Tips & Tricks
Business Program Analysis - Shawnee State
Like this document? Why not share!
Click on the Course Code or Course ...
Online learning fOr PrOfessiOnal an...
MGMT 368 - Business Ethics
Microsoft Word - AIIM Online BPM Pr...
324 Creativity in Online Courses: P...
Email sent successfully!
Show related SlideShares at end
Business Program Analysis - Shawnee State
Apr 30, 2010
Comment goes here.
12 hours ago
Are you sure you want to
Your message goes here
Be the first to comment
Be the first to like this
Number of Embeds
No notes for slide
Transcript of "Business Program Analysis - Shawnee State"
1. Hanover Research October 2008 Business Program Analysis Prepared for Shawnee State University This report discusses factors affecting enrollments in business programs at Shawnee State University. The first section looks at trends in business degree conferrals at public institutions in Ohio and Ohio labor market information to determine what types of degrees will be most in demand in the future. The second and third sections look at the curricular requirements and course delivery methods of a group of comparable institutions across the country in order to determine where Shawnee‘s requirements and delivery options fit in. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council
Hanover Research October 2008 Executive Summary With respect to the program demand analysis of the first section, the major findings are as follows: Measured by degree conferrals, student demand for business degrees in Ohio at both the bachelor‘s and associate‘s levels has stagnated or declined over the past five years. For bachelor‘s degrees, among the ―big four‖ individual business specializations of business administration, accounting, finance and marketing, only accounting saw a steady increase. Smaller specializations, including hospitality administration and specialized sales, saw significant percentage increases. Gaps in labor market demand and supply of graduating students appear to be most pronounced for accounting, human resources, and insurance, in descending order of magnitude. Students with degrees in these fields should be able to secure jobs, although this does not necessarily translate to student interest in those fields. With respect to the institutional profiles and comparative analysis of curricular requirements and course delivery methods of the second and third sections, the findings are the following: It appears that Shawnee State requires a relatively low number of general education courses of students in both its business bachelor and associate degree programs. If ―specialization electives‖ are considered as part of specialization requirements, then Shawnee State requires its bachelor‘s degree students to take a relatively high number of courses to complete their specializations. If courses that Shawnee State labels ―required non-business courses‖ are considered part of the business core, then the business core course requirement for students in Shawnee State‘s business bachelor degree programs are relatively high. A review of the recent literature indicates that demand for online courses and programs is growing among both non-traditional and traditional students, although a 2005 survey indicates that students prefer ―blended learning‖ courses to online courses. Seven of the nine comparable regional universities profiled in this report offer online business courses and at least four offer online business degree programs. While several offer other alternative delivery options – including teleconferencing and correspondence – and most offer on-campus evening business courses, it seems that the primary emphasis has been placed on the online alternative delivery option. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 2
Hanover Research October 2008 Ohio Program Demand Analysis by Business Specialty In order to determine the role of market demand, both from students and employers, on enrollments in business programs, a demand analysis was performed using statewide Ohio data on recent degree conferrals in business programs and data on projected job openings in related occupations within the state. As a first step, data for 2003 through 2007 were collected on all business degrees conferred at the bachelor‘s and associate‘s levels at all public, four-year institutions in Ohio, which gives an idea of the number of students enrolling in and completing various programs. The data used are reported by institutions to the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), which classifies degrees under the six-digit Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) system. Cutting off the CIP classification at four digits provides an overview of the typical specializations offered in business programs. (The full six-digit code further classifies programs within these specialties, but the number of programs and degrees within Ohio does not provide enough critical mass to make six-digit distinctions meaningful). Business Specializations Offered in Ohio Bachelor‘s Programs CIP Associate‘s Programs CIP Business/Commerce, General 52.01 Business/Commerce, General 52.01 Business Administration 52.02 Business Administration 52.02 Accounting 52.03 Accounting 52.03 Business/Managerial Economics 52.06 Business/Managerial Economics 52.04 Entrepreneurship/Small Business 52.07 Entrepreneurship/Small Business 52.07 Finance 52.08 Hospitality Administration 52.09 Hospitality Administration 52.09 Human Resources 52.10 Human Resources 52.10 Management Information Systems 52.12 International Business 52.11 Marketing 52.14 Management Information Systems 52.12 Real Estate 52.15 Management Sciences 52.13 General Sales and Merchandising 52.18 Marketing 52.14 Real Estate 52.15 Insurance 52.17 Specialized Sales and Merchandising 52.19 Business, All Other 52.99 Source: IPEDS The next two tables present the degrees conferred data over the past five years for each of these specializations. The first table is for bachelor‘s degrees and the second is for associate‘s degrees. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 3
Hanover Research October 2008 Bachelor‘s Degrees Conferred in Ohio, by Business Specialization Program CIP 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Average Business/Commerce, General 52.01 164 182 164 168 120 160 Business Administration 52.02 1,138 1,317 1,414 1,432 1,328 1,326 Accounting 52.03 1,020 1,106 1,186 1,131 1,191 1,127 Business/Managerial Economics 52.06 113 150 144 150 113 134 Entrepreneurship/Small Business 52.07 10 14 21 26 30 20 Finance 52.08 1,428 1,464 1,445 1,363 1,310 1,402 Hospitality Administration 52.09 69 96 110 131 131 107 Human Resources 52.10 564 482 498 441 476 492 International Business 52.11 153 186 201 200 170 182 Management Information Systems 52.12 886 707 530 388 317 566 Management Sciences 52.13 119 105 96 82 83 97 Marketing 52.14 1,988 1,964 1,977 2,039 1,930 1,980 Real Estate 52.15 40 46 67 58 66 55 Insurance 52.17 19 31 22 29 17 24 Specialized Sales and 52.19 108 138 182 189 217 167 Merchandising Business, All Other 52.99 18 12 12 0 2 9 Total 7,837 8,000 8,069 7,827 7,501 7,847 Source: IPEDS With respect to bachelor‘s degrees, it is worth noting that the total number conferred in business programs over the past five years has essentially stagnated. After a slight rise in 2004 and 2005, the total figure has declined back below the 2003 level, and the five year average of 7,847 degrees is about equal to the 2003 level. The same pattern is evident within a number of individual specializations, including some of the largest. Of the ―big four‖ specializations of business administration (52.02), accounting (52.03), finance (52.08), and marketing (52.14), all but accounting saw their five-year average at or above their 2007 level, representing stagnant growth over that period. Accounting, however, did see a gradual but steady increase in the number of degrees conferred, from just over 1,000 in 2003 to almost 1,200 in 2007. Among the smaller specialties, both dramatic growth and decline can be seen. The degrees conferred in management information systems (52.12) dropped steeply and steadily, decreasing each year until, by 2007, there were 64 percent fewer degrees conferred than had been conferred in 2003. On the other hand, the two fastest growing specializations appear to be hospitality administration (52.09) and specialized sales and merchandising (52.19). Although still relatively small, both increased steadily and by the impressive rates of 89 percent (hospitality administration) and 100 percent (specialized sales). © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 4
