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  • What is it? What is the BA BOK Guide on IIBA site? What are considered the key knowledge areas covered by the guide? What are the core BA Skills need to understand the BA BOK? What is the purpose of the IIBA committe
  • Growing and evolving constantly IIBA seeks to establish common standards of knowledge within BA profession Committed to working with practitioners around the world to continually add to those standards thru education, research, and sharing of effective tools and techniques. NOT a methodology Does define the activities, tasks and knowledge BA professional needs But doesn’t prescribe an order or sequence Knowledge areas define what a BA needs to know to work within any analysis process or overall solutions development methodology Focus is on core skills for the business analysis portions of a BA job. BAs may perform other work in their specific job roles (testing, design, etc.), but these are not considered the core Business Analysis skills.
  • RD (Requirements Development) Elicit needs from users that represent all user classes Understand user tasks and objectives Understand the relative importance of quality attributes Negotiate implementation priorities Translate user needs into written specs and models Review requirements documentation RM (Requirements Management) Establish and maintain an agreement with customers on requirements Control the baseline of requirements Process proposed requirements changes Keep plans and products consistent with changed requirements Negotiate new commitments based on impact of the changes
  • Not a methodology, but there are relationships between the areas of Body of Knowledge an the real work that the business analyst fits into. Underlying Fundamentals and Glossary sections not activity or task driven Outline base knowledge needed for BA to be successful Six core knowledge areas are: Directly involved in project or pre-project work that BA does Described with activities and tasks Interrelationships shown above Not all work BA does is for defined project: Work to understand what projects are necessary over time (roadmap) Define current state or target state business architecture
  • Competency knowledge, ability, or expertise in a specific subject area or skill set Skill Something that can be demonstrated; learned technique Roles Analyst / Problem Solver Facilitator Negotiator Artist / Architect Planner Communicator Diplomat Expert / Consultant Strategist Revolutionary
  • Round out knowledge requirements for business analysts Underlying Fundamentals Glossary (terms)
  • Where am I going Why am I going What do I expect to see when I arrive How long do I expect to stay Collection of pre-project or early project activities and approaches for capturing the necessary view of the business to provide context to requirements and functional design work for a given initiative and/or for long term planning Gives understanding of how the projects support the entire enterprise
  • Describe the business environment Describe the relevant current business components (e.g., processes, entities, goals, etc) Identify the problem or opportunity Describe the requirements scope Identify high-level needs Perform current state / target state analysis Identify gaps Define initial scope Define initial business risks Assess feasibility Define high level solution / options Develop business case Develop and communicate recommendations
  • Understand team roles Requirements process roles, requirements planning and management roles Identify and describe stakeholders Identify, describe, and categorize stakeholders. Stakeholder is anyone who is: Directly or indirectly impacted by project solution Has an interest in the outcome of the project Is a primary source of requirements for the project Will perform one or more activities during the delivery of the project Imposes constraints or boundaries for the project Is responsible to the organization for the success of the project Define BA work division strategy Divide/share work in large groups; coordinate information sharing among groups Define requirements risk approach Requirements risks and broader project risks; how to manage requirements and project risks; Determine planning considerations Methodology considerations; project management considerations; planning to re-plan; balancing project expectations Select requirements activities Who to include, how to gather & document, what modeling & analysis techniques, identify other project roles, select tools Estimate requirements activities Identify milestones, define work pieces, estimate time required, capture & review assumptions, identify requirements & project risks, determine how to manage change Manage requirements scope Identify core problems/objectives; trace requirements to core problems/objectives; determine requirements objectives; identify scope changes resulting from requirements changes; maintain scope approval; identify impacts of scope changes on project Measure & report on requirements activity Track project / product metrics Manage requirements change Plan requirements changes; understand the changes; document changes; analyze change requests; track changes
  • Competency knowledge, ability, or expertise in a specific subject area or skill set Skill Something that can be demonstrated; learned technique Roles Analyst / Problem Solver Facilitator Negotiator Artist / Architect Planner Communicator Diplomat Expert / Consultant Strategist Revolutionary
  • Competency knowledge, ability, or expertise in a specific subject area or skill set Skill Something that can be demonstrated; learned technique Roles Analyst / Problem Solver Facilitator Negotiator Artist / Architect Planner Communicator Diplomat Expert / Consultant Strategist Revolutionary
  • Now that the requirements have been collected / gathered what do you do with them next? Many techniques and methods for analyzing the requirements. Key methods: Business Process Analysis – focus on improving the process of the enterprise. Models to-be and as-is process flows. Uses diagrams such as Activity Diagrams, Flow Charts, Workflow Models. Object Oriented Analysis – focus on viewing the system as a set of object classes that pass messages. Supported by Unified Modeling Language (UML). Uses diagrams such as Use Cases, Activity Diagrams, Class Models, Sequence Diagrams. Structured Analysis – view the system as a collection of processes that are executed by the system. Very process-centric and focus on the data input to and output from the processes. Diagrams include Flow Charts, Data Flow Diagrams, Functional Decomposition Diagrams, and Entity Relationship Diagrams.
