Competitive Analysis
           &
  Information Report

High-Speed Video Market

  For New Distributors




      December...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



                              Table of Contents


1.0    Fastec Imaging Background  ...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


1.0    Fastec Imaging Background

In March 2003, Steve Ferrell and John Foley started...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



2.0   Questions & Answers on High-Speed Video

What is High-Speed Video?

High-speed...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


The human eye sees motion at the standard camcorder rate of 30 frames per second,
and...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


Can manufacturing                Munitions                   Sporting goods
Chemicals...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


After speed is determined, the next item to be considered is the resolution of the im...
--------------------Fastec Imaging

Sensor Dimensions

It is important to know the size of the image sensor in a camera. S...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


This creates a smear or blur effect on the edge. To get good picture quality, the shu...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


would then give the appearance of an object with motion blur. However, in reality, it...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


images with newer images until an event occurs and triggers the camera to stop.
Furth...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


lighting may be needed to eliminate the shadows produced by the front lighting. It is...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


The fluorescent tube is one type of gas discharge lamp. At the end of each tube are
e...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


film set the format standard that video has attempted to meet. Over the years,
monoch...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



3.0   High-Speed Digital Imaging Technology Overview

Eastman Kodak’s Motion Analysi...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


Photron’s Ultima 1024 and APX, NAC’s Hi-Dcam II and Redlake’s MotionPro.
Incidentally...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



4.0    Key Competitive Metrics for High-Speed Video

Camera performance has 3 key me...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


is better. In high-speed video, as with many types of products, salesmen often try to...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


applications can be captured at a lower speed, for example with a 250 fps recording
r...
--------------------Fastec Imaging

• Frame Rate: 0–500+ fps @ (1,280 x 1,024), >10,000 fps with partial scan,
[e.g. 0–400...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


5.0      Current HSV Companies Active Worldwide

         Photron, (Japan)           ...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



Photron Locations:

Asia Office                        Europe Office                ...
--------------------Fastec Imaging

•     Metrology
•     Microscopy
•     PIV
•     Laboratory
•     Document conversion
...
--------------------Fastec Imaging

NAC Background Information:

The following is a summary of major NAC achievements and ...
--------------------Fastec Imaging

        Delivered "Cine Sextant" Automated Optical Tracking System to Tanegashima Spac...
--------------------Fastec Imaging

High-speed photography is an engineering tool, much as is an oscilloscope or a compute...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



The Japanese based high-speed companies, Photron and NAC, both have product lines
ot...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



6.0   TroubleShooter Technology & Packaging

No single camera that now exists in the...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



                         TroubleShooter User Interface


                           ...
--------------------Fastec Imaging


                                                                          Troubleshoo...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



7.0   TroubleShooter Competitive Position vs. All Competitors

The tables in the fol...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



Fastec TroubleShooter vs. Redlake MotionMeter

                                     ...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



Fastec TroubleShooter vs. Redlake MotionScope PCI

                                 ...
--------------------Fastec Imaging



Fastec TroubleShooter vs. Photron Fastcam PCI

                                     ...
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Transcript of "Competitive Analysis"