Hanover Research October 2008 Associate‘s Degrees Conferred in Ohio, by Business Specialization Program CIP 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Average Business/Commerce, General 52.01 133 80 74 59 68 83 Business Administration 52.02 276 292 278 258 293 279 Accounting 52.03 135 77 98 95 85 98 Business Operations Support 52.04 81 53 50 57 42 57 Entrepreneurship/Small Business 52.07 10 6 7 4 5 6 Hospitality Administration 52.09 11 11 16 11 16 13 Human Resources 52.10 12 21 17 17 13 16 Management Information Systems 52.12 86 39 22 27 18 38 Marketing 52.14 19 9 8 14 7 11 Real Estate 52.15 2 1 1 3 3 2 General Sales and Merchandising 52.18 22 28 18 12 17 19 Total 787 617 589 557 567 623 Unsurprisingly, fewer associate‘s degrees in business are awarded by four-year institutions than bachelor‘s degrees. Moreover, the past five years have shown, overall, a fairly steady decline in the number conferred, from 787 in 2003 to 567 in 2007, a drop of almost 30 percent. The largest field at this level, business administration (52.02), fluctuated across the period, with a five-year average not much above its 2003 level. The overall dropoff was driven by several other specializations. As with bachelor‘s degrees, management information systems (52.12) degrees declined sharply. Unlike with bachelor‘s degrees, where accounting (52.03) saw steady growth over the period, associate‘s degrees in accounting dropped off after 2003 and stabilized at a new, lower level. School-by-school data indicate that this dropoff was not attributable to any one program, but to decreases across multiple programs. One explanation may be that students have begun to enroll in accounting bachelor‘s programs over associate‘s programs, although the decline in associate‘s enrollments cannot entirely account for the increase in bachelor‘s degree conferrals. A decline in degrees in business operations support (52.04) is the other significant component of the decline in associate‘s degrees. Although these programs are more likely to be offered at the associate‘s level (since they train administrative assistants and other clerical workers), it is possible that, as with accounting, potential students for these programs have migrated to bachelor‘s programs. Having surveyed the recent output of Ohio‘s bachelor‘s and associate‘s degree programs in the various business specializations, it is now possible to align these roughly with the job prospects in each field. To achieve this, each specialization was matched with the occupations for which it prepares graduates. Although no one-to- one correspondences can be drawn, it is possible to match these roughly using © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 5
Hanover Research October 2008 ―crosswalks‖ that pair occupations, as identified by their SOC codes, with academic fields, as identified by their CIP codes.1 Having identified the occupations relevant to each specialization, employment projections for those jobs were obtained from the Ohio Labor Market Information department, which provides a figure for projected annual openings in most occupations through 2014. By summing the openings in occupations ―fed‖ by each program specialization, an annual openings figure for each specialization was determined, which could then be compared to the recent average annual degree production in each field. This should give an idea of which fields have an oversupply of graduates, and which fields have a need for more workers. Although the method is rough, it is interesting to note, for instance, that the contraction of bachelor‘s degrees in management information systems (52.12) from almost 900 in 2003 to just over 300 in 2007 puts its average degree production almost exactly in line with the projected job market, as students have responded to what probably remains a dearth of jobs. Bachelor‘s Degrees and Annual Job Openings, by Business Specialization Program CIP Annual Openings Avg. Degrees Conferred Business/Commerce, General 52.01 783 160 Business Administration 52.02 1,888 1,326 Accounting 52.03 2,094 1,127 Business/Managerial Economics 52.06 160 134 Entrepreneurship/Small Business 52.07 783 20 Finance 52.08 1,065 1,402 Hospitality Administration 52.09 0 107 Human Resources 52.10 1,085 492 International Business 52.11 750 182 Management Information Systems 52.12 517 566 Management Sciences 52.13 85 97 Marketing 52.14 464 1,980 Real Estate 52.15 73 55 Insurance 52.17 124 24 Specialized Sales and Merchandising 52.19 0 167 Business, All Other 52.99 1,695 9 Total 11,566 7,848 Sources: Ohio Labor Market Information; IPEDS But the overall trend in the business field, and one equally evident within many of the specializations, is for the number of job openings to exceed recent degree production. In other words, in many business fields there appears to be the prospect of more jobs than graduates. This conclusion is further strengthened by steps taken in this analysis 1 The crosswalk used here is the SOC-CIP crosswalk produced by the National Crosswalk Service Center, operated by the Iowa state government and funded by the U.S. Department of Labor. The SOC-CIP crosswalk is available here: http://www.xwalkcenter.org/xwxwalk.html#SOCCIP. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 6
Hanover Research October 2008 to allow for factors that might overweight job openings versus degree production. For one, occupations that do not require postsecondary education, as indicated by the Ohio Labor Market Information department, were eliminated from the analysis. Thus, job openings in accounting represent openings for accountants and auditors, but not bookkeepers and payroll clerks (jobs which the SOC-CIP crosswalk associates with this field). This step accounts for the zero projected jobs in hospitality administration and specialized sales, as none of the relevant jobs in those fields, such as lodging manager (SOC 11.9081) or wholesale/retail buyers (13.1022) require postsecondary education. Further, for jobs that correspond to multiple academic specializations, the total openings were divided up equally. Thus, the job of sales manager (SOC 11.2022) corresponds to the fields of business/commerce, general (CIP 52.01), business administration (52.02) and marketing (52.14). The total annual job openings for sales managers in Ohio (325) was thus divided by three (108) and apportioned to the sum total openings of those three specializations. Despite these steps, there still appears to be an undersupply of graduates in many business fields. A further consideration must be that, in some of these fields, jobs can and will be filled by graduates from other disciplines, or by experienced workers who move laterally into a new field. General management positions, for instance, do not necessarily require a business administration (52.02) degree, and jobs in that field can probably be supplied without new business graduates. Fields with a particular focus or specialization that may not be