Segregation and civil rights june 2011

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  • 1. Race and Ethnicity in America: Past and Present Tim Standaert U.S. Embassy Kyiv 12th American Studies Summer Institute “The Idea of America: A Look at U.S. Government, Society, and Innovation in the Early 21st Century” June 5-10, 2011
  • 2. Approaches to fight segregation Individuals citizens Groups, e.g., NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Government  Judiciary (courts)  Executive (President, federal government, governors, mayors)  Legislative
  • 3. Approaches to fight segregation Petition – asking government to fix an injustice Demonstrations and protest  Pickets – holding signs and marching  Non-violent civil disobedience – willingness to go to jail  Marches  Boycott - economic pressure Organizing, banding together (NAACP, SCLC, SNCC) Court cases Use of media Politics – supporting candidates, running for office, etc. Etc…
  • 4. “Jim Crow” Laws Mid-1880s Southern States Strict Segregation of the Races State Laws violated 14th (civil rights) and 15th (universal suffrage) Amendments
  • 5. Slave Trade
  • 6. Slave Trade
  • 7. Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Lawsuits filed to overturn “Jim Crow” segregation laws Supreme Court ruled for segregation Established “Separate but Equal”
  • 8. Separate not Equal
  • 9. Separate not Equal
  • 10. Separate not Equal
  • 11. Separate not Equal
  • 12. Jackie Robinson 1944 Star athlete Jackie Robinson served in the Army during WWII Refused to move to the back of an Army transport bus when stationed at Ft. Hood, Texas Court-martialed, but acquitted
  • 13. Military Desegregation Military Segregated Black soldiers weren’t allowed to fight WWII and Korean War 1951 - Military formally integrated
  • 14. Shelly vs. Kraemer 1940s – Blacks migrated to northern cities Restrictive covenants confined them to segregated ghettos 1948 – Supreme Court ruled that covenants were unconstitutional Blacks began settling in formerly all-white neighborhoods
  • 15. White Flight New highways and suburban development in the 1940s and 1950s Minorities moved into all- white schools and neighborhoods Whites moved out to the suburbs Inner cities became predominantly poor and black
  • 16. Brown v. Board of Education 1954 Black family sued the Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas over school segregation
  • 17. Brown vs. Board of Education 1954 Supreme Court rules that “Separate was not Equal” Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896 Supreme Court case that
  • 18. Brown vs. Board of Education“In the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently [by their very nature] unequal.” “В сфері публічної освіти не може існувати доктрини ‘окремі, але рівні’. Окремі учбові заклади є нерівними за своєю природою.”
  • 19. Rosa Parks December 1, 1955 Segregated buses in Montgomery, Alabama Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give her seat to a white man on a crowded bus Led to Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • 20. Montgomery Bus Boycott December 3, 1955 – December 20, 1956 75% of bus passengers were black Black community organized peaceful boycott Received national attention Supreme Court ruled that Alabama law was unconstitutional
  • 21. Martin Luther King, Jr. Leader of the Montgomery Bus Boycott Organized nonviolent protests and marches against segregation Attracted positive media coverage, and brought segregation to national attention
  • 22. School Integration: Central High School Little Rock, Arkansas After Brown v. Topeka Board of Education ruling:  Some schools integrated peacefully  Other communities shut the public schools and sent all white students to private ‘academies.’ 1957 – Arkansas Governor Faubus used soldiers to block 9 black students from Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
  • 23. School Integration: Central High School Little Rock, Arkansas 1957 – President Eisenhower sends in the U.S. Army to integrate Central High School.
  • 24. School Integration: Central High School Little Rock, Arkansas 1957 – President Eisenhower sends in the U.S. Army to integrate Central High School.
  • 25. School Integration:Central High SchoolLittle Rock, Arkansas
  • 26. Stand in the Schoolhouse Door Alabama government resisted public school integration 1963 – Three black students registered at University of Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doors President Kennedy sent soldiers to force Wallace to admit the students
  • 27. Sit-InsTechnique Gandhi used in India. Black students used inGreensboro, North Carolina, in 1960. Quickly spread.
  • 28. Sit-InsInstruction sheet used for sit-ins in Nashville, Tennessee(first Southern city to desegregate public places):•Don’t strike back or curse back if abused… Don’tblock entrances to stores and aisles.•Show yourself friendly and courteous at all times.•Sit straight and always face the counter.•Remember the teachings of Jesus Christ, Mohandas K.Gandhi, and Martin Luther King.•Remember love and nonviolence, may God bless eachof you.
  • 29. Sit-Ins
  • 30. Freedom Rides 1961 - Groups of Blacks and whites, riding together on interstate buses into the South, to test ability of Blacks to exercise their legal rights. Violence:  Anniston, Alabama – KKK, fire bombed the bus  Atlanta, Georgia – beaten in “whites only” waiting room.  Montgomery, Alabama – mob attack Kennedy Administration – directs Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to enforce integration.
  • 31. Birmingham 1963 – King led a two- month campaign against segregation in Birmingham Birmingham chosen on purpose White police used dogs and fire hoses against peaceful protesters
  • 32. Birmingham
  • 33. Birmingham
  • 34. Birmingham
  • 35. Birmingham
  • 36. Birmingham Public opinion turned against segregationists Local leaders decide to desegregate.
  • 37. Birmingham
  • 38. March on Washington 1963 – Coalition of civil rights groups marched on Washington, D.C. Demanded an end to racial segregation in public school Demanded meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment
  • 39. March on Washington
  • 40. Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965 Outlawed segregation in schools, workplaces and public facilities Extended voting rights
  • 41. Desegregation Desegregation – officially abolished. Real integration – an ongoing process. De facto segregation. Racism not abolished. Policy debates:  Affirmative Action  Education: buses, quotas, school budgets.
  • 42. Freedom Summer Registering Black voters in the South June 1964 Murder of 3 Civil Rights workers:  Andrew Goodman  James Earl Cheney  Michael Schwerner Edgar Ray Killen not convicted until 2005
  • 43. Race, Ethnicity, and Tolerance
  • 44. Race, Ethnicity, and Tolerance•Treatment of Muslims-Americans, especially inpost-Septermber 11th America.•“World Trade Center Mosque” controversy
  • 45. Struggle For Gay Rights
  • 46. Struggle For Gay Rights
  • 47. America Today Many members of minority communities have enjoyed great success in America Many minorities still live in “unintegrated” communities Racial stereotypes persist. Ideal remains: “All Men Are Created Equal.”
  • 48. Questions?