  1. 1. Competitive Analysis & Information Report High-Speed Video Market For New Distributors December 2003
  2. 2. --------------------Fastec Imaging Table of Contents 1.0 Fastec Imaging Background 3 2.0 Questions & Answers on High-Speed Video 4 3.0 High-Speed Digital Imaging Technology Overview 15 4.0 Key Competitive Metrics for High-Speed Video 17 5.0 Current HSV Companies Active Worldwide 21 6.0 TroubleShooter Technology & Packaging 28 7.0 TroubleShooter Competitive Position vs. All Competitors 31 8.0 Fastec Marketing Strategy/Opportunity 53 9.0 Selling Information for New HSV Distributors 62 10.0 Conclusion 67 Table of Contents - ii
  3. 3. --------------------Fastec Imaging 1.0 Fastec Imaging Background In March 2003, Steve Ferrell and John Foley started Fastec Imaging Corporation to develop high-speed video cameras with much broader appeal than the existing products on the market. The first two cameras will be named the TroubleShooter and TroubleShooter II. Prototypes of the TroubleShooter were completed in December 2003, first run production units will be deliverable to distributors in March 2004 and full production units will deliverable to customers in April 2004. The TroubleShooter II will be available approximately three months later. Steve Ferrell began his career in the high-speed industry in 1981 with film camera manufacturer Redlake Corporation. He led a management buyout of the company in 1991 and began the conversion of the product line to video technology. He sold the film camera business in 1995, merged with a San Jose-based engineering design company in 1997 and sold the company to Roper Industries (NYSE:ROP) for $9M in cash in 1999. From 1999 to 2001 he was President of both Redlake Imaging and the former Motion Analysis Systems Division of Eastman Kodak, which was purchased by Roper simultaneously. There were over 200 employees and $50M in annual sales in the combined companies. John Foley was a founding member of the Motion Analysis Systems Division of Eastman Kodak in 1982 and served in increasingly key sales and business development positions until 1992 when he retired as Director of Business Planning & Development. Mr. Foley then joined Redlake Imaging as Vice President of Sales and Marketing and was instrumental in strategic business development and building and managing Redlake’s worldwide distribution channel. After the acquisition by Roper Industries in 1999, Mr. Foley worked for the combined companies in a variety of positions, including Vice President of Worldwide Sales and Marketing. Note: This report was prepared for the internal use only of Fastec Imaging and its Authorized Distributors. The contents of this report as contained herein should not be disclosed, copied or disseminated to anyone outside your organization. It is definitely not for distribution to your customers as is, or any person who is not employed by you. Fastec specifications and prices are subject to change as well as those of our competitors. We therefore make no warranty as to the accuracy of the contents nor should you to your customers. This report is solely intended to assist you in gaining an understanding of some of the elements of the high-speed video market. 1.0 Fastec Imaging Background 3
  4. 4. --------------------Fastec Imaging 2.0 Questions & Answers on High-Speed Video What is High-Speed Video? High-speed video is a diagnostic tool that helps engineers, technicians and researchers analyze high-speed processes. It is a sequential series of images that are recorded at very high frame rates and played back in slow-motion to allow the viewer to see, measure and understand events that happen to fast to see with the unaided eye. High- speed video is simply the technique of recording an event at a high frame rate and playing the images back at a much slower rate, thus slowing down the event so a user can actually see what’s happening Standard camcorders only record at 30 frames per second and, as a result, usually miss most of the action in fast-moving events. However, if high-speed digital cameras are used to record these events at hundreds or even thousands of frames per second, it’s a different story. When the images are played back in slow motion, or even stopped to examine a single frame, details can be seen that go unnoticed at normal speed. High-speed video can help a user understand many unique motion analysis applications. Whether the work involves product design, research, machinery maintenance, or biomechanics, high-speed video can become one of the most important tools at a user’s disposal. The world moves much too quickly to catch it all with unaided human eyes. If high-speed video cameras are used instead of standard camcorders to capture motion sequences at hundreds or thousands of frames per second, details can be seen that occur within that high-speed event. At 500 frames per second, there are nearly 17 images for every one that would be captured by standard (30 fps) video. And at 3,000 frames per second, there will be 100 more images for each standard video frame. With high-speed video, a user can view important high-speed applications in a manner that allows for a meaningful analysis of that event. If a motion sequence is recorded at 500 fps for example and played back at 30 fps, the user will see a smooth, continuous motion. Compared to other forms of data acquisition, high-speed video gives users a much better understanding of the actual motion they are studying. With high-speed video, problems that could not previously be seen are made clear and problems are solved more quickly. Why Use High-Speed Video? Understanding high-speed motion is absolutely critical in today's fast-paced manufacturing and research environments. To a large extent many high-speed machine problems are still solved by the costly and time consuming and trial and error method. Using high-speed video is one of the easiest and most cost effective ways to quickly acquire this important information. 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 4
  5. 5. --------------------Fastec Imaging The human eye sees motion at the standard camcorder rate of 30 frames per second, and, as a result, usually misses most of the action in fast-moving events. However, if a high-speed camera is used to record these events at hundreds or even thousands of frames per second, it is a different story. When the images are played back in slow motion, or even stopped for examination of a single frame, details can be seen that go unnoticed at normal speed. We can learn a great deal about motion sequences if we record them with high-speed video cameras and then study the recordings in slow motion - or even as individual frames. We’ve all seen the slow motion images of automobile crash testing on TV commercials that illustrate seat belt safety. Trying to capture and view these images at 30 fps would have far less impact and would be difficult, if not impossible, to analyze in any meaningful way. What are the Advantages of High-Speed Video? While it’s possible to use standard video equipment to record and analyze motion, there are limitations to this technology: The sampling rate of 30 frames per second (for standard NTSC video) is too slow for most motion problems. Lets use the example of a high-speed activity that occurs in 100 milliseconds, 1/10 of a second. With standard 30 fps video we are only able to capture one image every 33 milliseconds. In an event that occurs within 100 milliseconds, standard video would provide a user with approximately three frames of information. With a high-speed system recording at 1,000 fps, the user would be able to view 100 frames of that same event. A motion sequence that is recorded at 30 frames per second and slowed down by a factor of ten allows viewing of it at 3 frames per second. The resulting image showing motion is very "jerky" and therefore extremely difficult to analyze with any accuracy or in meaningful detail. This is extremely important when a critical understanding of motion is crucial to your success. Some camcorders are advertised as “high-speed” but what is meant by that is that they have a high-speed shutter, usually up to 1/10,000th of a second. This is not the same kind of high-speed camera as a TroubleShooter because the camcorder will still only take 30 pictures, (25 in PAL), per second. Who Uses High-Speed Video? Industries where high-speed video is solving a wide range of problems include: Aerospace Machine tools Printing and publishing Appliances Medical devices Research facilities Automotive Metal stamping Rubber products Beverages Motors and engines Switches and controls 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 5
  6. 6. --------------------Fastec Imaging Can manufacturing Munitions Sporting goods Chemicals Paper products Test instruments Computers and office products Personal care products Textiles Electronic components Petroleum products Universities Food processing Pharmaceuticals Household products Plastics What Is High-Speed Video Used For? Although every high-speed application is at least a little unique, high-speed video applications generally fall into four broad functional areas: Equipment Design, Testing, Research and Production. These categories cut across industry lines and include dozens of specific applications. Equipment Design Research New mechanism design Biology Equipment modification Combustion Pre-shipment shakedown Biomechanics Fluid Dynamics Wind Tunnel Testing Production Materials testing Equipment setup and changeovers Fracture Full capacity characterization Penetration Predictive maintenance Impact Preventative maintenance Vendor certification Machinery diagnostics Assembly and component testing General troubleshooting Vibration Maintenance and repair Shock Stress Vehicle impact testing Munitions and weapons testing What Are The Technical Considerations? The very first thing you should consider when talking to your customers about high- speed video is “what speed is necessary for their application?” Common questions to keep in mind are "How fast do they need?" and "How fast is fast enough?" Surprisingly, 250 frames per second record rate, the TroubleShooter 250, will work for a vast number of applications. The TroubleShooter 250 has a 20X shutter capability, shutter speeds of 1/5,000th of a second, and captures 8-times more information than standard NTSC or 10-times more than standard PAL camcorders. 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 6