obtainable elsewhere may offer the greatest potential for the expansion of academic programs. These would appear to include accounting (52.03), human resources (52.10), and insurance (52.17), in descending order of magnitude. In each of these fields, job openings represent positions that require at least a bachelor‘s degree, and in each of the fields there is a significant margin between the number of job openings and the number of degrees being produced. These specializations may provide the best outlets for the growth of academic business programs.2 Conversely, certain fields appear somewhat glutted with graduates, particularly finance (52.08) and marketing (52.14). While it may be true that, for instance, the roughly 1,500 marketing graduates who do not obtain jobs specifically in marketing or sales management will probably be able to take jobs in other business fields, there should be limited demand in the labor market for expertise specifically in marketing. The same goes, to a lesser degree, for graduates in finance. Finance jobs, in particular, 2 International business (52.11) appears to have a similar supply and demand gap. However, the jobs corresponding to this specialization are actually the same general management jobs represented by business administration (52.02) and other general fields. Although international business has been allotted a share of the openings in those fields, there are no classified occupations dealing specifically with international business, making it difficult to estimate the actual supply of jobs requiring international expertise. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 7
Hanover Research October 2008 overlap significantly with accounting jobs, which means that finance graduates may be able to fill some of the demand for accounting expertise. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 8
Hanover Research October 2008 Curricular Requirements at Comparable Institutions This section discusses the curriculum requirements and delivery methods of a set of institutions comparable to Shawnee State University. The group was selected by using IPEDS data to identify institutions sharing similar characteristics, including control (public or private), enrollment, degrees offered, and geographic area served. The institutions thus chosen include the following: Athens State University, Athens, AL Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD Lake Superior State University, Sault Ste Marie, MI Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO Southern Arkansas University-Main Campus, Magnolia, AR Chadron State College, Chadron, NE Dakota State University, Madison, SD Lewis and Clark State College, Lewiston, ID Langston University, Langston, OK Associate‘s programs were surveyed at Dakota State, Lewis and Clark, and Langston. Athens State, Black Hills State, Missouri Southern State and Chadron State were surveyed for bachelor‘s programs, and both associate‘s and bachelor‘s programs were covered at Southern Arkansas and Lake Superior State. Bachelor’s Degree Curriculum Organization Missouri Southern State, Southern Arkansas, and Chadron State have conventional divisions between business core courses and specialization courses. No pre-business core courses or non-business courses beyond general education courses are required in addition to the core and specialization courses. Several of the institutions identified as comparable, however, organize their degree requirements differently. Athens State does not offer a traditional business core; rather, it distinguishes between ―pre-professional‖ and ‗professional‖ courses, which roughly translates to the distinction between ―business core‖ and ―specialization courses,‖ though a number of required professional courses are common across degree programs. Black Hills State has a ―pre-business core‖ that consists of 8 courses, including Principles of Accounting, Micro- and Macroeconomics, Introduction to Statistics, Quantitative Decision Analysis, Managerial Communications and Advanced Computer Application, in addition to its business core and specialization requirements. Lake Superior State requires a ―common professional component‖ of each business student. While many of the course © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 9
Hanover Research October 2008 requirements that make up the common professional component are the same across degree programs, several of the course requirements are degree-specific. As Lake Superior does have a separate specialization requirement, it is clear that the specialization requirement and the business core are amalgamated in the common professional requirement. Business Core The following table presents the required business core courses at six of the institutions identified as comparable regional universities/colleges. Note that ―required non-business courses‖ at Shawnee State are included in the chart below in italics, as these courses are required across business degree programs, and similar courses are often included in the business cores at the other institutions profiled. For the same reasons, we include courses required in both the pre-business core as well as the business core at Black Hills State University. Pre-business core courses are italicized, while business core courses are in regular font. For Athens State, we have indicated both the courses that are part of the pre-professional requirement, as well as the courses that are common to the professional requirement across degree programs. The latter are in italics. As Lake Superior does not have a distinct ―business core,‖ we list those courses in the common professional component that are required across business degree programs. Required Core Business Courses, Bachelor Degrees Lake Missouri Athens Black Hills Southern Chadron Shawnee State Superior Southern State** State*** Arkansas State State**** State Business, General Intro to Introduction Business to Business Careers Advanced Business Elective Economics Principles of Principles of Principles of Principles of Micro Economics- Macro Macro. Macro. Macro Micro Principles of Principles of Principles of Principles of Macro Economics- Micro Micro. Micro. Micro Macro Econ 300/400 Elective Accounting Financial Accounting Principles of Principles of Principles of Principles of Principles of Accounting Principles/ Accounting Financial Accounting Accounting I Accounting I Principles I Accounting I Accounting I Principles I © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 10
Hanover Research October 2008 Required Core Business Courses, Bachelor Degrees Lake Missouri Athens Black Hills Southern Chadron Shawnee State Superior Southern State** State*** Arkansas State State**** State Managerial Accounting Principles of Principles of Principles of Principles of Accounting Principles of Principles/ Accounting Accounting Managerial Accounting Principles Accounting II Accounting II II Accounting II II Principles II Finance Managerial Financial Business Managerial Financial Financial Principles Finance Mgmt Finance Finance Mgmt Mgmt of Finance Management Principles of Organization Human Fundamentals Org. Theory Management Principles Mgmt and & Resource of Organized and Principles of Mgmt Leadership Management Mgmt Mgmt Behavior Production Production Product & Production/ and Strategic and Strategic Operations Ops Mgmt Operations Mgmt Operations Mgmt Mgmt Management Mgmt Business Mgmt Business Policy Business Policy and Strategy and and Strategy Policy Strategy Policy Marketing Marketing Principles Marketing Marketing Principles of Principles of Marketing Principles of Principles Principles Marketing Marketing and Strategy Marketing Skills: Quantitative, Technical and Communication Business Quantitative Applied Finite Business Business Business Quantitative and Decision Math Statistics I Statistics Statistics I Analysis I Economics Analysis Statistics Principles Principles of Business Intro to Using Info. Quantitative Spreadsheets of Info Statistics Statistics II Statistics Systems Analysis II Systems Quantitative Windows Business Decision Advanced Keyboard Business Methods in Computer Info Support for Computer App Skillbuilding Comm. Business Applications Systems Managers Mgmt Managing Computer Decision Business Business Information Applications Support Statistics II Comm. and Systems Technology Spreadsheet Apps/Database Management Mgmt Info College Managerial Apps/Word Information Systems Algebra Comm. Processing Systems Apps* Professional Managerial Org Comm Comm Comm Government, Law, Society and Ethics Legal Legal Legal Legal Envrmt Business Legal Envrmt Business Envrmt of Envrmt of Envrmt of of Business Law I of Business Law Business Business Business © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 11
