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Chapter 1: The World of the Information System Analyst
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain the key role of a systems analyst in business </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various t...
Learning Objectives ( continued ) <ul><li>Describe various job titles and places of employment where analysis and design w...
Overview <ul><li>Information systems are  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial to success of modern business organizations </li><...
What Is System Analysis About? <ul><li>Understanding the goals and strategies of the business. </li></ul><ul><li>Defining ...
System Analysis <ul><li>Systems analysis is a process of understanding in detail what a system should accomplish. </li></ul>
System Design <ul><li>Systems design is a process of specifying in detail how components of an information system should b...
System Analyst <ul><li>A business professional who uses analysis and design techniques to solve business problems using in...
Typical Problems SA Typically Solve <ul><li>Customers want to order product anytime of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier...
The Analyst as a Business Problem Solver <ul><li>Has computer technology knowledge and programming expertise </li></ul><ul...
What is your problem solving approach?
Analyst’s Approach to Problem Solving <ul><li>Research and understand the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Verify benefits of sol...
What Is An Information System? <ul><li>An information system is a collection of interrelated components that  collect ,  p...
Examples of Information Systems <ul><li>Course registration system </li></ul><ul><li>Online order system </li></ul><ul><li...
Why Are  Information Systems Important? <ul><li>Crucial to success of modern business organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Cons...
Information Systems and Subsystems
Information Systems and Component Parts
System Boundary vs. Automation Boundary
Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Customer Relationship Management (CRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain Management (SCM...
Types of Information Systems ‏
Required Skills of the Systems Analyst <ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul>
Technical Knowledge and Skills <ul><li>Computers / peripheral devices (hardware) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication networks ...
Technical Knowledge and Skills  –  Tools <ul><li>Software productivity packages </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated development e...
Technical Knowledge and Skills  –  Techniques <ul><li>Project planning, systems analysis  </li></ul><ul><li>Systems design...
Business Knowledge and Skills <ul><li>Business functions performed by organization </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies, plans, tr...
People Knowledge and Skills <ul><li>Systems analysts need to understand how people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think </li></ul><...
People Knowledge and Skills ( continued ) <ul><li>Interpersonal and communication skills are crucial to </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Hard and Soft Skills <ul><li>Hard skills are the skills in technical areas such as database design, programming, and telec...
Integrity and Ethics <ul><li>Analyst has access to confidential information, such as salary, an organization’s planned pro...
Top Skills Employers Seek from Job-Seekers <ul><li>Communications Skills (listening, verbal, written).  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Top Values Employers Seek from Job-Seekers <ul><li>Honesty/Integrity/Morality.  </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability/Flexibility...
Analyst-Related Careers <ul><li>ERP software related </li></ul><ul><li>Business Analysts in different business functions <...
Some Job Titles of SA <ul><li>Programmer Analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Business System Analyst </li></ul><ul><li>System Liaiso...
Job Listing Web Sites <ul><li>http://promotions.monster.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.employment.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.j...
Strategic Planning <ul><li>Strategic planning is a process during which executives try to answer such questions: </li></ul...
The Analyst’s Role in Strategic Planning <ul><li>Develop information systems that support strategic planning </li></ul><ul...
Rocky Mountain Outfitters (RMO) <ul><li>RMO - a sports clothing manufacturer and distributor is about to begin a customer ...
Introduction to Rocky Mountain Outfitters (RMO) Business <ul><li>Began in Park City, Utah supplying winter sports clothes ...
RMO Strategic Issues <ul><li>Substantially underperforming Web-based ordering system. </li></ul><ul><li>RMO sales growth w...
Customer Support System <ul><li>An order processing and fulfillment system that seamlessly integrates with supply chain ma...
Existing RMO Systems <ul><li>Small server cluster system  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports inventory, mail-order, accounting...
Existing RMO Systems (continued) ‏ <ul><li>Supply Chain Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/Server system in C+...
Existing RMO Systems (continued) ‏ <ul><li>Office systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN with office software, Internet, e-mail...