  7. 7. --------------------Fastec Imaging After speed is determined, the next item to be considered is the resolution of the image. If storage space is a concern, then the smallest resolution that works for the application should be chosen. If storage space is not an issue, than higher resolutions can be used. However, there will be a lot of wasted data generated from this practice. The idea of "more is better" is not always true when other variables are considered. Once the necessary speed and resolution choices have been made for the application, the next choice will be between the type of camera and type of control interface required. The speed and resolution choices will determine a range of cameras, but the type of interface also plays a role in this choice. Will your customer be working in a lab where he can interface the camera to a computer full-time, or will he be in a factory or out in the field, where simplicity and portability are key requirements? In summary: Know your prospects application - the biggest and fastest is not always required Know how your prospect wants to interface with Storage requirements Portability Speed Make sure all parts of the solution will be compatible. Some Technical Definitions Frame Rate Frame rate, sample rate, capture rate and imager (or camera) speed are interchangeable terms. Measured in frames per second, the imager’s speed is one of the most important considerations in motion analysis. The frame rate is determined after considering the event’s speed, the size of the area under study, the number of images needed to obtain all the event’s essential information, and the frame rates available from the particular motion analyzer. For example, at 1,000 fps a picture is taken once every millisecond. If an event takes place in 15 milliseconds, the imager will capture 15 frames of that event. If the frame rate is set too low, the imager will capture not enough images to give meaningful data. If the frame rate is set higher than necessary, a camera may not be able to store all the necessary frames. In some cameras, too high a frame rate may sacrifice the area of coverage. This happens when a camera’s frame rate is set higher than it’s ability to provide a full-frame coverage. The TroubleShooter has a full 640 x 480 resolution up to 1,000 fps. There are a number of high-speed cameras with the option of providing "partial frames" recording. At higher record speeds, the height or width of the image is decreased but in return, the recording frame rate can be set at significant increase over the full frame recording rate. When considering different cameras performance be aware that some of the increased speeds are gained by recording partial frames, which can significantly reduce resolution. 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 7
  8. 8. --------------------Fastec Imaging Sensor Dimensions It is important to know the size of the image sensor in a camera. Some common size sensors include 1/2 inch, 2/3 inch and 1 inch. The 1-inch sensor has an effective width of 12.8 millimeters, while the 2/3-inch sensor has an effective width of 8.8 millimeters. A lens that works properly on a camera having a small sensor may not produce a large enough image to work correctly on a camera having a large sensor. This is due to the distortion in the fringe areas of the lens. Knowing the width of a sensor prevents image blur because users can calculate parameters such as the correct exposure time. The sensor’s width also allows users to calculate the depth of field for a given aperture. The TroubleShooter uses a sensor that has an effective working area equal to a 2/3” sensor. Exposure Many factors influence the amount of light required to produce the best image possible. Without sufficient light, the image may be: under-exposed, detail is lost in dark unbalanced, poor color reproduction blurred, due to the lack of depth-of-field The time that light is exposed to the imaging sensor depends on several factors. These factors include, lens f-stop, frame rate, shutter time, light levels, reflectance of surrounding material, imaging sensor’s well capacity, and the sensor’s signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. All of these factors can significantly impact the image quality. An often overlooked factor is the exposure time, also known as the shutter speed. The exposure time and shutter speed are interchangeable terms. The exposure time for electronic sensors is either the inverse of the frame rate if no electronic shutter exists or the time that an electronic shuttered sensor is exposed in milliseconds or microseconds. Shown below are the relationships for defining the exposure time: no shutter = 1/frame rate electronic shutter = period of time that the sensor is “live”, acquiring charge The exposure time determines how sharp or blur free an image is - regardless of the frame rate. The exposure time needed to avoid blur depends on the subject’s velocity and direction, the amount of lens magnification, the shutter speed or frame rate (which ever is faster) and the resolution of the imaging system. A high velocity subject may be blurred in an image if the velocity is too high during the integration of light on the sensor. If a sharp edge of an object is imaged, and the object moves within one frame more than 2 pixels or a line pair, the object may be blurred. This is due to the fact that multiple pixels are imaging an averaged value of the edge. 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 8
  9. 9. --------------------Fastec Imaging This creates a smear or blur effect on the edge. To get good picture quality, the shutter rate should be 10x that of the subject’s velocity. The lens magnification can influence the relative velocity of the subject being imaged. The velocity of an object moving across a magnified field-of-view (FOV) is increased linearly according to the magnification level. Instinctually, if an object is viewed far away, the relative velocity in the FOV is less than that viewed next to the object. A proper shutter speed may be calculated as follows: Exposure (shutter rate) 2X Pixel Size / Vr where: Vr = sensor dimension x (field-of-view / object’s velocity) Pixel Size = pixel dimension / total pixels Note: pixel dimension should correspond to the dimension used for the total pixel count. The TroubleShooter’s pixels are 12 microns square. If the object’s velocity, the field-of-view, the imaging sensor’s dimensions and pixel count are known, the shutter speed required to produce a sharp image can be calculated. The relative velocity (Vr) at the sensor can be calculated by reducing the subject’s velocity by the optical reduction at the sensor. The pixel size must be calculated by dividing the sensor size in the dimension of interest (x or y). Knowing that a relative velocity at the sensor plane that is less than 2 pixels or a line pair will produce a good image, we multiply the pixel size by two. Therefore, the shutter speed is calculated by dividing the 2X pixel size by the relative velocity (Vr). The inverse yields the minimum shutter speed or in the case of an imaging system without a shutter, it is the minimum frame rate for sharp images. Depth of Field Depth-of-field (DOF) is the range in which an object would be in focus within a scene. The largest DOF’s are obtained when a lens is set to infinity focus. The smaller the f- stop the smaller the DOF, for example a setting f/2.0 would have a small depth of field. If the object is moved closer to the lens, the DOF also decreases. Lenses of different focal lengths will not have the same DOF for a given f-stop. Sensitivity Most modern image sensors have a sensitivity that is equivalent to a film Exposure Index value of between 125 ISO and 480 ISO in color and up to 3200 ISO in monochrome. The sensitivity is a very important factor for obtaining clear images. An inexperienced user may confuse motion blur with a poor depth-of-field. If the sensitivity of the camera is not high enough for imaging an object for a given scene, the lens aperture must be opened up. This reduces the depth-of-field for the object to remain in focus. As the object moves, it could take a path outside the area that is in focus. This 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 9
  10. 10. --------------------Fastec Imaging would then give the appearance of an object with motion blur. However, in reality, it is out of focus. In practice, many TroubleShooter recordings may be made with ambient lights. A single incandescent light may be used to add illumination to either eliminate shadows in areas where light is blocked or to add illumination for closing down the aperture of the lens to get greater depth of field. No extra or minimal light is fine for many applications, although some demanding high-speed events have characteristics where greater light availability may be preferred. Record Time The recording time of a high-speed video camera is dependent on the frame rate selected and the amount of storage medium available. Continuing technological advances in DRAM memory make greater storage levels affordable, but DRAM can still a limiting factor in some situations. However, most high-speed events occur in such short duration that 2000 frames is usually more than enough to capture the event. As memory chips get denser, the storage capacities will increase in high-speed cameras. Resolution The resolution of a high-speed camera is generally expressed in terms of the number of pixels in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. A pixel is defined as the smallest unit of a picture that can be individually addressed and read. At present, high-speed camera resolutions range from 128 x 32 (split-frame) to approximately 1600 x 1200 pixels. A rule of thumb for capturing high-speed events is that the smallest object or displacement to be detected by the camera should not be less than 2 pixels within the camera’s horizontal field of view. The sensor resolution may be expressed also in terms of line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm). The meaning of line pairs per millimeter is an expression of how many transitions from black to white (lines) can be resolved in one millimeter. To calculate a sensor’s theoretical limiting resolution in lp/mm, take the inverse of two times the pixel size. Shown below is the limiting resolution of a sensor with a 16-micron pixel. Theoretical Limiting Resolution = (1/ (2 x pixel size)) x 1000 = 1/(2 x 16) x 1000 = 31.25 lp/mm Record Modes High-speed cameras have two principal methods of recording, which are to solid-state memory – DRAM or to videotape in modified recorders. Certain recording methods, like random triggering, cannot be matched by high-speed film cameras, many of which are still in use. A high-speed camera’s most useful recording mode is called continuous record. In continuous record mode the camera runs indefinitely, replacing it’s older 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 10
