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Planning your private cloud
Learning from the lessons of others
CloudStack Collaboration Conference Europe 2013

Tim Macke...
Private Cloud, Why Now?
• Valid alternative to public clouds that are cheap
and readily available
• Speed and agility of d...
Capital Leverage

Workforce Leverage

Enterprise Objectives for Cloud
Self Service

Remove IT as a service delivery critic...
Traditional Data Center

Amazon-style Cloud

Legacy Availability Zone

CloudStack Management Server

vCenter

vSphere

AND...
Best practices aren’t always
Density in the cloud
Traditional Server Virtualization
• Core Objectives
ᵒServer consolidation
ᵒPower and cooling savings
ᵒHardware independenc...
Desktop Virtualization
• Core Objectives
ᵒControl of IP
ᵒEnsuring patch compliance
ᵒSupporting mobile workstyles

• Looks ...
Cloud Services
• Core Objectives
ᵒAgile provisioning
ᵒHigh degrees of tenant isolation
ᵒLow operating margins

• Looks Lik...
Planning the network
Before Virtualization
• Simple management model
• Provisioning took a long time

• Topologies fairly static

© Citrix 2013...
Along Comes Server Virtualization
• Multiple VMs/host
ᵒLoss of visibility
ᵒLoss of control

• Edge moves into host
ᵒNetwor...
Example 1 – Mirroring Traffic
• Without virtualization this is pretty
easy
• With virtualization you now have
multiple VMs...
Example 1 – Mirroring Traffic
• Without virtualization this is pretty
easy
• With virtualization you now have
multiple VMs...
Example 2 – Network Policies
• Server admins have significant impact
on the network
ᵒIP and MAC Address
ᵒVirtual NICs
ᵒPro...
Network Management Tools Lag
• Assumptions of fixed topology
ᵒFine for physical
ᵒChallenge for dynamic environment

• Not ...
Virtual Machine Density Planning
• Host capacities are growing rapidly
ᵒvSphere 5 > 512 VMs
ᵒRHEV 3 > 1000 VMs
ᵒHyper-V > ...
Storage choice is critical
Shared storage growth and provisioning time
VMs

VMs

500
1,000

500

100

200

Cost, AU

AU – arbitrary units

© Citrix 2...
Combined efficiency and storage evolution
VMs

VMs
Redesign

1,000

500

500

?

1,000

100

200

Cost, AU

AU – arbitrary...
Efficiency and pod storage
No redesign
VMs

VMs
Redesign

1,000

POD #3

1,000
POD #2

500

500
POD #1

100

200

Cost, AU...
What about local storage?
VMs

VMs

50
1,000

500

100

200

Cost, AU

AU – arbitrary units

© Citrix 2013. More informati...
Cost-Performance Trends
Local storage
trend

VMs
POD
trend

VMs

1,000

1,000

Traditional
trend

500

500

Performance
tr...
Understanding disk usage and sizing
VM_DISK OS_PARTITION

USR_DATA

SWAP

TOTAL_DISK
VM_COUNT * VM_DISK + SWAP = TOTAL_DIS...
Templates and thin provisioning matter
USR_DATA
OS_PARTITION

SWAP

TOTAL_DISK
VM_COUNT * USR_DATA + OS_PARTITION + SWAP =...
Storage performance
IO per Disk

Write Penalties
RAID

PENALTY

VM Utilization

RPM

IOPS

ITEM

~VALUE

SSD

5,000+

0

1...
Blueprint for success ….
Cloud Builder Lessons from Zynga
• Public clouds are minivans
• zCloud is a race car
ᵒzCloud is optimized for social gamin...
Cloud Builder Lessons From Telcos
• Utility computing fits business model
ᵒTraditionally operate a low margin business mod...
Service Offerings
• Clearly define what you want to offer
ᵒWhat types of applications
ᵒWho has access, and who owns them
ᵒ...
Define Tenancy Requirements
• Department data local to department
ᵒWhere is the application data stored

• Data and servic...
Virtualization Infrastructure
• Hypervisor defined by service offerings
ᵒDon’t select hypervisor based on “standards”
ᵒUnd...
Cloud Operations
• Design for maintainability
• Monitor critical components
ᵒManagement servers and system support VMs
ᵒHy...
Work better. Live better.
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Planning a successful private cloud - CloudStack Collaboration Europe 2013

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So your boss just asked you to build a private cloud. Now what? Successful private clouds require a bit of planning, and your existing best practices may need to be adjusted. This deck covers some of the issues you'll face, or be aware of, as you migrate from an existing data center operation to one which is more "cloud-like". Some things may seem obvious, but there are aspects to network and storage design which impact success. This deck draws from my experience in building my first CloudStack cloud in early 2012 and has applicability to anyone seeking to deliver cloud services.