  • Define Solution Model Determine problem boundary and scope of solution (Goal decomposition; Feature list; Functional decomposition) Analyze Functional Requirements Data and Behavior Models (business rules; class models; data dictionary, data transformation & mapping; ERDs) Process/Flow Models (activity diagrams; data flow diagrams; event identification; flow charts; sequence diagrams; state machine diagrams; workflow models) Usage Models (prototyping; storyboards/screen flows; use cases; user interface designs; user profiles; user stories) Define supplemental (non-functional) requirements Requirements not directly related to the behavior or functionality of the solution; but rather to the environmental requirements & constraints Describe Assumptions and Constraints Assumptions: believed to be true, but not confirmed Constraints: limitations on the acceptable solutions that do not emerge from stakeholder needs Determine requirements attributes Information about the requirements (e.g., source; urgency; complexity, priority) Help in understanding trade-offs and impacts of the requirements Structure requirements for traceability Benefits: Scope management; Impact Analysis; Identifying requirements; traceability matrix Create Requirements Specification Select document format(s) SRS, BRD, Vision document Validate requirements Verify quality of requirements is sufficient to allow solution design and implementation to begin Well-written; unambiguous; feasible; able to be implemented; effective (not over done)
  • Competency knowledge, ability, or expertise in a specific subject area or skill set Skill Something that can be demonstrated; learned technique Roles Analyst / Problem Solver Facilitator Negotiator Artist / Architect Planner Communicator Diplomat Expert / Consultant Strategist Revolutionary
  • Develop alternate solutions Map designs to requirements Make recommendations Evaluate technology options Provide the business context for technology options Facilitate the selection of a solution Perform cost benefit analysis Determine build vs. buy Develop selection criteria Develop RFP Assess responses Customize requirements for package implementation Design a usable application Identify usability design principles Design navigation Develop usability prototypes Identify external organizational brand standards or other marketing objectives Support the Quality Assurance process Validate & verify that requirements have been delivered Participate in design reviews Participate in User acceptance testing Support the solution implementation Assist in implementation Communicate the solution impacts
  • Competency knowledge, ability, or expertise in a specific subject area or skill set Skill Something that can be demonstrated; learned technique Roles Analyst / Problem Solver Facilitator Negotiator Artist / Architect Planner Communicator Diplomat Expert / Consultant Strategist Revolutionary
  • Determine appropriate requirements presentation format Identify target audience & presentation preferences Identify presentation format options (e.g., tools) Assess options by audience Select appropriate format for each audience Create requirements package Generate a requirements presentation package Package the requirements for presentation Package the requirements for external vendors Present requirements Determine presentation purpose Determine format of presentation Conduct a formal requirements review Organize & schedule review Determine format of review Obtain consensus and signoff of requirements Determine signatories Request sign-off
  • Competency knowledge, ability, or expertise in a specific subject area or skill set Skill Something that can be demonstrated; learned technique Roles Analyst / Problem Solver Facilitator Negotiator Artist / Architect Planner Communicator Diplomat Expert / Consultant Strategist Revolutionary
  • Additions at least bi-annually over next few years Committee is volunteer – anyone can request to join the committee Drafts available on IIBA website currently Latest information may eventually be limited to members Latest release (1.4) was October, 2005 Draft content for: Enterprise Analysis Requirements Planning & Management Requirements Gathering Requirements Analysis & Documentation Requirements Implementation Requirements Communication Not included: Complete, reviewed and approved content Detailed content in underlying fundamentals Updated Glossary
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    1. 1. Demystifying the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge Central Iowa IIBA Chapter December 7, 2005
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Understand the BA BOK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Knowledge Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core BA skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Status of the IIBA BOK Guide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IIBA Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback to the guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship to professional certification </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What is the BA BOK? <ul><li>Business Analysis is the set of tasks, knowledge & techniques required to identify business needs & determine solutions to business problems </li></ul><ul><li>The Business Analysis Body of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Captures the sum of knowledge within the profession of Business Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated activities & tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills necessary to be effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflects what is currently accepted practices </li></ul><ul><li>Owned & enhanced by the professionals who apply it </li></ul>
    4. 4. Guide to Business Analysis Body of Knowledge <ul><li>Fundamentals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction (Chapter 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying Fundamentals (Chapter 8) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossary (Chapter 9) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Analysis (Chapter 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Planning & Management (Chapter 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Gathering (Chapter 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Analysis & Documentation (Chapter 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Communication (Chapter 6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Implementation (Chapter 7) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Knowledge Area Relationships 1. Required table stakes 2. Directly related to typical project or solutions development lifecycles 3. Business Architecture Enterprise Analysis Requirements Planning and Management Requirements Communication Requirements Gathering Requirements Analysis & Documentation Requirements Implementation Underlying Fundamentals Glossary