  11. 11. --------------------Fastec Imaging images with newer images until an event occurs and triggers the camera to stop. Further flexibility allows the operator to program exactly how many images before and after an event are saved. For engineers and technicians trying to record something unpredictable or intermittent, the continuous-record with triggering is the only feasible method of capturing the event. Another less common recording technique for motion analyzers with DRAM memory is external sync or external phase lock. This recording technique is used to operate the camera at a frame rate that is defined by a user’s input signal. External sync recording is very similar to the method of imaging with a strobe synchronized with an object that has a repetitious movement. For example, a user could input a frequency to the camera that was synchronized to the tachometer. As the frequency is varied, the images captured will be sync with the tachometer in a positive or negative direction. This allows any position of movement to be observed and captured. Another example would be that of an accelerometer voltage that is feed to a voltage-to- frequency converter. As the acceleration changes, so does the frequency out of the converter. This frequency then drives the frame rate of the camera. Why should this interest us? Objects that move faster need a higher frame rate for recording than objects that move slower. Therefore, the rate of change is directly proportional to the rate of recording. Application examples include a crush test for materials using a strain gauge, a flame propagation study in a combustion engine using a pressure sensor, an automotive car crash using an accelerometer or an explosion that has a light sensor detecting the detonation. This mode of recording is uniquely possible with DRAM based high-speed cameras. Time Magnification The goal in using a high-speed camera is to obtain a series of images that are observable in slow motion after a high-speed event occurs. Time magnification describes the degree of "slowing down" of motion that occurs during the playback of an event. To determine the amount of time magnification, divided the recording rate by the replay rate. For example, a recording made at 1,000 fps and replayed at 30 fps will show a time magnification of 33:1. One second of real time will last for 30 seconds on the television or computer monitor. If the same recording were replayed at only 1 fps, that one-second event would take more than 16 minutes to play back! Most high-speed cameras, including the TroubleShooter, allow replay in forward or reverse with variable playback speeds. Therefore, it is important to capture only the information that is necessary; otherwise along recordings could take too long to playback. Lighting Techniques Lighting an application properly can produce dynamic results over poor light management. There are four fundamental directions for lighting high speed video subjects; front, side, fill and backlight. Placing a light behind or adjacent to a lens is the most common method of illuminating a subject. However, some fill lighting or side 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 11
  12. 12. --------------------Fastec Imaging lighting may be needed to eliminate the shadows produced by the front lighting. It is advisable to have the light behind the lens to avoid specular reflections off the lens. Side lighting is the next most common lighting technique. As the name implies, the light is at an angle from the side. This can produce a very pleasing illumination. In fact, for low contrast subjects, a low incident lighting angle from the side can enhance detail. Fill lighting may be used to remove shadows or other dark areas. Fill lighting may also be used to lessen the flicker from lamps that have poor uniformity. Fill is from the side or top of a scene. Backlighting may be used to illuminate a translucent subject from behind. It is not used that frequently in high-speed video. However, certain applications such as microscopy, web analysis or flow visualization will be suited for backlighting. All of these techniques are important for getting a high quality image. The TroubleShooter has been optimized to operate under most ambient light situations. This makes using the camera in environments like factories easier and therefore more appealing to customers because of an elimination of set up time. Lighting Sources There are a number of lighting sources available for high-speed video. Some care must be taken in lighting selection due to the several factors. The areas that need to be considered included the type of light, the uniformity of the light source, the intensity of the light, the color temperature, the amount of flicker, the size of the light, the beam focus and the handling requirements. All of these factors are important in matching the light to the application. Type of Lighting Lighting types can be identified by two characteristics; physical design and the method of producing the light. The physical characteristics include lens, the reflector, packaging and the bulb design. The method of producing light includes tungsten, carbon arc, fluorescent and HMI. Tungsten Tungsten lighting is also referred to as incandescent lamps. Tungsten color temperature is 3200K. A type of tungsten lamp is called halogen. Halogen is a hotter lamp since the bulb must heat the regenerative tungsten. The tungsten lamps are efficient in their light output. Carbon Arcs This type of lamp forms an arc between two carbon electrodes. The arc produces a gas that fuels a bright flame that burns from one electrode to the other. In time, this consumes the carbon. These types of lights very large and expensive and are therefore almost never used in high-speed videography. Gas Discharge 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 12
  13. 13. --------------------Fastec Imaging The fluorescent tube is one type of gas discharge lamp. At the end of each tube are electrodes. The tube is normally filled with argon and some mercury. As current is applied at the electrodes, the mercury is vaporized by the argon gas. The mercury emits an ultraviolet emission. This then strikes the side of the tube that is coated with a phosphor. The phosphor then transforms the ultraviolet to visible light. Most fluorescent lamps emit a dominant green hue, which is not very suitable for a balanced light source. Additionally, the discharge produces a non-uniform light that is easily detected as a 60-cycle flicker when playing images back from a high-speed camera. Arc Discharge HMI (mercury medium-arc iodide) is the most common lamp in this class of lighting and is used in large area lighting for high-speed work. As current is passed through the HMI electrodes, an arc is generated and the gas in the lamp is excited to a light emitting state. The spectrum of light emitted includes visible as well as ultraviolet. This light source typically has a UV filter to block the harmful emissions. The HMI light is a balanced light source that generates an intense white light. If a switching ballast is used with the HMI, it produces a uniform light with very low flicker. Color Understanding color is difficult but necessary even for monochrome imaging. The color of light is determined by its wavelength. The longer wavelengths are hotter in color (red). The shorter wavelengths are cooler (blue). Color perception is a function of the human eye. The surface of an object either reflects or absorbs different light wavelengths. The light that the human eye perceives is unique in that it produces a physiological effect in our brain. What is red to one person may have a slight difference of perception by another person. Terms that further describe the color of an object are hue, saturation and brightness. Hue is the base color such as red, blue violet, yellow and others. Saturation is the shades that vary from a basic color to that of a different shade. An example of a hue would be green and a saturated color would be lime (light green). Brightness also known as luminance is the intensity of the light. The subject of color would take an entire book to fully explain the science. However, studying a color chart can give the user some insight into the composition a color scene. Color temperature is a common way of describing a light source and is listed in degrees K. Color temperature originally derived it’s meaning from the heating of a theoretical black body to a temperature that caused the body to give off varying colors that ranged from red hot to white hot. Incandescent lights usually operate at 3,200K and HMI at 5,500K, which is closest to sunlight. Color versus Monochrome Most of the early high-speed film was black-and-white. Once color film became available, the use of black and white declined somewhat. The use of high-speed color 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 13
  14. 14. --------------------Fastec Imaging film set the format standard that video has attempted to meet. Over the years, monochrome images have been all that could be recorded on most high-speed cameras. Today’s high-speed cameras produce images that replace color film for many high-speed applications. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of both color and monochrome in high-speed video applications, some background must be discussed. There are various methods of producing color in high-speed video. The two the most widely used techniques are beam splitters and color filter arrays. Using three imaging sensors with stationary color filters and a beam splitter, true color reproduction is possible. True color means that the primary colors and all the saturations are possible. This technique is costly since all of the camera’s electronics are tripled because of using three imaging sensors. The alignment of the three sensors in the manufacturing process has to be very precise, otherwise mis-registration will occur on the colors. The second technique is a cost saving compromise. Color Filter Arrays (CFA) provide a more cost affective means for producing color because they require only one imaging sensor. There are individual color filters deposited on the surface of each pixel. There is some combination of Red, Blue and Green or a complimentary color scheme. Each pixel is isolated to a certain color spectrum. Although the pixels are filtered, the raw data must be interpolated for solving the missing pixels in each color plane. Now that the two methods for producing color have been discussed, we need to review what the trade-offs are between color and monochrome. Generally, monochrome images are better in overall image quality. Monochrome cameras are more sensitive due to the absence of a color filter. Monochrome resolving capability is also better than that in CFA imaging sensors. This is due to the fact that there is no interpolation involved. The main disadvantage of a monochrome image is the loss of color differentiation. The subtle change in gray levels is harder to observe than a change in hue or saturation. Color is valuable for differentiating shades. Generally monochrome is preferable for ease of use and better performance in sensitivity and resolution. 2.0 Questions and Answers on High Speed Video 14
  15. 15. --------------------Fastec Imaging 3.0 High-Speed Digital Imaging Technology Overview Eastman Kodak’s Motion Analysis Systems Division, (MASD), and NAC, Inc. were the first two companies in the high-speed video market when they introduced cameras in 1982. Both companies used proprietary and, in some cases, patented technology to make their products. These two companies accounted for the overwhelming majority of cameras sold into market for the ten years from 1982 to 1992. By then, Photron had commercially viable products, which they were induced to sell to MASD through a patent infringement claim. Within the next 5 years Redlake Imaging, Weinberger of Switzerland, Vision Research of Wayne NJ, Olympus America Industrial of Melville NY and DRS Technologies of Oakland, NJ all became active in the market. This list does not include every company that makes some form of high-speed camera but it does represent the major companies supplying products today. The key component of all high-speed cameras, and the only technology that has ever been specifically developed for this market, is the image acquisition sensor. Until 2000, all cameras were made exclusively with CCD technology sensors. In 2000, FillFactory, NV of Belgium made a high-speed sensor based on CMOS technology. At about the same time, Photobit of Pasadena, CA was also making high-speed CMOS sensors. Mr. Ferrell and Mr. Foley, while at Redlake Imaging, gave a contract to DALSA of Waterloo, ON, Canada to develop a high-speed CMOS VGA sensor, which is also a catalog product. In 2001 Micron Technology, the large US-based PC and memory maker purchased Photobit. Micron now supplies the only viable commercially available CMOS sensor on the market, named the MI-MV13, a 1280 x 1024 pixel sensor capable of 500 frames per second at full resolution. Photron, NAC, Redlake MASD, DRS and Fastec all use the MI-MV13. FillFactory produces CMOS sensors under private contract, with Vision Research being their main customer in high-speed imaging and Redlake using one of their sensors for the HG-100K. NAC and Photron may also be using custom CMOS sensors from Japanese suppliers in some of their cameras. The major difference between the Micron and FillFactory sensors are that Micron integrates the A/D converters into the sensor silicon. Other technologies used in high-speed cameras include digital recording media, mostly standard PC industry DRAM, various FPGA’s and general purpose IC’s to provide camera control. Current cameras use firmware and software as well as industrial packaging techniques. With the exception of the Redlake MASD MotionMeter, none of the existing cameras is a truly portable device. Two major forms of packaging are employed by the current vendors; the first is to house a sensor in a separate camera head and send images back to a camera control unit, either a PCI card peripheral installed in a PC or a separate camera control unit. In these cases, the memory is in the camera control and these designs are used in 3.0 High-Speed digital Imaging Technology Overview 15