The Information Systems Strategic Plan <ul><li>Supports RMO strategic objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build more direct c...
RMO Application Architecture Plan <ul><li>Supply chain management (SCM) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product development, produ...
RMO Application Architecture Plan (continued) ‏ <ul><li>Retail store system (RSS) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace existing...
RMO Technology Architecture Plan <ul><li>Distribute business applications  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Across multiple locations...
Timetable for RMO Strategic Plan
The Customer Support System (CSS) <ul><li>RMO core competency is their ability to develop and maintain customer loyalty </...
Summary <ul><li>A systems analyst solves business problems using information systems technology </li></ul><ul><li>Problem ...
Summary (continued) ‏ <ul><li>System – collection of interrelated components that function together to achieve some outcom...
Summary (continued) ‏ <ul><li>Systems analyst has broad knowledge and variety of skills, including technical, business, an...
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Transcript of "Chapter 1: The World of the Information System Analyst"

  1. 1. Chapter 1: The World of the Information System Analyst
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain the key role of a systems analyst in business </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various types of systems an analyst might work on </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of technical, people, and business skills for an analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why ethical behavior is crucial for a systems analyst’s career </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives ( continued ) <ul><li>Describe various job titles and places of employment where analysis and design work is done </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the analyst’s role in strategic planning for an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the analyst’s role in a system development project </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview <ul><li>Information systems are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial to success of modern business organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly being developed to make business more competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact productivity and profits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keys to successful system development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorough systems analysis and design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding what business requires </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What Is System Analysis About? <ul><li>Understanding the goals and strategies of the business. </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the information requirements that support those goals and strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not about programming. </li></ul>
  6. 6. System Analysis <ul><li>Systems analysis is a process of understanding in detail what a system should accomplish. </li></ul>
  7. 7. System Design <ul><li>Systems design is a process of specifying in detail how components of an information system should be physically implemented. </li></ul>
  8. 8. System Analyst <ul><li>A business professional who uses analysis and design techniques to solve business problems using information technology. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Typical Problems SA Typically Solve <ul><li>Customers want to order product anytime of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers want to minimize inventory holding costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing want to know customer needs better. </li></ul><ul><li>Management want to analyzing financial information more efficiently. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Analyst as a Business Problem Solver <ul><li>Has computer technology knowledge and programming expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Understands business problems </li></ul><ul><li>Uses logical methods for solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>Has fundamental curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to make things better </li></ul><ul><li>Is more of a business problem solver than a technical programmer </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is your problem solving approach?
  12. 12. Analyst’s Approach to Problem Solving <ul><li>Research and understand the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Verify benefits of solving problem outweigh the costs </li></ul><ul><li>Define the requirements for solving the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a set of possible solutions (alternatives) </li></ul><ul><li>Decide which solution is best and recommend </li></ul><ul><li>Define the details of the chosen solution </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor to ensure desired results </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Is An Information System? <ul><li>An information system is a collection of interrelated components that collect , process , store , and provide as output the information needed to complete a business task. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Examples of Information Systems <ul><li>Course registration system </li></ul><ul><li>Online order system </li></ul><ul><li>Account management system </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why Are Information Systems Important? <ul><li>Crucial to success of modern business organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly being developed to make business more competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Impact productivity and profits </li></ul>
  16. 16. Information Systems and Subsystems
  17. 17. Information Systems and Component Parts
  18. 18. System Boundary vs. Automation Boundary
  19. 19. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Customer Relationship Management (CRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain Management (SCM) </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting and Financial Management (AFM) </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resource Management (HRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management (KM) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration Support Systems (CSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Business Intelligence System </li></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Information Systems ‏
  21. 21. Required Skills of the Systems Analyst <ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul>
  22. 22. Technical Knowledge and Skills <ul><li>Computers / peripheral devices (hardware) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication networks and connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Database and database management systems (DBMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Programming languages (for example, VB.NET or Java) </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems and utilities </li></ul>