Hanover Research October 2008 Required Core Business Courses, Bachelor Degrees Lake Missouri Athens Black Hills Southern Chadron Shawnee State Superior Southern State** State*** Arkansas State State**** State The Business Business American Ethics Law II Enterprise System Business, Govt. and Society Business Policy International Business International Business/ International International Business Commerce Professional Development/Capstone Career Senior Portfolio Seminar Dvlpmt * Not required in Health Care Administration Program. **Listed here are both the pre-professional requirements at Athens State as well as the courses that are common to the professional requirement across degree program. The latter are italicized. *** Courses required as part of the pre-business core are italicized. Courses required as part of the business core are in regular font. **** Listed here are the courses of the common professional component that are required across business degree programs. If we count ―required non-business courses‖ as part of the business core at Shawnee State, then Shawnee State requires its students to take a total of 16 business core courses in each business degree program. At 16 required business core courses, Shawnee State finds itself in the middle of the range of required core courses, which tops at 19 at Black Hills State at dips to 12 at Chadron State. If courses included in the professional requirements are not considered part of the business core at Athens State (i.e., if we only ―count‖ non-italicized courses), then the number of required core course drops to seven at this institution. The following table presents the number of required ―core‖ courses at each institution, including courses in the pre- business core at Black Hills State, professional requirement at Athens State and common professional component at Lake Superior State which are common across degree programs as well as the required non-business courses at Shawnee State. Number of Required Core Courses in Business Bachelor Programs at Comparable Regional Institutions Institution Number of Required “Core” Courses Shawnee State 16 Athens State 16 Black Hills State 19 Lake Superior State 17 © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 12
Hanover Research October 2008 Number of Required Core Courses in Business Bachelor Programs at Comparable Regional Institutions Institution Number of Required “Core” Courses Missouri Southern State 15 Southern Arkansas 16 Chadron State 12 In terms of the content of business core courses, it appears that the business core requirements at Shawnee State are evenly dispersed across subject areas and ensure that students have a background in each type of necessary skill: quantitative, technical and communication. Specialization In this section, we examine the specialization requirements for accounting, general business, information systems management and marketing degree programs at comparable universities, four out of the six business bachelor‘s programs offered by Shawnee State. We exclude health care administration and legal assisting from this comparison analysis as no comparable degree programs exist at the institutions in the comparison group. Note that whereas specialization-specific electives are included as specialization requirements, general business electives are not included unless they are the minor courses or are to be picked from a list of approved electives. In addition, it should be recognized that under the ―accounting‖ section, the requirements listed are those for a basic degree in accounting. Black Hills State and Chadron State also offers a degree in Professional Accountancy/a Certified Public Accountant Path designed to meet the 150 credit- hour mark required by most states for certification. Specialization requirements for these programs are more extensive. Specialization Requirements in Business Bachelor Degree Programs Lake Missouri Athens Black Southern Chadron Shawnee State Superior Southern State* Hills State Arkansas State State*** State General Business Accounting Accounting Minor Field Minor Field Apps for Mgmt Elective Course Course Decisions Approved Entrepre- Minor Field Minor Field Upper Division neurship Course Course Business Elective Elective Approved Upper Finance/ Upper-Level Minor Field Division Business Economics Minor Field Course Elective Elective Course Approved International Upper-Level Minor Field Upper Division Business Minor Field Course Business Elective Elective Course © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 13
Hanover Research October 2008 Specialization Requirements in Business Bachelor Degree Programs Lake Missouri Athens Black Southern Chadron Shawnee State Superior Southern State* Hills State Arkansas State State*** State Approved Upper-Level Mgmt Minor Field Upper Division Minor Field Elective Course Business Elective Course Marketing Minor Field Elective Course Quantitative Minor Field Elective Course Accounting Intermediate Intermed. Accounting Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Accounting Accounting Info Accounting I Accounting I Accounting I Accounting I I I Systems Intermediate Intermed. Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermed. Accounting Accountg Accounting Accounting Accounting II Accounting II Accounting II II II II Int. Intermediate Income Finance Managerial Accounting Taxation I Accounting Tax Cost Mgmt I and Capital Accounting Info Systems III Accountg Accounting Federal Tax Cost Tax Accounting Cost Accounting Auditing Cost Mgmt II Accounting Accounting Info Systems Accounting I Upper Division Federal Tax Managerial Accounting Cost Personal Accounting Accounting Auditing Accountg Info Systems Accounting Income Tax Elective II Upper Division Federal Advanced Individual Corporate/ Accounting Auditing Taxation Auditing Accountg Income Tax Fiduciary Tax Elective Accounting I Upper Division Federal Upper-Level Advanced Govrnmnt Accounting Taxation Accounting Financial Auditing Accounting Elective Accounting II Elective Mgmt Upper Division Upper-Level Advanced Upper-Level Accounting Auditing Accounting Accounting Accounting Elective Elective Advanced Upper-Level Upper-Level Auditing II Accounting I Accounting Accounting Consolidations Elective Advanced Cost Accounting I Accounting Governmental Money& Banking/ Ethics/ Employment Law Money& Banking/ Ethics/ Employment Law Law for Accountants © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 14