  16. 16. --------------------Fastec Imaging Photron’s Ultima 1024 and APX, NAC’s Hi-Dcam II and Redlake’s MotionPro. Incidentally, the Redlake MotionPro is manufactured by DRS Technologies for Redlake. The second form of packaging is to put the sensor and camera control into a single unit as exemplified by the NAC K3 or the Phantom V4.2. A variant on this form of package is to “harden” it to withstand 100 “G” impacts for vehicle impact testing and other severe environments including military weapons testing. With these cameras, a PC or separate monitor is still required to display the images Another area that has begun to be exploited by high-speed camera vendors is software for image archiving and analysis. Archiving is becoming more of an issue in applications that require records to be kept of various tests. A single recording sequence can contain 1-2 Gigabytes of images and some applications like automotive testing require that thousands of test shots be saved annually and be available for retrieval. The other major use for software is in motion analysis and several high-speed camera companies have software packages that they provide, especially with their PC based cameras. The key functions in motion analysis are calculating the distance and velocity of a single point or a series of points over multiple images. Time information is also useful and can be calculated in these software packages. In a product like the TroubleShooter, the time in milliseconds is displayed in the header of each frame, allowing for quick answers to questions such as “how long does it take for a part to be ejected from the tooling mold”? A number of independent vendors have software available for sale or have relationships with high-speed camera companies. These include Falcon, (www.falcon.de), and Signum, (www.signumbt.com), in Europe and SAI, (www.sensorsapplications.com), Xcitex, (www.xcitex.com), Microsys, (www.micro-sys.com) and Boeing SVS, (www.svsinc.com) in North America. In summary, the key component of a high-speed camera is the image sensor. All other technologies used in these products are widely available, resulting in an industry that seeks differentiation through minor variations in top end speed, amount of storage, functional packaging or software. Despite efforts by the manufacturers, most high- speed cameras are very similar in overall performance and price with the exception of the new TroubleShooter, which will shift the performance standard for the entire market. 3.0 High-Speed digital Imaging Technology Overview 16
  17. 17. --------------------Fastec Imaging 4.0 Key Competitive Metrics for High-Speed Video Camera performance has 3 key measures: 1. Resolution 2. Speed 3. Recording Time 4.1 Resolution is described in the number of pixels horizontally and vertically and their bit depth. For example the TroubleShooter II has a resolution of 1280 pixels horizontally by 1024 pixels vertically at 10 bits of data per pixel. This array count results in a resolution of 1,310,720 total pixels per image. More pixels means that for the same field of view more detail can be seen in the subject. The size of the subject and the degree of detail that need resolving will help a user determine the best resolution to use. However, the speed the subject is moving, the size of the subject relative to the overall field of view, the type of movement, (rotary, linear, reciprocal, etc), and primary and system magnification need to be taken into account also. Applications can generally be categorized into 4 main field-of-view (resolution) requirements: 1. Microscopy – camera is attached to a microscope. 2. Very small – up to 2-3 square centimeters – looking at a disk drive head actuating or an artificial heart valve. 3. Small – less than a meter square – a vast majority of packaging applications as shown in the image below. 4. Large – 5 meters square or more – automotive crash test, missile launch, human biomechanics. The current high-speed cameras also can be categorized into four general resolution categories: 1. Low-resolution – Redlake MotionMeter, Redlake MotionScope PCI and Photron Fastcam Super 10K in the 30,000 to 200,000 pixel range, 2. Mid-resolution – Phantom V4.2, Fastec TroubleShooter in the 250,000 to 500,000 pixel range. 3. High-resolution – TroubleShooter II, Photron Ultima 1024, NAC K3 in the 1,000,000 pixel range, and 4. Very-high resolution – Phantom V9 and Redlake HG-100K in the 1,500,000 pixel range. Traditional selling techniques in high-speed have centered on the premise that more resolution means a better camera, with the same premise used with speed also – faster 4.0 Key Competitive Metrics for High-Speed Video 17
  18. 18. --------------------Fastec Imaging is better. In high-speed video, as with many types of products, salesmen often try to sell the customer more performance than they need. A vast majority of users, at least 90% in packaging applications, will get excellent results with mid-resolution cameras like the TroubleShooter operating no faster than 1,000 fps. A very-high resolution camera like an HG-100K is good to resolve small details, like a 50mm centroid target on an automobile in a 5 meter horizontal field of view. However, large increases in resolution and speed also mean much higher prices. 4.2 Speed is the measure of how fast images are acquired. In the high-speed industry, speed is described in frames per second. For example the TroubleShooter can record images from 60 to 1,000 frames per second. How fast a user needs to capture images is also dependant on his application. In packaging for example, an extremely high speed process is the filling of beer cans in brewery operations. Some breweries now operate filling machines up to 2,000 cans per minute. Typical field-of-view in a shot of can conveying – about 1 foot horizontally. However, if a maintenance engineer want to record this operation he will usually find that 1,000 fps is more than adequate. 2,000 cans per minute divided by 60 seconds per minute equals 33.33 cans per second divided by 1,000 images per second gives 30 images of every can. With typical system magnification in a 200mm field of view there is more than enough information in the 30 images to understand the dynamics of the motion. The number of different applications that require speeds above 5,000 fps diminish greatly and in packaging 90% of all work can be done at 1,000 fps or slower. The cameras advertising 20,000 to 100,000 images per second are very expensive and only useful in a limited number of applications, such as explosive studies, disk drive head seeks, ink jet spray pattern analysis and a few other applications that have very high magnifications or very high speed requirements. The premium in price for these very high speeds can only be justified in these few high-end applications. One other issue that interrelates with speed is shuttering. All CMOS and CCD sensors designed specifically for high-speed uses have an electronic shutter built into each pixel. Non-shuttered cameras have an effective shutter rate of 1 over the recording rate. For example if a camera with no shutter is recording at 250 fps with no shutter, the effective shutter speed is 1/250th of a second or 4 milliseconds. A number of 4.0 Key Competitive Metrics for High-Speed Video 18
  19. 19. --------------------Fastec Imaging applications can be captured at a lower speed, for example with a 250 fps recording rate motion blur can be eliminated with a fast shutter of 1/5,000th of a second. One other note about speed and cameras is that, as the industrial camera business migrates from analog cameras to digital progressive scan technology, they will often refer to the technology as “high-speed”. What they mean is 60 or in a very few cases 120 fps, with most of these being ½ height or ¼ height images. These cameras are used mainly in machine vision applications. 4.3 Storage Time is usually described in seconds of record time or number of frames. For example, the TroubleShooter records 2,000 frames and therefore 2 seconds at 1,000 frames per second record rate. By their nature, high-speed events happen in a short period of time and are usually measured in milliseconds. Some vendors will advertise longer record times, NAC with their HSV 500C3 or Photron’s Fastcam DVR, but these also are for a very few specialized applications. Some of these include rocket motor firing, missile tracking, or long fuse burning studies. Before TTL triggering became widely available, cameras with long recording times like the NAC HSV 1000 were used to capture random events such as a failure on a continuous product line. The use of triggering, built into practically all high-speed cameras, removes the requirement for long recording systems built around videotape technology The following is a technical description of the Micron MI-MV13 sensor used in the TroubleShooter and TroubleShooter II. This sensor is also used in The Redlake MotionPro, NAC Hi-Dcam II, Photron Fastcam-X PCI 1280 which cost as much as $35,000 to $40,000 for the high-end models. T9M413 TECHNICAL BRIEF 1.3-MEGAPIXEL CMOS ACTIVE-PIXEL DIGITAL IMAGE SENSOR Micron Part Number: MT9M413C36STC Description The MI-MV13 is a 1,280H x 1,024V (1.3 megapixel) CMOS digital image sensor capable of 500 frames-per second (fps) operation. Its TrueSNAP™ electronic shutter allows simultaneous exposure of the entire pixel array. Available in color or monochrome, the sensor has on- chip 10-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), which are self-calibrating, and a fully digital interface. The chip's input clock rate is 66 MHz at approximately 500 fps, providing compatibility with many off-the-shelf interface components. The sensor has ten 10-bit-wide digital output ports. Its open architecture design provides access to internal operations. ADC timing and pixel-read control are integrated on-chip. At 60 fps, the sensor dissipates less than 150mW, and at 500 fps less than 500mW; it operates on a 3.3V supply. Pixel size is 12 microns square, and digital responsivity is 1,600 bits per lux-second. Features • Array Format: 1,280H x 1,024 V (1,310,720 pixels) • Pixel Size and Type: 12.0µm x 12.0µm TrueSNAP (shuttered-node active pixel) • Sensor Imaging Area: H: 15.36mm, V: 12.29mm, Diagonal: 19.67mm 4.0 Key Competitive Metrics for High-Speed Video 19