  23. 23. Technical Knowledge and Skills – Tools <ul><li>Software productivity packages </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated development environments (IDEs) for programming languages </li></ul><ul><li>CASE tools, testing, documentation support, reverse engineering, configuration management </li></ul>
  24. 24. Technical Knowledge and Skills – Techniques <ul><li>Project planning, systems analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Systems design, database design, network design </li></ul><ul><li>Construction, implementation, systems support </li></ul>
  25. 25. Business Knowledge and Skills <ul><li>Business functions performed by organization </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies, plans, traditions, and values of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structure </li></ul><ul><li>Organization management techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Functional work processes </li></ul>
  26. 26. People Knowledge and Skills <ul><li>Systems analysts need to understand how people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>React to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work (in a variety of jobs and levels) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. People Knowledge and Skills ( continued ) <ul><li>Interpersonal and communication skills are crucial to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the complexity and workings of an organization in order to provide necessary support </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Hard and Soft Skills <ul><li>Hard skills are the skills in technical areas such as database design, programming, and telecommunication. </li></ul><ul><li>Soft skills are the skills in nontechnical areas such as interviewing, team management, and leadership. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Integrity and Ethics <ul><li>Analyst has access to confidential information, such as salary, an organization’s planned projects, security systems, and so on. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must keep information private </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any impropriety can ruin an analyst’s career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyst plans security in systems to protect confidential information </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Top Skills Employers Seek from Job-Seekers <ul><li>Communications Skills (listening, verbal, written). </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical/Research Skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer/Technical Literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility/Adaptability/Managing Multiple Priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership/Management Skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning/Organizing. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Solving/Reasoning/Creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork. </li></ul><ul><li>( source: Quintessential Careers ) http://www.quintcareers.com/job_skills_values.html </li></ul>
  31. 31. Top Values Employers Seek from Job-Seekers <ul><li>Honesty/Integrity/Morality. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability/Flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication/Hard-Working/Work Ethic/Tenacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Motivated/Ability to Work With Little or No Supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to Learn. </li></ul><ul><li>( s ource: Quintessential Careers ) http://www.quintcareers.com/job_skills_values.html </li></ul>
  32. 32. Analyst-Related Careers <ul><li>ERP software related </li></ul><ul><li>Business Analysts in different business functions </li></ul><ul><li>Auditing, compliance, and security </li></ul><ul><li>Web Development </li></ul>
  33. 33. Some Job Titles of SA <ul><li>Programmer Analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Business System Analyst </li></ul><ul><li>System Liaison </li></ul><ul><li>End-user Analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Business/system consultant </li></ul><ul><li>System support analyst </li></ul><ul><li>System designer </li></ul><ul><li>Software engineer </li></ul><ul><li>System architect </li></ul><ul><li>Web architect </li></ul><ul><li>Web developer </li></ul>
  34. 34. Job Listing Web Sites <ul><li>http://promotions.monster.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.employment.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.jobs.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.jobs.net/ </li></ul>
  35. 35. Strategic Planning <ul><li>Strategic planning is a process during which executives try to answer such questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the business is now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where they want the business to be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What they have to do to get there </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. The Analyst’s Role in Strategic Planning <ul><li>Develop information systems that support strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an application architecture plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A description of the integrated information systems that the organization needs to carry out its business function. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop a technology architecture plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A description of the hardware, software, and communications networks required to implement planed information systems. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Rocky Mountain Outfitters (RMO) <ul><li>RMO - a sports clothing manufacturer and distributor is about to begin a customer support system project </li></ul><ul><li>Need to understand the nature of the business, approach to strategic planning, and objectives for customer support system </li></ul><ul><li>RMO system development project used to demonstrate analysis and design concepts </li></ul>
  38. 38. Introduction to Rocky Mountain Outfitters (RMO) Business <ul><li>Began in Park City, Utah supplying winter sports clothes to local ski shops </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded into direct mail-order sales with small catalog — as catalog interest increased, opened retail store in Park City </li></ul><ul><li>Became a large, regional sports clothing distributor by early 2000s in Rocky Mountain and Western states </li></ul><ul><li>Currently $180 million in annual sales and 600 employees and two retail stores </li></ul><ul><li>Mail-order revenue is $90 million; phone-order revenue is $50 million; Web-based revenue is $30 million </li></ul>