Hanover Research October 2008 Specialization Requirements in Business Bachelor Degree Programs Lake Missouri Athens Black Southern Chadron Shawnee State Superior Southern State* Hills State Arkansas State State*** State Marketing Consumer Consumer Marketing Consumer Sales Advertising Behavior Behavior Mgmt Behavior Techniques Entre- Integrated Integrated Marketing Consumer Marketing Imagination Marketing Marketing Research Behavior Research and Comm Comm Opportunity Entre- Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Business Mgmt Mgmt Mgmt Research Mgmt Start-up Entre- Mgmt Upper-Level Upper-Level Marketing Retail Promotions Concepts and Marketing Marketing Research Mgmt & Apps Elective Elective Advertising Intro to Upper-Level Upper-Level Entrepreneurial Consumer Buyer Supply Chain Marketing Marketing Marketing Behavior Behavior Mgmt Elective Elective Upper-Level Upper-Level Business & Marketing Marketing Org Behavior Marketing Marketing Marketing Practicum Research Elective Elective Strategy Upper-Level Business & Marketing Marketing Approved Marketing Elective Elective Elective Research Upper-Level Marketing Marketing Approved Elective Elective Elective Marketing Marketing Elective Elective Marketing Marketing Elective Elective Information Systems Management/Management Technology Associate Programming Technical Web Page Visual Basic I of Science Languages Core** Development Degree and Logic Approved Client-Side Upper- Money & Intro to Business Web Division Banking Networking I Programming Publishing Business Elective Approved Intro to PC Mgmt Upper- Advanced Hardware/ Decision Applied Info Division Managerial Operating Support Processing Business Comm Systems Systems Elective Approved Upper- Database Project Total Quality Database Division Mgmt Systems Mgmt Mgmt Mgmt Business Elective © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 15
Hanover Research October 2008 Specialization Requirements in Business Bachelor Degree Programs Lake Missouri Athens Black Southern Chadron Shawnee State Superior Southern State* Hills State Arkansas State State*** State Approved Systems Upper- COBOL Technical Analysis and Division Programming E-Commerce Risk Mgmt Design Business I Elective Approved Mgmt/ Upper- Deployment of Mgmt of Advanced Project Division Info Tech Technology Programming Mgmt Business Project Elective Tech Systems Database Path Requirement Transfer and Analysis & Mgmt Comm Design Systems Path Requirement Analysis and Design Mgmt Info Path Requirement Systems Upper Level MIS or BUIS Elective MGMT Elective * Note that the courses listed here are those courses in the professional requirement that are not common to all degree programs. The professional requirement courses common to all degree programs are listed in the table depicting business core requirements. These courses are italicized. ** The Technical Core requirement, a block credit worth 23 semester hours, can be fulfilled by four or more semesters at a technical school or college, six years documented, successful work experience or the professional program in the fine arts or health sciences. *** Note that the courses listed here are those courses in the common professional component that are requirements specific to the particular degree program. The common professional component courses common to all degree programs are listed in the table depicting business core requirements. These courses are italicized. The following table presents the number of required specialization courses for each program at each of the comparable institutions. The first number represents the total number of required courses, specialization electives included. The numbers in parentheses denote how many of the total number of courses are ―electives‖ in the sense that students can choose between different courses on an approved list, courses that fall within particular criteria, or between different ―paths.‖ Total Required Specialization Courses General Information Accounting Marketing Business Systems Mgmt Shawnee State 5 (4) 8 (4) 10 (4) 10 (4) 6 plus the Athens State 12 (0) Technical Core (0) Black Hills State 6 (0) 6 (0) Lake Superior 10 (0) 10 (4) © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 16
Hanover Research October 2008 Total Required Specialization Courses General Information Accounting Marketing Business Systems Mgmt State 5 plus an Missouri 7 (7) 9 (3) 6 (3) Associate of Southern State Science (5) Southern 7 (7) 9 (2) 5 (5) 10 (1) Arkansas Chadron State 7 (7) 7 (0) 7 (0) 7 (0) If courses required for a minor count as specialization courses, it appears that Shawnee State‘s general business degree program has a relatively low number of required specialization courses. On the other hand, its marketing program has a relatively high number of required specialization courses. The number of required specialization courses in the accounting degree program is about average; however, Shawnee State‘s specialization requirements include more elective courses than the accounting programs at other comparable institutions. Electives The following table, which presents the number of credit-hours required in each degree category, is intended to demonstrate how many credit hours are available to students for electives after all requirements are fulfilled. Definitions of categories such as ―core hours‖ and ―specialization hours‖ are consonant with the above definitions of ―core‖ and ―specialization.‖ Please reference the above tables of core and specialization course for clarification about which courses fall into which category. Required Required Business Free Total Required Gen Ed Specialization Elective Elective Credit Core Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Accounting Shawnee 31 50 32* -- 17 130 State Athens 41 46 39 -- -- 126 State Black Hills 34 57 18 -- 19 128 State Lake Superior 30-31 50 37 5*** 6 128 State Missouri 48 41 27 -- 8 124 Southern Southern 46 48 27 -- 3 124 Arkansas Chadron 47 36 21 -- 21 125 State © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 17
Hanover Research October 2008 Required Required Business Free Total Required Gen Ed Specialization Elective Elective Credit Core Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours General Business Shawnee 31 48* 15 15 15 124 State Missouri 48 41 21 -- 14 124 Southern Southern 46 48 15-21 6 3-9 124 Arkansas Chadron 47 36 18-30**** -- 12-24 125 State Marketing Shawnee 31 48* 30 9 6 124 State Black Hills 34 57 18 -- 19 128 State Lake Superior 31 52 30 5*** 10 128 State Missouri 48 41 18 -- 17 124 Southern Southern 46 48 24 -- 6 124 Arkansas Chadron 47 36 21 -- 21 125 Information Systems Management Shawnee 31 48 30 -- 15 124 State Athens 41 46 41 -- -- 128 State Missouri 48 36 40** -- -- 124 Southern Southern 46 48 30 -- 2 126 Arkansas Chadron 47 36 21 -- 21 125 State * Includes Accounting Core, Upper Division Accounting Electives and Other Required Business Courses. ** Includes Associate Degree Requirement. *** Refers to the B.S. Degree Requirement. **** Refers to hours required to fulfill minor or major. Source: The Hanover Research Council The number of credit-hours allowed for electives in Shawnee State‘s marketing program is relatively low, although Southern Arkansas matches this low, while the number of credit-hours allowed for electives in Shawnee State‘s information systems management program is relatively high, although Chadron State‘s elective total is even greater. For the other two degree programs, Shawnee State is near the middle in terms of credit hours available for electives. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 18