  20. 20. --------------------Fastec Imaging • Frame Rate: 0–500+ fps @ (1,280 x 1,024), >10,000 fps with partial scan, [e.g. 0–4000 fps @ (1,280 x 128)] • Output Data Rate: 660 Mbs (master clock 66 MHz, ~500 fps) • Power Consumption: < 500 mW @ 500 fps; <150 mW @ 60 fps • Digital Responsivity: Monochrome: 1,600 bits per lux-second @ 550nm; ADC reference @ 1V • Internal Intra-Scene Dynamic Range: 59dB • Supply Voltage: +3.3V • Operating Temperature: -5°C to +60°C • Output: 10-bit digital through 10 parallel ports • Color: Monochrome or color RGB • Shutter: TrueSNAP freeze-frame electronic shutter • Shutter Efficiency: >99.9% • Shutter Exposure Time: 2_s to > 33 msec • ADC: On-chip, 10-bit column-parallel • Package: 280-pin ceramic PGA • Programmable Controls: Open architecture On-chip: • ADC controls • Output multiplexing • ADC calibration Off-chip: • Window size and location • Frame rate and data rate • Shutter exposure time (integration time) • ADC reference 4.0 Key Competitive Metrics for High-Speed Video 20
  21. 21. --------------------Fastec Imaging 5.0 Current HSV Companies Active Worldwide Photron, (Japan) Olympus Industrial, (USA) NAC, (Japan) AOS Technologies, (Switzerland) Redlake MASD, (USA) Weinberger, (Switzerland) Vision Research, (USA) The following is information taken from the various web-sites. Photron Background Information: Photron was founded in 1974 to provide manufacturing, sales and service of professional film and video equipment and photo- instrumentation. Since then, Photron has been offering photo optics and electronic technologies to manufacturing industries, the medical field, film laboratories, major movie and television studios, as well as to the military worldwide. The company name "PHOTRON" combines photon and electron, the basic elements that represent our state-of-the-art technologies. After gaining experience with image processing systems, Photron branched into the development of high-speed motion analysis cameras. Some highlights of our product launches are: • In 1991 the Model 4540 was launched as the world's fastest commercial high-speed video system, operating at up to 40,500 frames per second. The 4540 is now marketed under the name of the ultima SE. • A year later, 1991, the MotionCorder family of cameras is launched, including the FASTCAM Super 10k, which becomes a major best-selling high-speed video system. • In 2000 Photron's FASTCAM-X 1280 PCI is the first mega-pixel CMOS camera system for the PC to compliment the CCD FASTCAM PCI. • And currently we are underway with the launch of Photron Motion Tools software, a suite of tools designed to perfectly compliment PC-based cameras for image analysis. Photron's varied product range makes it the first choice for designers, manufacturers, R&D and test engineers to solve their most challenging motion problems. Whether it's testing a new product design or piece of equipment or trouble-shooting a high-speed production line, Photron's digital camera systems can capture thousands of high- resolution images for playback and analysis. And with Photron Motion Tools software, users can automatically track the motion of any point within a recorded sequence. Photron's continuing development of new state-of-the-art products shows our commitment to furthering research and development in the areas of digital imaging and motion analysis solutions. Photron also designs and develops software for the motion picture and television industries under the Primatte brand. Photron began marketing Primatte in the mid-90s, at which time Scott Gross joined the Primatte team to help introduce, sell and support Primatte software in the U.S. In the ensuing five years since its introduction, Primatte has gone from being one platform with two versions to nearly forty versions on three platforms, a testament to its powerful and versatile ability to create seamless and realistic chromakey compositing effects. 5.0 Current HSV Companies Worldwide 21
  22. 22. --------------------Fastec Imaging Photron Locations: Asia Office Europe Office Photron USA, Inc. 9520 Padgett Street, Suite 110 Photron Limited Photron (Europe) Limited San Diego, CA 92126-4446, USA Shibuya 1-9-8 Willowbank House Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo 150-0002 84 Station Road, Marlow Phone: 1-858-684-3555 Japan Bucks. SL7 1NX 1-800-585-2129 Phone: +81 (0) 3 3486-3471 United Kingdom Fax: 1-858-684-3558 Fax: +81 (0) 3 3486-8760 Toshiharu Saiyoshi Phone: +44 (0) 1628 894353 Tak (Takashi) Takimizu saiyoshi@photron.co.jp Fax: +44 (0) 1628 894354 President Kiyoshi Sano Sales - Europe, Africa and Middle East takimizu@photron.com sano@photron.co.jp Photron-Europe@photron.com Andrew Bridges Sales - Asia Manager, Sales & Marketing Photron-Asia@photron.com Redlake MASD Background Information: Four decades of leadership in providing high performance imaging solutions make Redlake the provider of choice for high resolution, high speed digital imaging systems. The result of a merger between Redlake Imaging and Eastman Kodak MASD, Redlake combines vast industry experience with today's most advanced technology, allowing an unprecedented breadth and depth of products, services and support to choose from. Our products range from stand-alone digital cameras to complete, bundled systems, including computers with specialized control and analysis software. Unique to our industry, we have high speed, high resolution, and multi- spectral device meet virtually every high performance imaging need. Our high-speed cameras solve problems, save time and cut costs by providing imaging at very: High frame rates in just about every industry you can think of. Use Redlake high-speed cameras to record and play back problems that are too fast to the human eye to see. Recording at very high frame rates, the cameras let you slow the motion and analyze details in a variety of industries, such as: • Research, design and test: superb light sensitivity, robust features and long recording times make the cameras versatile analytical solutions. • Vehicle impact testing, airbag deployment testing, safety component testing: some systems can handle impacts of 100+Gs. • Ballistic tests, missile intercepts, and projectile impacts: Redlake cameras work with Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) timing code systems to precisely control and synchronize multiple systems — even when located miles apart. • Production line diagnostics High-resolution MegaPlus Cameras Redlake high-resolution MegaPlus® line of cameras has set the industry standard for research, medical, industrial and machine vision applications. MegaPlus® cameras provide precise and convenient control of image exposure and capture timing, and are designed for easy integration into image processing systems. Redlake high-resolution MegaPlus® imaging systems deliver crisp, colorful images for a variety of applications: • Medical imaging (digital radiography, ophthalmology) 5.0 Current HSV Companies Worldwide 22
  23. 23. --------------------Fastec Imaging • Metrology • Microscopy • PIV • Laboratory • Document conversion • Machine vision • Electronic inspection (flat panel display, semi-conductor, wafer, etc) Redlake Locations Americas: Redlake 11633 Sorrento Valley Road San Diego, CA 92121-1010 USA Phone: +1-858-481-8182 Toll Free: 1-800-462-4307 Fax: +1-858-792-3179 sales@redlake.com Now accepting major credit cards: Locate a Motion Camera Sales Rep. Locate a MegaPlus Camera Sales Rep. Europe, Middle East and Africa: Roper Scientific BV Ir. D.S. Tuijnmanweg 10 4131 PN Vianen Netherland Telephone: +31-347-32-4989 Fax: +31-347-32-4979 mailto@roperscientific.com Asia/Pacific: Redlake 10 Eunos Road 8 #12-06 Singapore Post Centre 408600 Singapore Tel: +65-6293-4758 Fax: +65-6293-3307 redlake@singnet.com.sg Japan: Nippon Roper 6F Sakurai Building 2 8 19 Fukagawa Koto Ku Tokyo, 135-0033, Japan Telephone: +81-3-5639-2770 Fax: +81-3-5639-2775 ropermid@roper.co.jp 5.0 Current HSV Companies Worldwide 23
  24. 24. --------------------Fastec Imaging NAC Background Information: The following is a summary of major NAC achievements and developments since 1958. This listing will give you some idea of the types of applications with which NAC has experience. As you'll see, NAC has a track record of solving the most challenging image technology problems. 1958-1970 1958 Developed and commenced marketing of "NAC Anamorphic Lens" (for Cinemascope) 1961 Developed and commenced marketing of "NAC Film Motion Analyzer" the quantitative film data analysis system 1962 Developed 16mm Telecine System, 16mm TV Finder and Proxer Lens 1963 Developed Spectroheliograph and Projection Lens for Cinerama 1964 Developed 360 Shooting & Projection System, Crane -Simulator, Lasertracker, Motion Analyzer, 35/70mm Film 1964 Developed and delivered 360 shooting & projection system for Japan Science Foundation Delivered complete filming equipment and full maintenance for official filming of Tokyo Olympic games 1965 Developed Optical and Photographic Instrumentation System for tracking and recording rocket flights. Delivered to Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo Developed and installed full arch Aurora recording photographic camera for Polar Research Institute at Japanese Antarctic Base 1966 Developed Bi-Plane Cine Angiographic System, and delivered to Kita Kyushu Welfare Hospital Developed and commenced delivery of High-Speed Photographic Instrumentation System for safety research at automobile manufacturers worldwide. Delivered "NAC Television Finder Cine Recording System" to Japan National Theatre 1967 Developed and delivered Image Display System to San Antonio International Exposition (USA) 1968 Developed Computer Controlled Visual Display System for train engineer training simulator and delivered to National Railway Technological Lab Developed Automatic Tracking Cinetheodolite for NASDA, and installed at Tanegashima Space Center Developed and delivered computer aided semi-automatic film analyzer for Nuclear Research Lab, University of Tokyo 1965 Developed airborne Radar Scope Camera for F104 Jet Fighter of Japanese Defense Agency. cooperation with Mitsubishi Electric Co. Developed Optical Tracking System CT-7 and Time-Lapse Camera System 1966 Developed and commenced marketing of NAC Eye Mark Recorder Developed 16mm Compact Camera for photographing human internal organs with aid from Ministry of Health and Welfare 1967 Developed Streak Recording Camera 1969 Developed D-150 Lens with capability of 150 photography 1970 -1980 1970 Contracted for design, manufacture, installation and operation-maintenance of Visual Display Systems of over ten pavilions including Japanese Pavilion Government at Expo 1970 Developed and delivered high-speed automobile simulator for mechanical lab in Agency of Industrial Science and Technology 1971 Developed and delivered Image Display System to Hokkaido Historical Museum Delivered infra-red aided Automatic Cinetheodolite and Film Data Analyzing System to JDA 1972 Awarded contract for Multi-band Remote Sensing Camera System from Geographical Survey Institute 1973 Developed and delivered Human Rehabilitation Activity Instrumentation System for various rehabilitation centers 1974 Developed and delivered high-speed automobile visual simulator for mechanical lab in Agency of Industrial Science Developed and delivered Photo- instrumentation System for missile launch experiments to JDA Started marketing of high speed video recorder 1975 Delivered "Cine Sextant" Optical Tracking Mount for tracking of flying projectiles to JDA 1976 Developed and delivered Visual Display System for Tank Simulator at JDA 1977 Delivered photographic processing system of Meteological Satellite image data sent to ground station of the Japanese Meteological Agency Delivered High Speed Video System to NASDA for N rocket on-ground combustion test 1978 Delivered Remote Sensing Image Data Processing System to Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry Delivered photographic processing system for LANDSAT images sent to Receiving Station of NASDA 5.0 Current HSV Companies Worldwide 24
