Make your first CloudStack Cloud successful
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Make your first CloudStack Cloud successful

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As presented at the 2014 CloudStack Collaboration Conference in Denver (CCCNA14), this deck covers some of the decision points impacting a successful deployment of CloudStack within your organization. ...

As presented at the 2014 CloudStack Collaboration Conference in Denver (CCCNA14), this deck covers some of the decision points impacting a successful deployment of CloudStack within your organization. Critical elements such as storage and networking are discussed to create a blueprint which seeks to remove some of the learning curve associated with the transition from data center management to cloud management.

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Make your first CloudStack Cloud successful Make your first CloudStack Cloud successful Presentation Transcript

  • Make Your First CloudStack Cloud Successful
  • whoami • Name: Tim Mackey • Current roles: XenServer Community Manager and Evangelist; occasional coder • Cool things I’ve done – Designed laser communication systems – Early designer of retail self-checkout machines – Embedded special relativity algorithms into industrial control system • Find me – Twitter: @XenServerArmy – SlideShare: slideshare.net/TimMackey
  • Best Practices Aren’t
  • Who owns what? • Organizational structure matters – Team buy-in (no “mine, mine, mine”) – Management of key components – Understanding of “as-a-service” • Management toolset – Beware of overlap – Ensure runbooks reflect tooling • If you build it, they will come … – Growth will challenge everything – Success can be worst case
  • Understanding VM density
  • Traditional Server Virtualization • Core Objectives – Server consolidation – Power and cooling savings – Hardware independence • Looks Like – VM Density < 20 – vCPU = pCPU – vRAM = pRAM – Low IOPS – Redundancy matters – No templates
  • Desktop Virtualization • Core Objectives – Control of IP – Ensuring patch compliance – Supporting mobile workstyles • Looks Like – 50 -100 VMs per host – 2-4 vCores = pCore – 1-2 vRAM = pRAM – High IOPS – Boot storms – Network contention – Highly templated
  • Cloud Services • Core Objectives – Agile provisioning – High degrees of tenant isolation – Low operating margins • Looks Like – 50-250 VMs per host – 2-8 vCore = pCore – vRAM = pRAM – Moderate IOPS – Network contention – Largely templated
  • Network Operations and Definition
  • Before Virtualization • Simple management model • Provisioning took a long time • Topologies fairly static
  • Along Comes Server Virtualization • Multiple VMs/host – Loss of visibility – Loss of control • Edge moves into host – Network admins need to understand server virtualization
  • Example 1 – Mirroring Traffic • Without virtualization this is pretty easy • With virtualization you now have multiple VMs
  • Example 1 – Mirroring Traffic • Without virtualization this is pretty easy • With virtualization you now have multiple VMs – Plus VMs can move • Better to monitor at virtual switch
  • Example 2 – Network Policies • Server admins have significant impact on the network – IP and MAC Address – Virtual NICs – Protocols and ports • Granular network control requires awareness of virtual machines – Define policies at virtual switch
  • Network Management Tools Lag • Assumptions of fixed topology – Fine for physical – Challenge for dynamic environment • Not virtualization aware – Incorrect topology – Incomplete topology – VM actions obsolete data X
  • Virtual Machine Density Planning • Host capacities are growing rapidly – XenServer 6.2 > 500 VMs – vSphere 5 > 512 VMs – RHEV 3 > 1000 VMs – Hyper-V > 2048 VMs • Clouds and VDI push limits • Top of rack switch selection matters? – ARP table – Switching performance drops – VM starts, but can’t connect VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM Host 1 Host 2 VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM VM