Hanover Research October 2008 Associate’s Degree Curriculum Business Core The following table presents the business core courses required of students in associate business degree programs at comparable regional universities. Please note that we have focused our attention on business programs rather than office administration programs or legal assist programs. Office management and legal assist programs typically have a slightly different set of core requirements. The same holds true for the associate degree program in entrepreneurship at Lewis and Clark State College. For Shawnee State, we have listed the courses identified as ―business course requirements‖ for the accounting degree as well as Principles of Microeconomics and Principles of Macroeconomics, as these courses are also required in the business management program. Required Core Business Courses, Associate Degrees Lake Lewis & Southern Dakota Langston Shawnee State Superior Clark State Arkansas State University State* College Business, General Intro to Business Economics Principles Principles of Principles of Principles of Principles of and Theory Micro Micro Micro Micro of Micro The Financial Principles Principles of Principles of Principles of Systems in and Theory Macro Macro Macro the Economy of Macro Accounting Principles of Principles of Principles of Principles of Financial Accounting I Accounting Accounting I Accounting I Accounting Principles of Principles of Principles of Accounting Accounting Accounting Managerial II II II Accounting Finance Principles of Principles of Finance/ Business Finance Managerial Finance Finance Management Foundations Mgmt Org & Mgmt of Mgmt Concepts Theory Marketing Principles of Marketing Marketing Skills: Quantitative, Technical and Communication Adv Business Business Business Computer App Computer Comm Info Systems Comm App © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 19
Hanover Research October 2008 Required Core Business Courses, Associate Degrees Lake Lewis & Southern Dakota Langston Shawnee State Superior Clark State Arkansas State University State* College Prof Comm Word Intro to and Processing/ Quantitative Business Comp Info Development Spreadsheets/ Analysis Comm Systems Skills Database Spreadsheets /Word Mgmt Info Business Processing System Elective Statistics /Database Mgmt Info System Elective Government, Law, Society and Ethics Legal American Legal Legal Legal Business Law Environment Enterprise Environment Environment Environment I of Business System of Business of Business of Business * As Lake Superior does not have a distinct business core, we include those courses identified as ―core‖ business courses in the above bachelor‘s degree analysis that are required across associate degree programs. Source: The Hanover Research Council With eight ―core‖ courses, Shawnee State finds itself in the middle of the range of required core courses, which bottoms at five at Langston University and is as high as eleven at Lewis & Clark State. Number of Required Core Courses in Business Associate Programs at Comparable Regional Institutions Institution Number of Required “Core” Courses Shawnee State 8 Lake Superior State 5 Southern Arkansas 9 Dakota State 10 Langston University 5 Lewis & Clark State 11 Source: The Hanover Research Council Specialization In the following table, we compare specialization requirements for associate degrees. As no other institution in the comparison group offers a degree in Business Management, we compare Shawnee State‘s Business Management Degree with those Associate Degrees most comparable: Business Administration and Financial Planning. Unfortunately, no associate degrees offered by institutions in the comparison group are comparable to the degree in information systems management. Hence, this degree is excluded. As the requirements of degree programs in office administration and legal assist technology are organized in a different way, we also exclude these programs from the following table. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 20
Hanover Research October 2008 Specialization Requirements in Business Associate Degree Programs Lake Lewis & Southern Dakota Langston Shawnee State Superior Clark State Arkansas State University State College Business Management/Financial Planning/Business Admin* Quantitative Insurance Principles of Skills for and Financial Selling Business** Planning Taxation for Marketing Retail Mgmt Financial Concepts** Planning Advertising No No No Personnel Retirement Theory and specialization specialization specialization Mgmt** Planning Practice requirements requirements requirements Enterprise Human Estate Mgmt and Resource Planning Strategy** Mgmt Intro to Fundamentals Business Law Financial of II Accounting** Investments Intro to Managerial Accounting** Accounting Accounting Principles of Principles I Accounting II Accounting Intermediate Principles II Accounting I Payroll Intermediate Records/ Accounting II Accounting Cost Cost Accounting I Accounting I Federal Intermediate Taxation Accounting I Accounting I Accounting Elective Accounting Elective * The Business Management Degree is offered by Shawnee State, the Financial Planning Degree is offered by Langston University and the Business Administration Degree is offered by Lewis and Clark, Dakota State, Southern Arkansas and Lake Superior. ** These are the business courses listed in sample schedule for the Business Management Program that are not part of the ―core‖ identified above. Source: The Hanover Research Council For those Associate Degree programs that do have specialization requirements, requiring five courses is typical. Shawnee State‘s seven required accounting specialization courses is slightly higher than this average. However, it is important to recognize that three of these programs six programs do not have extra ―specialization requirements‖; all three programs without specialization requirements are Business Administration degrees. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 21
Hanover Research October 2008 Electives The following table presents the distribution of credit-hours across different categories of degree requirements. This table employs the same definitions of ―core‖ and ―specialization‖ used above. Required Required Business Free Total Required Gen Ed Specialization Elective Elective Credit Core Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Business Management/Business Administration/Financial Planning/Entrepreneurship* Shawnee 17 24 17 58 State Lake 19 26 9 7-8 62 Superior Southern 35 21 6 2 64 Arkansas Dakota 24** 29 11 64 State Langston 37 15 15 67 University Lewis & 34 27 3 64 Clark State Accounting Shawnee 18 21 24 63 State Lake 18 16-17 18 11-12 64 Superior Information Systems Management Shawnee 18-21*** 20 12 15 65-68 State Legal Assisting Shawnee 30***** 38 68 State Lake 12 54****** 66 Superior Office Administration Shawnee 12-14 23**** 27 62-64 State Lake 18 29 6-9 8-11 64 Superior * The Business Management Degree is offered by Shawnee State, the Financial Planning Degree is offered by Langston University and the Business Administration Degree is offered by Lewis and Clark, Dakota State, Southern Arkansas and Lake Superior and the Entrepreneurship Degree is offered by Lewis and Clark State. Note that requirements for the Business Administration and Entrepreneurship Associate Degrees at Lewis and Clark State are the same. ** Includes General Education and Institutional Requirements. *** Refers to Required Non-Business Hours. **** Includes Required Non-Business and Required Business. ***** Refers to the Required Non-Legal Courses. ****** Refers to the Legal Assisting Curriculum. Source: The Hanover Research Council © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 22