  25. 25. --------------------Fastec Imaging Delivered "Cine Sextant" Automated Optical Tracking System to Tanegashima Space Center, NASDA 1980-1990 1980 Developed "NAC Animatography", advanced Animation & Graphics System 1981 Commenced manufacturing and marketing of "NAC High Speed Camera Model E-10" Developed High Speed Video System Model HSV-200 1982 Developed 16mm Laser Beam Recorder under the guidance of NHK Technical Research Laboratories Developed field type and on-board type High Speed Video 1983 Commenced manufacturing and marketing of "NAC Eye Mark Recorder Model V" 1984 Developed Large-Format Laser-Beam Image Recorder Developed 70mm LBIR for computer graphics 1982 Awarded contract for technical study of remote sensing techniques for oil resources by MITI 1983 Awarded with the prize of UNIATEC (Union International Des Associations Techniques Cinematographiques) at the 3rd World Animation Festival Varna '83 for NAC Animation Graphic System President K. Nakajima awarded with Haruki Prize of Motion Picture & TV Engineering Society of Japan for many years of technical contributions to the motion picture and TV industries 1984 NAC Compact Video Tape Recorder flown in Space Shuttle (NASA) Started marketing of Arnold & Richter "Arriflex & Arritechno" 1990-1994 1990 Developed Ultra High Speed I Converter Camera Model "Ultranac" Developed new Color High Speed Video System Model "HSV-1000" Developed Eye Mark Recorder Model"EMR-600" 1990 Awarded contract for "Human Sensory Measurement Application Technology" from Industrial Technology Institute of MITI 1991 Delivered "Lenticular Stereoscopic Display System" to ATR 1992 Delivered "Lenticular Stereoscopic Display System for multiple images for multiple viewer" to ATR Delivered "Ultra High Resolution Image Processing System" to NTT 1993 Delivered "Wide-screen Autostereoscopic Display System" to NTT 1993 Developed Eye Mark Recorder Model"EMR-7" 1994 Developed solid state memory type Color High Speed Video Model "Memerecam Ci" and "Memrecam CCS" Developed "non-contact type Eye Mark Recorder" NAC Locations: Yokohama and Kohoku, Japan , are the sites of the two major NAC production facilities. These factories design, develop and manufacture NAC imaging products. Here, imaging equipment like NAC's high speed cameras, film analyzers, high speed video, image transfer systems, etc., are made by workers highly skilled in delicate assembly processes. The facilities are equipped with the latest manufacturing, measuring and inspection equipment. The plant and equipment are updated frequently in order to keep up with changes in technology and to meet the needs of employees. Japan North America & Europe NAC Image Technology, Inc. NAC Image Technology 8-7 Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku 2245 First Street, Suite 108 Tokyo, Japan 102-0075 Simi Valley, CA 93065 Tel: +81-3-5211-7960 805-584-8862 Vision Research (Phantom) Background Information: It all started in 1950 when a young, idealistic, engineer quit his job at Fairchild Camera to pursue a career in an industry that barely existed. He formed a brand new company named Photographic Analysis Company whose sales mark was "Research Through Photography". That industry is the industry of high-speed photography. 5.0 Current HSV Companies Worldwide 25
  26. 26. --------------------Fastec Imaging High-speed photography is an engineering tool, much as is an oscilloscope or a computer. It is a photographic technique that enables us to visualize and analyze motion. Especially motions that are too fast for the human eye or conventional cameras to perceive. During the first forty two years of the company's existence high speed photographic images were generally "captured" on photographic film. The company excelled in teaching and applying high speed photography to numerous clients for a multitude of applications. The company also designed , manufactured and marketed products specific to the high speed photographic needs of its clients. The company's film based cameras were so widely accepted that they are national stock listed (NSN) by the US DoD. In 1992 the company decided to form a separate entity that was to design and fabricate high speed electronic imagers that did not rely on photographic film for imaging. That "spin off" was later to be known as Vision Research Inc. and their family of electronic imagers is currently marketed under the "Phantom" trade mark. Vision Research prides itself in the high resolution of its images, the power of its software, the reliability of its products and its high level of attentiveness and dedication to its customers. The company's innovative approach to high speed electronic "digital" imaging was recognized by the US Patent Office and was granted US Patent #5,625,412 The future holds more technology innovation and unique products from Vision Research . The company's development goals include electronic imaging products with higher resolution and faster framing rates and "smarter" cameras with more powerful and robust software While hardware and software products are important, the company realizes that its key to future success is the same now as it was in 1950 and that is listening to and serving its customers. Vision Research Location Vision Research, Inc. 190 Parish Drive Wayne, NJ 07470 973-696-4500 Summary Photron, NAC, Redlake MASD, Weinberger, Olympus and AOS all have either direct sales reps or a mix of direct sales repres and independent distributors selling their cameras. Vision Research and Olympus primarily use direct sales reps (employees) for their sales. All of these companies use the traditional methods of selling high-speed video cameras. When they get a lead, either self-generated or via trade show, advertisement, phone call, etc., they take the camera to the prospect’s site for a demonstration. Because of the technical nature of many of these cameras, and the high prices, demos are required for virtually 100% of the sales. In many cases, multiple demos are necessary because various levels of management need to see the camera due to the budget impact. The only camera that doesn’t always follow this procedure is the Redlake MotionMeter. Because of its ease of use and relatively low price, it can often be sold without a demo. Distributors will simply send a camera to the customer and let them try it for a day or two. 5.0 Current HSV Companies Worldwide 26
  27. 27. --------------------Fastec Imaging The Japanese based high-speed companies, Photron and NAC, both have product lines other than high-speed cameras, similar relative overall revenues ~$50M+, relatively large fixed cost structures with local factories, similar distribution models and a dependency on a relatively high average selling price for their cameras ~ $30,000 or more. Redlake MASD is also dependent on relatively high selling price points for their cameras and as a result put substantially all of their effort into selling the MotionPro and especially the HG-100K. Phantom’s lowest price offering, the V4.2 priced at US$ 35,000, further inhibits volume increases. Phantom also has grown revenues over the last couple of years and its fixed cost base has increased proportionately. The existing companies overhead, the purchase price barriers, the desire not to cannibalize their own sales by extreme price-cutting, and somewhat limited distribution networks will make them vulnerable to attack by products like the TroubleShooter. 5.0 Current HSV Companies Worldwide 27
  28. 28. --------------------Fastec Imaging 6.0 TroubleShooter Technology & Packaging No single camera that now exists in the market provides a complete unitized packaged solution for high-speed applications, especially in the factory trouble-shooting environment. After listening to hundreds of users of high-speed cameras we designed the TroubleShooter to address all of their needs. What we learned was that, for high-speed imaging to be more widely adopted, cameras had to be smaller, easier to use and much less expensive, yet still provide performance on a par with the best products in the market. Key features required to ensure the camera has a broad appeal included: Mega-pixel resolution (1280 x 1024) Built-in digital memory 1,000 fps and higher speeds (up to 16,000 fps) In-pixel shutter Small & lightweight design (1.5Kg) Built-in display (5” LCD) Battery power, with AC backup Ease of use High-speed digital connection to PC (USB 2.0) Affordable pricing On-board removable storage (Compact Flash) 1. No other product has this combination of features, and when put together in a complete package like the TroubleShooter, no other product even comes close in price. For example, the only other camera with a built-in display is the Redlake MotionMeter, but its resolution is only 10% of the TroubleShooter’s and it has no digital PC connection no color version and no removable storage media. The Photron Ultima 1024, which uses the same type of CMOS sensor but with less resolution than the TroubleShooter and TroubleShooter II cameras, has 3 separate components in its design but has no built-in display with which to view the images. In Section 7 most of the major selling cameras in the high-speed market are listed in comparison tables with either the TroubleShooter or the TroubleShooter II. 6.0 TroubleShooter Technology & Packaging 28
  29. 29. --------------------Fastec Imaging TroubleShooter User Interface Mode Record Rec Rate 1000 Shutter 10X Trigger 50% Event No. 85 Download Record Switch Button Setup Stop Button Switch Function Select Playback Scroll Keys Menu Value Up / Down Power Switch External Side Access Door for Power Input Connectors: Side Access Door for Connector Trigger In Compact Flash Card Phase Lock In & Phase Lock Out USB 2 Connector NTSC/PAL Video Out IRIG Input The design of the Troubleshooter has eliminated the “setup” associated with all other high-speed cameras on the market with the exception of the inferior-performing MotionMeter. A user simply takes the TroubleShooter out of its case, turns the power on and starts taking pictures. When looking at the comparison tables in Section 7, keep in mind that the competitive products all have multiple components to attach to each other and to power supplies, display monitors and cables, etc., before being mounted on tripods. The TroubleShooter’s packaging makes it a breakthrough product that will be a formidable competitor to all existing products. 6.0 TroubleShooter Technology & Packaging 29