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Transcript of "Planning a successful private cloud - CloudStack Collaboration Europe 2013"

  1. 1. Planning your private cloud Learning from the lessons of others CloudStack Collaboration Conference Europe 2013 Tim Mackey – XenServer Community Evangelist
  2. 2. Private Cloud, Why Now? • Valid alternative to public clouds that are cheap and readily available • Speed and agility of deployment • Control of corporate assets • Cloud Management Platform market maturity • Future-proofing for nextgen, webscale workloads “An IaaS cloud is a highly automated virtual infrastructure that enables selfservice resource requests, and consumption of the shared environment is tracked for either chargeback or showback purposes.” Forrester Research 100’s of pilots and few production deployments in 2011; expected to be 10 times more in 2012 - Gartner © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  3. 3. Capital Leverage Workforce Leverage Enterprise Objectives for Cloud Self Service Remove IT as a service delivery critical path Management Automation Reduce IT operational costs Workload Standardization Consistent application and service deployment Usage Metering Visibility into user and line of business usage Centralized Management Smarter Virtualization Manage complete infrastructure, regardless of scale Drive reduced capital requirements © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  4. 4. Traditional Data Center Amazon-style Cloud Legacy Availability Zone CloudStack Management Server vCenter vSphere AND OR Enterprise Networking (e.g., VLAN) ESXi Cluster ESXi Cluster Availability Zone Availability Zone ESXi Cluster Enterprise Storage (e.g., SAN) © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy Object Storage Availability Zone
  5. 5. Best practices aren’t always
  6. 6. Density in the cloud
  7. 7. Traditional Server Virtualization • Core Objectives ᵒServer consolidation ᵒPower and cooling savings ᵒHardware independence • Looks Like ᵒVM Density < 20 ᵒvCPU = pCPU ᵒvRAM = pRAM ᵒLow IOPS ᵒRedundancy matters ᵒNo templates 7 © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  8. 8. Desktop Virtualization • Core Objectives ᵒControl of IP ᵒEnsuring patch compliance ᵒSupporting mobile workstyles • Looks Like ᵒ50 -100 VMs per host ᵒ2-4 vCores = pCore ᵒ1-2 vRAM = pRAM ᵒHigh IOPS ᵒBoot storms ᵒNetwork contention ᵒHighly templated 8 © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  9. 9. Cloud Services • Core Objectives ᵒAgile provisioning ᵒHigh degrees of tenant isolation ᵒLow operating margins • Looks Like ᵒ50-250 VMs per host ᵒ2-8 vCore = pCore ᵒvRAM = pRAM ᵒModerate IOPS ᵒNetwork contention ᵒLargely templated 9 © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  10. 10. Planning the network
  11. 11. Before Virtualization • Simple management model • Provisioning took a long time • Topologies fairly static © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  12. 12. Along Comes Server Virtualization • Multiple VMs/host ᵒLoss of visibility ᵒLoss of control • Edge moves into host ᵒNetwork admins need to understand server virtualization © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  13. 13. Example 1 – Mirroring Traffic • Without virtualization this is pretty easy • With virtualization you now have multiple VMs © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  14. 14. Example 1 – Mirroring Traffic • Without virtualization this is pretty easy • With virtualization you now have multiple VMs ᵒPlus VMs can move • Better to monitor at virtual switch © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  15. 15. Example 2 – Network Policies • Server admins have significant impact on the network ᵒIP and MAC Address ᵒVirtual NICs ᵒProtocols and ports • Granular network control requires awareness of virtual machines ᵒDefine policies at virtual switch © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  16. 16. Network Management Tools Lag • Assumptions of fixed topology ᵒFine for physical ᵒChallenge for dynamic environment • Not virtualization aware ᵒIncorrect topology ᵒIncomplete topology ᵒVM actions obsolete data © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy X
  17. 17. Virtual Machine Density Planning • Host capacities are growing rapidly ᵒvSphere 5 > 512 VMs ᵒRHEV 3 > 1000 VMs ᵒHyper-V > 2048 VMs • Clouds and VDI push limits • Top of rack switch selection matters? ᵒARP table ᵒSwitching performance drops ᵒVM starts, but can’t connect © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy Host 2 VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM Host 1 VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM
  18. 18. Storage choice is critical
  19. 19. Shared storage growth and provisioning time VMs VMs 500 1,000 500 100 200 Cost, AU AU – arbitrary units © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy Provisioning efficiency