  • Storage Choices
  • Design Phase – Expected Storage Growth 1,000 500 VMs Cost, AU 100 200 500 VMs Provisioning efficiency AU – arbitrary units
  • Storage Scalability During Usage Redesign 1,000 500 VMs 100 200 Cost, AU VMs 1,000 500 Cost, AU100 200 ? Alternatives AU – arbitrary units
  • Redesign Efficiency and Pod Storage 1,000 500 VMs 100 200 Cost, AU POD #1 POD #2 POD #3 1,000 500 VMs 100 200 Cost, AU AU – arbitrary units No redesign
  • What about local storage? 1,000 500 VMs Cost, AU100 200 50 VMs Provisioning efficiency AU – arbitrary units
  • POD trend Traditional trend Cost-Performance Trends Shared Storage Local Storage 1,000 500 VMs Cost, AU100 200 1,000 500 VMs 100 200 Cost, AU Local storage Performance trend Local storage trend
  • Understanding Disk Usage and Sizing VM_COUNT * VM_DISK + SWAP = TOTAL_DISK VM_COUNT * (OS_PARTITION + USR_DATA) + SWAP = TOTAL_DISK VM_COUNT = (TOTAL_DISK – SWAP) ÷ (OS_PARTITION + USR_DATA) VM_DISK SWAPUSR_DATAOS_PARTITION TOTAL_DISK
  • Templates and Thin Provisioning Matter VM_COUNT * USR_DATA + OS_PARTITION + SWAP = TOTAL_DISK VM_COUNT = (TOTAL_DISK – SWAP – OS_PARTITION) ÷ USR_DATA SWAP TOTAL_DISK OS_PARTITION USR_DATA
  • Storage Performance RAID PENALTY 0 1 1 2 5 4 6 6 10 2 50 4 IO per Disk Write Penalties RPM IOPS SSD 5,000+ SAS 15,000 175 SAS 10,000 125 SAS 7,200 75 VM Utilization ITEM ~VALUE IOPS per VM 20 Size, KB 4-8 Writes, % 80 Reads, % 20 IOPS = [IOPS per DISK]*[Disk Count]*([% of Reads]+[% of Writes] ÷ [RAID Write Penalty]) VM_COUNT = IOPS ÷ [IOPS per VM]
  • Blueprints for Success
  • Cloud Builder Lessons from Zynga • Public clouds are minivans • zCloud is a race car – zCloud is optimized for social gaming – Know your application requirements • Don’t rent what you can own cheaper – Cloud operator doesn’t care about your success – Optimized applications might be key • Ensure you have backup plans – Usage can and does spike – Outages can and do happen vs.
  • Cloud Builder Lessons From Telcos • Utility computing fits business model – Traditionally operate a low margin business model – Understand tiered service offerings – Have a history with instant provisioning • Tiered service demands infrastructure flexibility – “Cost per instance” is paramount – Charge extra for premium features – Instance doesn’t imply virtualization – Be prepared to change vendors if better model appears • Provisioning agility expected – Customers expect instant self service access and detailed billing
  • Service Offerings • Clearly define what you want to offer – What types of applications – Who has access, and who owns them – What type of access • Define how templates need to be managed – Operating system support – Patching requirements • Define expectations around compliance and availability – Who owns backup and monitoring
  • Define Tenancy Requirements • Department data local to department – Where is the application data stored • Data and service isolation – VM migration and host HA – Network services • Encryption of PII/PCI – Where do keys live when data location unknown – Need encryption designed for the cloud • Showback to stakeholders – More than just usage, compliance and audits
  • Virtualization Infrastructure • Hypervisor defined by service offerings – Don’t select hypervisor based on “standards” – Understand true costs of virtualization – Multiple hypervisors are “OK” – Bare metal can be a hypervisor • To “Pool” resources or not – Is there a real requirement for pooled resources – Can the cloud management solution do better? • Primary storage defined by hypervisor • Template storage defined by solution – Typically low cost options like NFS
  • Cloud Operations • Design for maintainability • Monitor critical components – Management servers and system support VMs – Hypervisor hosts, and critical infrastructure – End user deployment environments If your cloud has maintenance windows, you’re doing it wrong. - Allan Leinwand Former CTO Zynga