  30. 30. --------------------Fastec Imaging Troubleshooter Block Diagram User Switches 320 X 240 LCD SDR 72 Bit S)DIMM (Socketed) Internal and LEDs LCD Backlight Display – 5 inch Power PCB Batteries Module LCD Interface 70 bit Memory SDRAM External Data Bus Address Bus Power Steering 30 bit Viewfinder data bypass Input Diodes 100 bit MV13 Pixel Data Bus CF NVRAM Code Storage Compact External – 256KB X 32 Bits Flash Conn. Card I/O Altera DRAM Control FPGA + Micron MV-13 32 bit Address / 32 bit Data Bus Illuminator Control Image Sensor vsync / hsync Program SDRAM Resource – 8 MB X 32 bits Memory / Sensor Power Oscillators Supplies / Clocks Microprocessor Control PCB ARM-9 Microcontroller Phillips Power USB2 USB1 port USB2 I2C Control Bus Supplies Slave SDRAM Controller UC DCT Transform Engine Interface CMOS Sensor Interface Oscillators Smart Media driver / Clocks I2C Control Bus USB1 NTSC / PAL Video Out Master Interface Memory / Sensor Block IRIG Sync Interface Camera Control Video IRIG Output Sync The TroubleShooter design uses the latest high-powered microprocessor and FPGA technology ensuring that the manufacturing costs are kept as low as possible. The Troubleshooter’s cost is estimated to be less than half of any competing product on the market with the exception of the MotionMeter. 6.0 TroubleShooter Technology & Packaging 30
  31. 31. --------------------Fastec Imaging 7.0 TroubleShooter Competitive Position vs. All Competitors The tables in the following pages show comparisons of the Redlake TroubleShooter and TroubleShooter II to selected cameras, both low-end and mid-range. The low-end CCD cameras that TroubleShooter will compete with include: 1. Redlake MotionMeter 2. Redlake MotionScope PCI 3. Photron Fastcam 4. Photron Fastcam PCI The higher performance CMOS cameras, which both Fastec models of TroubleShooter will directly compete against, include: 1. Redlake MotionPro 2. Photron Ultima 1024 3. Photron Fastcam-X 1280 PCI 4. NAC Hi-Dcam II 5. Olympus i-Speed All of the above-listed mid-range CMOS cameras, with the exception of the i-Speed, use the Micron MI-MV13 image sensor and will therefore have essentially equal capabilities. The i-Speed has a maximum resolution of 800 x 600. Compared to the TroubleShooter, these cameras have major limitations in packaging – ease of use - but only minor differences in performance. In all cases, the competitive cameras are larger or cannot operate without being installed into a PC and cost significantly more than the TroubleShooter. The following pages show a side-by-side comparison of the performance specifications of each camera that the TroubleShooter and TroubleShooter II will compete directly against. We estimate that the total worldwide high-speed market is approximately $70M annually. We further believe that the nine cameras listed above account for as much as 50% of the total. Estimated TroubleShooter Launch Pricing Troubleshooter 250 $5,900 Troubleshooter II $14,900 Troubleshooter 250C $7,900 Troubleshooter II-C $16,900 Troubleshooter 500 $7,900 Troubleshooter 500C $9,900 Troubleshooter 1000 $9,900 Troubleshooter 1000C $11,900 7.0 TroubleShooter Competitive Position vs. All Competitors 31
  32. 32. --------------------Fastec Imaging Fastec TroubleShooter vs. Redlake MotionMeter Fastec Redlake TroubleShooter MotionMeter System Price Model 250 - $5,900 Model 250 - $4,995 Model 500 - $7,900 Model 1000 - $7,995 Model 1000 - $9,900 Sensor CMOS with electronic shutter CCD with electronic shutter Color Available Yes No Frame Storage Medium DRAM DRAM Recording Rates 50, 60, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 fps 50, 60, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 fps Resolution 250 fps - 640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) 250 fps - 292 x 220 (64,240 pixels) 500 fps - 640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) 500 fps - 292 x 220 (64,240 pixels) 1000 fps - 640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) 1000 fps - 292 x 110 (32,120 pixels) Standard Record Time 250 fps - 14 seconds 250 fps - 8 seconds 500 fps - 7 seconds 500 fps - 4 seconds 1000 fps - 3.5 seconds 1000 fps - 4 seconds Standard Frame Storage 250 fps - 3,495 frames 250 fps - 2,048 frames (included in basic price) 500 fps - 3,495 frames 500 fps - 2,048 frames 1000 fps - 3,495 frames 1000 fps - 4,096 frames Recording Modes Manual, external trigger and external Manual, external trigger and external sync sync Playback Rates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 25, 30, 50, 60, 125, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 25, 30, 50, 60, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 fps plus single step 250, 500 and 1000 fps plus single step mode, forward and reverse mode, forward and reverse Video Display Built-in 5" LCD screen Built-in 3" LCD screen Adjustable Screen Yes - tilt & swivel No Video Output RS-170 composite video RS-170 composite video Direct Digital Download Yes - USB 2 No Compact Flash Card Yes No Phase Lock Yes Yes Trigger Input TTL or switch closure TTL or switch closure Battery Powered Yes - 4 "D" cell batteries No – requires AC power Hand-Held Yes Yes IRIG Capability Yes No Digital Zoom Capability Yes No Auto White Balance Yes No Conclusion: The TroubleShooter has much greater performance capabilities in all areas, with the most important being resolution. The TroubleShooter has a CMOS sensor, while the MotionMeter has the old- style CCD sensor. At 250 and 500 fps the TroubleShooter has 5X more resolution than the MotionMeter and at 1,000 fps is has 10X. For only a slightly higher price the customer gets a far more capable camera. In competitive situations the TroubleShooter should win 100% of the time. The MotionMeter will become an obsolete product very quickly. 7.0 TroubleShooter Competitive Position vs. All Competitors 32
  33. 33. --------------------Fastec Imaging Fastec TroubleShooter vs. Redlake MotionScope PCI Fastec Redlake TroubleShooter MotionScope PCI System Price Model 250 - $5,900 Model 1000 - $9,900 Model 500 - $7,900 (Requires separate computer) Model 1000 - $9,900 Sensor CMOS with electronic shutter CCD with electronic shutter Color Available Yes Yes Frame Storage Medium DRAM DRAM Recording Rates 50, 60, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 fps 50, 60, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 fps Resolution 250 fps - 640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) 250 fps - 480 x 420 (201,600 pixels) 500 fps - 640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) 500 fps - 320 x 280 (89,600 pixels) 1000 fps - 640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) 1000 fps - 320 x 156 (49,920 pixels) Standard Record Time 250 fps - 14 seconds 250 fps - 2 seconds 500 fps - 7 seconds 500 fps - 2 seconds 1000 fps - 3.5 seconds 1000 fps - 2 seconds Standard Frame Storage 250 fps - 3,495 frames 250 fps - 512 frames (included in basic price) 500 fps - 3,495 frames 500 fps - 1,024 frames 1000 fps - 3,495 frames 1000 fps - 2,048 frames Recording Modes Manual, external trigger and external Manual, external trigger and external sync sync Playback Rates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 25, 30, 50, 60, 125, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 25, 30, 50, 60, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 fps plus single step 250, 500 and 1000 fps plus single step mode, forward and reverse mode, forward and reverse Video Display Built-in 5" LCD screen Requires monitor Adjustable Screen Yes - tilt & swivel No Video Output RS-170 composite video RS-170 composite video Direct Digital Download Yes - USB 2 Yes - Internal PCI Bus Compact Flash Card Yes No Phase Lock Yes Yes Trigger Input TTL or switch closure TTL or switch closure Battery Powered Yes - 4 "D" cell batteries No Hand-Held Yes No IRIG Capability Yes No Digital Zoom Capability Yes No Auto White Balance Yes No Conclusion: The TroubleShooter has much greater performance capabilities in a number of areas, with the most important being resolution. At 250 fps the TroubleShooter has 35% more resolution than the MotionScope and at 1,000 fps has 6X the resolution. For essentially the same price, the customer gets a far more capable camera and doesn’t need to purchase a separate PC and go through the difficulty of installing the components. The TroubleShooter has a high-speed bus USB2 that will give it PC access and control. In competitive situations the TroubleShooter should win 100% of the time. The MotionScope should become an obsolete product very quickly. 7.0 TroubleShooter Competitive Position vs. All Competitors 33
  34. 34. --------------------Fastec Imaging Fastec TroubleShooter vs. Photron Fastcam PCI Fastec Photron TroubleShooter Fastcam PCI System Price Model 250 - $5,900 Model 1000 - $10,900 Model 500 - $7,900 (Requires separate computer) Model 1000 - $9,900 Sensor CMOS with electronic shutter CCD with electronic shutter Color Available Yes Yes Frame Storage Medium DRAM DRAM Recording Rates 50, 60, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 fps 50, 60, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 fps Resolution 250 fps - 640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) 250 fps - 512 x 480 (245,760 pixels) 500 fps - 640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) 500 fps - 512 x 240 (122,880 pixels) 1000 fps - 640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) 1000 fps - 256 x 240 (61,440 pixels) Standard Record Time 250 fps - 14 seconds 250 fps - 8.7 seconds 500 fps - 7 seconds 500 fps - 8.7 seconds 1000 fps - 3.5 seconds 1000 fps - 8.7 seconds Standard Frame Storage 250 fps - 3,495 frames 250 fps - 2,176 frames (included in basic price) 500 fps - 3,495 frames 500 fps - 4,352 frames 1000 fps - 3,495 frames 1000 fps - 8,704 frames Recording Modes Manual, external trigger and external Manual, external trigger and external sync sync Playback Rates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 25, 30, 50, 60, 125, 250, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 125 and 500 and 1000 fps plus single step mode, 250 fps, forward and reverse forward and reverse Video Display Built-in 5" LCD screen Requires monitor (PC) Adjustable Screen Yes - tilt & swivel No Video Output RS-170 composite video RS-170 composite video Direct Digital Download Yes - USB 2 Yes - Internal PCI Bus Compact Flash Card Yes No Phase Lock Yes Yes Trigger Input TTL or switch closure TTL or switch closure Battery Powered Yes - 4 "D" cell batteries No Hand-Held Yes No IRIG Capability Yes No Digital Zoom Capability Yes No Auto White Balance Yes No Conclusion: The TroubleShooter has much greater performance capabilities in a number of areas, with the most important being resolution. At 250 fps the TroubleShooter has 20% more resolution, at 500 fps 60% more resolution and at 1,000 fps is has 5X the resolution of the Fastcam PCI. For a lower price the customer gets a more capable camera that has full communication with the PC. At 1,000 fps the complete package for TroubleShooter is $9,900 vs. $10,990 plus at least $1,500 for a PC. In competitive situations the TroubleShooter should win 100% of the time. The Fastcam PCI should become an obsolete product very quickly. 7.0 TroubleShooter Competitive Position vs. All Competitors 34

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