quality assurance and the role of software engineering in software development • Describe top-down and modular design • Explain cohesion and coupling, and draw a structure chart that illustrates the concepts • Explain how you can use program flowcharts and pseudocode to © She-I Chang Fall, 2003 Department of Accounting, NCCU 8
  • document program logic • Describe the coding process and explain how program code is generated • Explain object-oriented application development and list the advantages of this approach • Explain testing phases, including unit testing, integration testing, and system testing • Describe the types of documentation a systems analyst must prepare • Explain the importance of management approval at this stage of systems development, and describe the information that systems analysts must provide to management 14 Topic: Installation and Evaluation Chapter 11 Installation and evaluation is the second of two chapters in the systems implementation phase. This chapter describes the actual installation of the information system and its initial evaluation by users. Learning Objective • Describe the main tasks in the installation and evaluation process • Explain why it is important to maintain separate operational and test environments • Develop an overall training plan with specific objectives for each group of participants • Explain three typical ways to provide training, including vendors, outside resources, and in-house staff • Describe online tutorials and other user training techniques • Describe the data conversion process • Identify four system changeover methods and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each • Explain the purpose of a post-implementation evaluation and list the specific topics covered during the evaluation • Describe the contents of the final report to management PHASE SYSTEMS OPERATION AND SUPPORT 5 15 Topic: Systems Operations and Support Chapter 12 Systems operation and support is the last phase in the systems development life cycle. The systems operation and support phase begins after the system becomes operational and continues throughout the useful life of the system. In addition to user support, this phase includes system maintenance, improvement, and performance measurement. Learning Objective • Explain how the systems operation and support phase relates to the rest of the system development process • Describe user support activities, including user training and help desks • Discuss the four main types of system maintenance: corrective, adaptive, perfective, and preventive • Explain techniques for managing systems operation and support, including maintenance teams, maintenance request procedures, configuration management, maintenance releases, version control, and baselines • Describe techniques for managing system performance, including performance and workload measurement, and capacity planning • List factors indicating that a system has reached the end of its useful life 16 “Your Turn” or “Case Studies” Project Log Presentation 17 Team Project: System Requirements Reports 18 Final Exam Week Note: This schedule is subject to change. © She-I Chang Fall, 2003 Department of Accounting, NCCU 9