Hanover Research October 2008 The above table suggests that Shawnee State offers students in its business management associate degree programs relatively few credit-hours to use for electives; however, this can be considered a function of the fact that fewer total credit-hours are required of students. Shawnee State also offers students in its accounting technology and office administration associate degree programs relatively few credit-hours to use for electives when compared with the program at Lake Superior, despite the fact that it requires the same amount of credit-hours for degree completion. Conclusion Core. Shawnee State requires an average number of business core courses in both its bachelor‘s and associate‘s degree programs. Shawnee State‘s marketing program has a relatively high number of required courses. Specialization. The number of required specialization courses in the accounting bachelor‘s degree program is about average; however, Shawnee State‘s specialization requirements include more elective courses than do the accounting programs at other comparable institutions. Considering only those associate degree programs that have specialization requirements, the number of specialization courses required by Shawnee State is just above average. Electives. The number of credit-hours reserved for electives in Shawnee State‘s marketing bachelor‘s program is relatively low, while the number of credit-hours allowed for electives in Shawnee State‘s information systems management bachelor‘s program is relatively high. In terms of its associate degree programs, it appears that Shawnee State allows its students relatively few credit-hours to be used on electives. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 23
Hanover Research October 2008 Course Delivery Methods: Overview and Profiles This section begins with an overview of students‘ preferences in course delivery methods (e.g., online, classroom) nationally, and then moves on to consider the options offered by the comparison group of schools identified in the previous section. National Overview Perhaps the most significant trend in online education is its increasing use by traditional students, who have the option to take classroom courses but simply prefer the online delivery method. Recent studies have found that the two delivery methods are not only ―looking more and more alike,‖ but also are ―often dipping into the same pool of students.‖ The South Dakota Board of Regents performed a study in 2005 that found that 42 percent of distance-education students were taking the courses on campus at the university hosting the course. Similar trends have been identified at Washington State University and Arizona State University. At the latter, almost 9,000 students took both an online and an in-person course during 2005. The increasing popularity of online course with on-campus students is a function of several factors, including lifestyle, accommodating job schedules, and getting into high-demand courses.3 The recent increases in the cost of gas have emphasized the impact of external factors on online enrollments, with many institutions saying that ―their online summer enrollments have jumped significantly [in 2008], compared with last summer‘s, and that fuel prices are a key factor in the increase.‖ In Tennessee, the board of regents reported a 29 percent increase in online enrollments over the summer, and various institutions around the country, particularly community colleges, have reported similar increases of 20 to 25 percent.4 On the other hand, intrinsic factors may also be driving the long-term upward trend in the use of online course delivery. Research into the psychology of online learning has demonstrated a relationship between personality types and preferences for the medium of instruction. According to a study of 146 students taking online and in- class introductory computer courses at the University of South Alabama, ―more extroverted students and those who were more sensitive rather than intuitive preferred the way the information was presented, and the way they were evaluated, in online courses.‖ Interestingly, this finding was contrary to the researchers‘ original hypothesis that more introverted students would express a preference for the online 3 Justin Pope, ―Some Students Prefer Taking Classes Online,‖ USA Today (January 15, 2006). Available online at <http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2006-01-15-college-online-courses_x.htm> 4 Jeffrey R. Young, ―Gas Prices Drive Students to Online Courses,‖ Chronicle of Higher Education (July 8, 2008). Available online at <http://chronicle.com/free/2008/07/3704n.htm> © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 24
Hanover Research October 2008 format. According to this study, ―the extroverts liked the involvement of the chat rooms, threaded discussion, and e-mail correspondences of the online courses.‖5 While all of this points towards increasing use of online course delivery, it should also be noted that, particularly for traditionally enrolled students, so-called ―hybrid‖ courses that mix classroom and online work may be even more desirable. A 2005 survey by Eduventures found that prospective college students preferred hybrid courses to online courses. The survey found that 77 percent of prospective college students would consider enrolling in an online distance education program and ―eighty-five percent of respondents said they would be interested in a hybrid online college program that combines online and on-campus courses. In addition, 56 percent of the 18- to 25- year-olds surveyed said they were more likely to consider enrolling in a hybrid course or program than in a fully online course or program.‖6 Comparison Group Profiles Given these trends, it is unsurprising that many of the institutions in this comparison group do offer some kind of online course delivery. The profiles in this section provide information about the delivery options available at each institution, as well as the delivery options specific to the business programs at these institutions. It also discusses whether business courses or degrees are available in non-traditional formats, and whether business courses are offered during evenings or weekends. Athens State University According to the Athens State University online degree programs website, ―the University is experiencing a strong student demand for online courses. To address this interest, almost all of the 33 majors at Athens State now provide at least one or more classes that can be taken over the internet.‖7 Not only does the College of Business offer internet-based coursework, it offers online degrees in accounting, human resource management, management and management of technology.8 In other words, all of the business degrees offered by Athens State can be earned online. It appears that most business courses have either an evening option, online option, or a blended option in order to accommodate a variety of students.9 5 Richard Daughenbaugh, Lynda Daughenbaugh, Daniel Surry and Mohammed Islam, ―Personality Type and Online Versus In-Class Course Satisfaction,‖ Educause Quarterly (November 3, 2002), p. 71-72. Available online at <http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQM02312.pdf> 6 ―Students Prefer Hybrids to Fully Online Courses,‖ Recruitment & Retention in Higher Education 19:8 (August 2005), pp. 7-8. 7 ―Online Degree Programs,‖ Athens State University. Available online at <http://www.athens.edu/academics/onlinedegree.php> 8 Ibid. 9 ―Fall Schedule 2008,‖ Athens State University (2008), pp. 24-29. Available online at <http://www.athens.edu/schedule/Fall%202008%20Schedule.pdf> © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 25