  39. 39. RMO Strategic Issues <ul><li>Substantially underperforming Web-based ordering system. </li></ul><ul><li>RMO sales growth was slow down and was losing the market share. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Customer Support System <ul><li>An order processing and fulfillment system that seamlessly integrates with supply chain management system to support mail order, phone order, and direct customer access via Web. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Existing RMO Systems <ul><li>Small server cluster system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports inventory, mail-order, accounting, and human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High capacity network connects distribution and mail-order sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LANs and file servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports central office functions, distribution centers, and manufacturing centers </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Existing RMO Systems (continued) ‏ <ul><li>Supply Chain Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/Server system in C++ and DB2 ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mail Order System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframe COBOL/CICS. Unable to handle phone orders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phone order system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle and Visual Basic system built 6 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retail store systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight-year-old point-of-sale and batch inventory package, overnight update with mainframe </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Existing RMO Systems (continued) ‏ <ul><li>Office systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN with office software, Internet, e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human resources system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirteen-year-old mainframe-based payroll and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accounting/finance system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframe package bought from leading vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Catalog and Order System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside company until 2011. Irregular performance </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. The Information Systems Strategic Plan <ul><li>Supports RMO strategic objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build more direct customer relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand marketing beyond Western states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan calls for a series of information system development and integration projects over several years </li></ul><ul><li>Project launch: New customer support system to integrate phone orders, mail orders, and direct customer orders via Internet </li></ul>
  45. 45. RMO Application Architecture Plan <ul><li>Supply chain management (SCM) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product development, product acquisition, manufacturing, inventory management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer support system (CSS) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate order-processing and fulfillment system with SCM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support customer orders (mail, phone, Web) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic information management system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract and analyze SCM and CSS information for strategic and operational decision making and control </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. RMO Application Architecture Plan (continued) ‏ <ul><li>Retail store system (RSS) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace existing retail store system with system integrated with CSS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accounting/finance system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase intranet application to maximize employee access to financial data for planning and control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human resources (HR) system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase intranet application to maximize employee access to human resources forms, procedures, and benefits information </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. RMO Technology Architecture Plan <ul><li>Distribute business applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Across multiple locations and systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reserve data center for Web server, database, and telecommunications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic business processes via Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain management (SCM) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct customer ordering via dynamic Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer relationship management (CRM) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web-based intranet for business functions </li></ul>
  48. 48. Timetable for RMO Strategic Plan
  49. 49. The Customer Support System (CSS) <ul><li>RMO core competency is their ability to develop and maintain customer loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>CSS is a core system supporting complete customer relationship management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiries, order entry, order tracking, shipping, back ordering, returns, sales analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems analysis activities will define system requirements in detail </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic plan’s stated objectives will form guidelines as project proceeds </li></ul>
  50. 50. Summary <ul><li>A systems analyst solves business problems using information systems technology </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving means looking into business problem in great detail, completely understanding problem, and choosing best solution </li></ul><ul><li>Information system development is much more than writing programs </li></ul>
  51. 51. Summary (continued) ‏ <ul><li>System – collection of interrelated components that function together to achieve some outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems outcome – solution to a business problem </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems, subsystems, and components interact with and include hardware, software, inputs, outputs, data, people, and procedures </li></ul>
  52. 52. Summary (continued) ‏ <ul><li>Systems analyst has broad knowledge and variety of skills, including technical, business, and people </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity and ethical behavior are crucial to success for the analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analyst encounters a variety of rapidly changing technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analyst works on strategic plans and then system development projects </li></ul>
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