  20. 20. Combined efficiency and storage evolution VMs VMs Redesign 1,000 500 500 ? 1,000 100 200 Cost, AU AU – arbitrary units © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy Alternatives 100 200 Cost, AU
  21. 21. Efficiency and pod storage No redesign VMs VMs Redesign 1,000 POD #3 1,000 POD #2 500 500 POD #1 100 200 Cost, AU AU – arbitrary units © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy 100 200 Cost, AU
  22. 22. What about local storage? VMs VMs 50 1,000 500 100 200 Cost, AU AU – arbitrary units © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy Provisioning efficiency
  23. 23. Cost-Performance Trends Local storage trend VMs POD trend VMs 1,000 1,000 Traditional trend 500 500 Performance trend Local storage 100 200 Cost, AU Shared Storage © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy 100 200 Local Storage Cost, AU
  24. 24. Understanding disk usage and sizing VM_DISK OS_PARTITION USR_DATA SWAP TOTAL_DISK VM_COUNT * VM_DISK + SWAP = TOTAL_DISK VM_COUNT * (OS_PARTITION + USR_DATA) + SWAP = TOTAL_DISK VM_COUNT = (TOTAL_DISK – SWAP) ÷ (OS_PARTITION + USR_DATA) © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  25. 25. Templates and thin provisioning matter USR_DATA OS_PARTITION SWAP TOTAL_DISK VM_COUNT * USR_DATA + OS_PARTITION + SWAP = TOTAL_DISK VM_COUNT = (TOTAL_DISK – SWAP – OS_PARTITION) ÷ USR_DATA © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  26. 26. Storage performance IO per Disk Write Penalties RAID PENALTY VM Utilization RPM IOPS ITEM ~VALUE SSD 5,000+ 0 1 IOPS per VM 20 SAS 15,000 175 1 2 Size, KB 4-8 SAS 10,000 125 5 4 Writes, % 80 SAS 7,200 75 6 6 Reads, % 20 10 2 50 4 IOPS = [IOPS per DISK]*[Disk Count]*([% of Reads]+[% of Writes] ÷ [RAID Write Penalty]) VM_COUNT = IOPS ÷ [IOPS per VM] © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  27. 27. Blueprint for success ….
  28. 28. Cloud Builder Lessons from Zynga • Public clouds are minivans • zCloud is a race car ᵒzCloud is optimized for social gaming ᵒKnow your application requirements • Don’t rent what you can own cheaper ᵒCloud operator doesn’t care about your success ᵒOptimized applications might be key • Ensure you have backup plans ᵒUsage can and does spike ᵒOutages can and do happen © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy vs.
  29. 29. Cloud Builder Lessons From Telcos • Utility computing fits business model ᵒTraditionally operate a low margin business model ᵒUnderstand tiered service offerings ᵒHave a history with instant provisioning • Tiered service demands infrastructure flexibility ᵒ“Cost per instance” is paramount ᵒCharge extra for premium features ᵒInstance doesn’t imply virtualization ᵒBe prepared to change vendors if better model appears • Provisioning agility expected ᵒCustomers expect instant self service access and detailed billing © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  30. 30. Service Offerings • Clearly define what you want to offer ᵒWhat types of applications ᵒWho has access, and who owns them ᵒWhat type of access • Define how templates need to be managed ᵒOperating system support ᵒPatching requirements • Define expectations around compliance and availability ᵒWho owns backup and monitoring © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  31. 31. Define Tenancy Requirements • Department data local to department ᵒWhere is the application data stored • Data and service isolation ᵒVM migration and host HA ᵒNetwork services • Encryption of PII/PCI ᵒWhere do keys live when data location unknown ᵒNeed encryption designed for the cloud • Showback to stakeholders ᵒMore than just usage, compliance and audits © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  32. 32. Virtualization Infrastructure • Hypervisor defined by service offerings ᵒDon’t select hypervisor based on “standards” ᵒUnderstand true costs of virtualization ᵒMultiple hypervisors are “OK” ᵒBare metal can be a hypervisor • To “Pool” resources or not ᵒIs there a real requirement for pooled resources ᵒCan the cloud management solution do better? ᵒReal cost of shared storage • Primary storage defined by hypervisor • Template storage defined by solution ᵒTypically low cost options like NFS © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  33. 33. Cloud Operations • Design for maintainability • Monitor critical components ᵒManagement servers and system support VMs ᵒHypervisor hosts, and critical infrastructure ᵒEnd user deployment environments If your cloud has maintenance windows, you’re doing it wrong. - Allan Leinwand Former CTO Zynga © Citrix 2013. More information at xenserver.org and follow me on twitter @XenServerArmy
  34. 34. Work better. Live better.
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