    6. 6. Business Analysis Skills <ul><li>Analyze & solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the business </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate effectively (written & spoken) </li></ul><ul><li>Manage client relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate & build consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Model data & processes </li></ul><ul><li>Plan & manage activities </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate & develop business strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Understand & manage organizational change </li></ul>
    7. 7. Fundamentals <ul><li>Ensuring an effective Business Analysis resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines the general competencies, skills, techniques or knowledge needed to effectively perform business analysis but is not unique to business analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulates non-specific professional skills that are necessary in order for a Business Analysis professional to be successful in performing his/her role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IT Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Enterprise Analysis <ul><li>Understanding the Big Picture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-project / early project activities and approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures the view of the business to provide context to the requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports initiatives & long-term planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates the business architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes process, workflow & entity relationship diagramming, cost / benefit analysis, feasibility studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides understanding of the organizational environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a context / foundation on which to evaluate all future issues & challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scoping and identifying new business opportunities </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Enterprise Analysis <ul><li>Creating and maintaining the business architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting feasibility studies </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying new business opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Scoping and defining the new business opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing the business case </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting the initial risk assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Proposing new project opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Support project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launching new projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking project benefits </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Enterprise Analysis - Skills <ul><li>Analyze & solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the business </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate effectively (written & spoken) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate & develop business strategy </li></ul>
    11. 11. Requirements Planning & Management <ul><li>Defining the Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies requirements activities to be performed on a specific project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies the deliverables to be produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes how changes will be controlled & managed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies set of requirements activities most appropriate to the unique circumstances of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates requirements with other project work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures a common understanding across the requirements team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for monitoring & addressing of requirements challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies tools, resources & contributors & ensures availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures changes are captured correctly and consistently </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Requirements Planning & Management <ul><li>Understand team roles </li></ul><ul><li>Identify stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Define Business Analyst work division strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Define requirements risk approach </li></ul><ul><li>Determine planning considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Select requirements activities </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate requirements activities </li></ul><ul><li>Manage requirements scope </li></ul><ul><li>Measure & report on requirements activity </li></ul><ul><li>Manage requirements change </li></ul>
    13. 13. Requirements Planning & Management - Skills <ul><li>Analyze & solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Plan & manage activities </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate effectively (write & speak) </li></ul><ul><li>Manage client relationships </li></ul>
    14. 14. Requirements Gathering <ul><li>Executing the plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies the tasks, knowledge & techniques for collecting the requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines standard techniques used to collect requirements for the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines the broad classifications of requirements (e.g., functional, usability, non-functional, constraints) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the various techniques used to gather requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies the appropriate collecting method based on the applicability of a technique’s process, key features, strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Requirements Gathering <ul><li>Standard techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document Analysis (review existing documentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface Analysis (External Interface Analysis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Shadowing (Observation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping/Storyboarding (including personas and usage scenarios) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Workshop (Elicitation workshop; Facilitated workshop; Joint Application Development (JAD)) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey / Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Task Analysis (Workflow Analysis) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Requirements Gathering - Skills <ul><li>Analyze & solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate & build consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate effectively (write & speak) </li></ul><ul><li>Manage client relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the business </li></ul>