Hanover Research October 2008 Black Hills State University Black Hills State University offers a wide variety of educational delivery modes: online, correspondence, and video conference options are available. While online business courses are not offered through the ―self-paced‖10 and ―term- based self-paced‖11 formats, they are available through the term-based format. This format ―follows [the] semester schedule [and involves] student interaction and assignment due dates.‖ Students must register prior to the semester and are eligible for financial aid. A number of business courses are available through correspondence across the 2008- 2009 academic year.12 While students have been able to take self-paced correspondence courses (and may do so during the present semester), all correspondence courses will move to a term-based format in spring 2009.13 A number of business courses are also available through videoconference. ―Through the Dakota Digital Network (DDN), BHSU courses can be received at various sites around the state. All sites are fully interactive; that is, students can see and hear the faculty member, ask questions, and have class discussions as they would in a traditional classroom.‖ Every school district in South Dakota has a videoconference site.14 Finally, a number of on-campus business courses are offered in the evening.15 Lake Superior State University Hanover was unable to find any evidence of distance learning courses or programs in business offered by Lake Superior State University. Lake Superior does, however, offer a number of business courses in the evenings.16 10 In this format, the student has 175 days to complete the course, and can register for these courses anytime (they do not follow a semester schedule). Students taking the course in this format are not eligible for financial aid. See ―BHSU Distance Learning – Online Courses,‖ Black Hills State University. Available online at <http://www.bhsu.edu/Academics/DistanceLearning/ExploreCourses/Online/tabid/1547/Default.aspx> 11 In this format, the student has a semester to complete the course at his or her own pace and must register prior to the semester. These students are eligible for financial aid. See Ibid. 12 ―BHSU Distance Learning-Correspondence Courses,‖ Black Hills State University. Available online at <http://www.bhsu.edu/Academics/DistanceLearning/ExploreCourses/Coorespondence/tabid/1548/Defaul t.aspx> 13 Ibid. 14 ―2008 Fall Video Conference Courses,‖ Black Hills State University. Available online at <http://www.bhsu.edu/ASP_Pages/EdOutreach/ddn_courses_Fall.asp> 15 ―BHSU Class Schedule: Search by Category,‖ Black Hills State University. Available online at <http://www.bhsu.edu/Academics/RegistrationRecords/ClassSchedules/Searchclassesbycategory/tabid/643/ Default.aspx> © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 26
Hanover Research October 2008 Missouri Southern State University While Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) offers a number of different delivery modes for courses – including online, internet-hybrid, video-based, televised and delayed start – online is the only alternative delivery mode through which business courses are delivered.17 MSSU offers several distance business degrees, including a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration and an Associate of Science in Business Administration.18 Southern Arkansas University Distance learning at Southern Arkansas University is available only in the online format,19 and the University offers several business courses online. 20 Few on-campus evening courses are available.21 Chadron State College Chadron State‘s ―Community-Based Programs‖ website states: ―Chadron State College serves the 30 western-most counties of Nebraska, as well as much of the high plains region. To help support higher education and educational services to this vast region, the College maintains regional offices in Alliance, North Platte, Scottsbluff, and Sidney. College representatives at these locations can assist students with application and enrollment, schedule building, contact with campus advisors and student services offices, and access to the College‘s distance learning modalities — online, interactive television, and correspondence.‖22 In fall 2008, most business courses are available through online or blended formats (online and traditional).23 However, at least one business course this semester is available in the ―interactive television‖ format. In this format, ―students in 16 ―LSSU Course Schedule: Fall 2008 as of 9/5/2008,‖ Lake Superior State University. Available online at <http://www.lssu.edu/scheduling/documents/Fall08_Crs_Schd.pdf> 17 ―Search Courses,‖ Missouri Southern State University. Available online at <http://www.mssu.edu/lifelonglearning/courses/data.asp?term=Online&TermDesignation=ALL&SortBy=C ourseID> 18 ―Degrees Available ‗From a Distance,‘‖ Missouri Southern State University. Available online at <http://www.mssu.edu/lifelonglearning/ProspectiveStudents/LLLO_Degrees.htm> 19 ―Distance Education at Southern Arkansas University: Online Learning,‖ Southern Arkansas University. Available online at <http://online.southernarkansasuniversity.info/> 20 ―Fall 2008 Schedule of Online Courses,‖ SAU Magnolia Class Schedule. Available online at <http://www.saumag.edu/schedule/?page=FALLONLINE> 21 ―SAU Magnolia Class Schedule: Fall 2008 Schedule of Classes Business,‖ Southern Arkansas University. Available online at <http://www.saumag.edu/schedule/?page=FALLBUSINESS> 22 ―Community Based Programs: Home,‖ Chadron State College. Available online at <http://www.csc.edu/extended/community/> 23 ―Course Schedule,‖ Chadron State College. Available online at <http://www.csc.edu/extended/community/schedule.csc> © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 27
Hanover Research October 2008 electronically equipped classrooms at regional locations participate in real time classes with students at the Chadron State College campus. Students at all locations have complete audio and video contact with the instructor and students at other locations.‖24 Chadron State College appears to emphasize online delivery rather than delivery at alternative times (evenings and weekends). It offers several online business degree completion programs, including Business Administration with an option in Management, Marketing or Management Information Systems. 25 In addition, students can opt for an online program in General Business. Lewis and Clark State College Lewis and Clark State College offers courses online, through blended learning approaches and through video-conferencing.26 The online course schedule for fall 2008 includes a significant number of core business courses. 27 At Lewis and Clark, ―DL courses follow the same academic calendar dates and registration procedures as on-campus classes.‖28 Students have the option of pursuing an associate‘s degree in business administration online.29 Dakota State University At Dakota State University, ―E-Education Services has now been expanded to include all extended programs offered by DSU,‖30 including the A.S. in Business Management.31 In addition, ―the Office of Extended Programs coordinates planning, development, and delivery of all courses and programs that are delivered at a distance, including on- line, videoconferencing, and face-to-face at remote sites.‖32 24 ―Interactive Television Courses,‖ Community-Based Programs, Chadron State College. Available online at <http://www.csc.edu/extended/community/itv.csc> 25 ―Undergraduate Courses & Programs: Online Undergraduate (Bachelor‘s) Degree Completion Programs,‖ Chadron State College. Available online at <http://www.csc.edu/extended/online/undergrad.csc> 26 ―Distance Learning,‖ Lewis and Clark State College. Available online at <http://www.lcsc.edu/dl/> 27 ―Fall 2008 – Academic/Professional Technical Classes,‖ Lewis and Clark State College. Available online at <http://www.lcsc.edu/dl/Schedule-Fall/academic.htm> 28 ―Distance Learning,‖ Lewis and Clark State College, op. cit. 29 ―Business Division,‖ Lewis and Clark State College. Available online at <http://www.lcsc.edu/Catalog/academic-programs/business.htm> 30 ―Distance Education,‘ Dakota State University. Available online at <http://www.dsu.edu/disted/index.aspx> 31 ―Distance Programs,‖ Dakota State University. Available online at <http://www.dsu.edu/disted/programs.aspx> 32 ―Distance Education,‖ op. cit. © 2008 The Hanover Research Council 28
Email sent successfully..