    17. 17. Requirements Analysis & Documentation <ul><li>Analyzing the data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines the methods, tools & techniques used to structure the raw data collected during requirements gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies gaps in the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines the capabilities of the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transforms the business need into clearly described capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides the foundation for selecting the best alternative among the solution options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides requirements that can be clearly communicated to the customer, users and stakeholders, and to the project team </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Requirements Analysis & Documentation <ul><li>Define Solution Model </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze Functional Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Define supplemental (non-functional) requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Assumptions and Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine requirements attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Structure requirements for traceability </li></ul><ul><li>Create Requirements Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Validate requirements </li></ul>
    19. 19. Requirements Analysis & Documentation - Skills <ul><li>Analyze & solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Model data & processes </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate effectively (write & speak) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Requirements Implementation <ul><li>Delivering the best solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures the solution meets the stakeholder objectives while supporting the needs of the developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guides detailed specifications & development of the solution, testing & implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes ways to assess the project success after implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulates how the Business Analysis professional should work with the other project team members to produce the solution design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies the approach to evaluating alternative solutions once requirements have been formally signed off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that the solution is implemented smoothly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifies that the solution is thoroughly tested </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Requirements Implementation <ul><li>Develop alternate solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate technology options </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the selection of a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Design a usable application </li></ul><ul><li>Support the Quality Assurance process </li></ul><ul><li>Support the solution implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the solution impacts </li></ul>
    22. 22. Requirements Implementation - Skills <ul><li>Analyze & solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate & build consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate effectively (write & speak) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the business </li></ul><ul><li>Understand & manage organizational change </li></ul>
    23. 23. Requirements Communications <ul><li>Communicating the outcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents & communicates requirements to all stakeholders & implementers of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings the group to consensus & gets approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-going, iterative process throughout life of project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents the requirements in a format & structure that is appropriate for all intended audience(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings the various stakeholders to a common understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalizes agreement </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Requirements Communications <ul><li>Determine appropriate requirements presentation format </li></ul><ul><li>Create requirements package </li></ul><ul><li>Present requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a formal requirements review </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain consensus and signoff of requirements </li></ul>
    25. 25. Requirements Communications - Skills <ul><li>Communicate effectively (write & speak) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate & build consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Understand & manage organizational change </li></ul><ul><li>Manage client relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the business </li></ul>
    26. 26. Status of the IIBA BOK <ul><li>Who maintains the guide to the BA BOK? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IIBA committee of Business Analysis professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drafts will continue to be posted on the web site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback to the guide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteer for committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send comments to committee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship to Professional Certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for determining professional knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience in 4 out of 6 Knowledge Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience in 3 out of 5 of the underlying fundamentals </li></ul></ul>
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