Chapter7 vitamins

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Chapter7 vitamins

  1. 1. Chapter Seven The Vitamins 0
  2. 2. Vitamins fall into two categories— fat soluble and water soluble. ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  3. 3. Vitamin Names
  4. 4. Characteristics of the Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins
  5. 5. Two types of vitamins <ul><li>Fat Soluble Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored in liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not need to consume everyday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can develop toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>h20 Soluble Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not stored in liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do need everyday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity uncommon </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fat Soluble Vitamins <ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin E </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin K </li></ul>
  7. 7. Water Soluble Vitamins <ul><li>B complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thiamin B1 (TENDER) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Riboflavin B2 (ROMANCE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Niacin B3 (NEVER) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folate (FAILS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyridoxine B6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cobalamine B12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotin (BEAUTIFUL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pantothenic acid (PEARLS) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Food Sources of Vitamin A <ul><ul><li>Colorful foods are often rich in vitamins </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. The antioxidants <ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN E </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul><ul><li>All help the body resist oxidation which is believed to combat heart disease, cancer, macular degeneration and premature aging </li></ul>
  10. 11. Figure C7.1 The Theory of Free Radicals and Disease ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  11. 12. Figure C7.2 The Antioxidant Theory of Disease Prevention ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  12. 13. Vitamin A <ul><li>Chemical name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inactive: beta carotene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(precursor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active: Retinol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NIGHT VISION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal cell development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Night blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xerophthalmia (dry eye) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratinization (goose flesh) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>700 mcg females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>900 mcg males </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Vitamin A – Snapshot
  14. 16. Colorful foods are often rich in vitamins. ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  15. 17. The most familiar function of vitamin A is in eyesight. ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  16. 18. Figure 6.1 Night Blindness ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  17. 19. Figure 7.2 The Skin in Vitamin A Deficiency ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  18. 20. Figure 7.3 Vitamin A Deficiency and Toxicity ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  19. 22. Vitamin D <ul><li>Chemical Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholecalciferol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls calcium and phosphorus absorption/balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone and teeth development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children: rickets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults: osteomalacia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults 5-10 mcg </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Vitamin D – Roles <ul><li>Bone integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers with deficiency </li></ul>
  21. 24. Two sterols 0
  22. 25. This child has the bowed legs of the vitamin D–deficiency disease rickets. ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  23. 26. This child displays the beaded ribs common in rickets. ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  24. 27. Vitamin D - Snapshot
  25. 28. The sunshine vitamin: vitamin D. ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  26. 29. Vitamin E <ul><li>Chemical name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tocopherol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does an antioxidant work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects cells which are highly exposed to oxygen (lungs and RBC) from destruction by keeping membranes strong </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. The Extraordinary Bodyguard
  28. 31. Vitamin E <ul><li>Deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemolysis in the newborn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA 15 mg </li></ul><ul><li>Food Sources vegetable oils, wheat germ, seeds </li></ul>
  29. 32. Vitamin E – Snapshot
  30. 33. Figure 7.12 Food Sources of Vitamins Selected to Show Range of Values ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  31. 34. Vitamin K <ul><li>Chemical name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylloquinone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemorrhaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75-90 mcg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be synthesized by intestinal flora </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. Vitamin K – Snapshot
  33. 36. Food Sources rich in Vitamin K <ul><li>Green leafy vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Green beans </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage type vegetables (broccoli, brussel sprouts) </li></ul><ul><li>Soybean </li></ul><ul><li>Non food source: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intestinal flora synthesizes Vitamin K </li></ul></ul>
  34. 37. Sources of Vitamin K <ul><li>Vitamin K can be made by intestinal bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns are given a dose of vitamin K at birth. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Water Soluble Vitamins <ul><li>B complex </li></ul><ul><li>Family of vitamins which commonly work as coenzymes in metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul>0
  36. 39. What is the B Complex? <ul><li>A closer look… </li></ul>
  37. 40. Figure 7.4 Coenzyme Action ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  38. 41. Figure 7.5 Some Roles of the B Vitamins in Metabolism: Examples ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  39. 42. The B Vitamins in Unison <ul><li>Deficiencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every cell is affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely are isolated deficiencies </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. Vitamin B1 <ul><li>Chemical name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thiamin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzyme in energy metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beriberi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary deficiency caused by alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1-1.2 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon energy intakes </li></ul></ul>0
  41. 45. Thiamin Snapshot
  42. 46. Figure 7.12 Food Sources of Vitamins Selected to Show Range of Values ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  43. 47. Vitamin B2 <ul><li>Chemical Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Riboflavin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzyme in energy metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cracks at corners of mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swollen tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin rash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1-1.3 mg </li></ul></ul>0
  44. 48. Riboflavin Snapshot
  45. 49. Vitamin B3 <ul><li>Chemical name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Niacin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzyme in energy metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pellagra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 “D”s include dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, and death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14-16 mg </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  46. 50. Niacin Snapshot
  47. 51. Figure 7.7 Pellagra ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  48. 52. The Blood Builders <ul><li>Folate </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B-6 </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin E </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin K </li></ul>
  49. 53. Vitamin B6 <ul><li>Chemical name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyridoxine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzyme in protein and fat metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps to make hemoglobin from Red Blood Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermatitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megadose therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.5-1.7 mg </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  50. 54. Vitamin B 6 Snapshot
  51. 56. Figure 7.12 Food Sources of Vitamins Selected to Show Range of Values ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  52. 57. Figure 7.10 Vitamin B 6 Deficiency ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  53. 58. Folate <ul><li>Chemical names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folacin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzyme in new cell synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RBC production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrocytic anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural tube defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400 mcg adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600 mcg pregnancy </li></ul></ul>0
  54. 59. Folate Snapshot
  55. 60. Rich Food Source of Folate <ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Whole and enriched grains </li></ul><ul><li>Dark green leafy vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Oranges/OJ </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul>0
  56. 61. Folate and Birth Defects
  57. 62. Figure 7.12 Food Sources of Vitamins Selected to Show Range of Values ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  58. 63. Vitamin B12 <ul><li>Chemical name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanocobalamine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzyme in new cell synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve cell maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RBC synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrocytic anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(pernicious anemia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliant upon intrinsic factor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 mcg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal sources </li></ul></ul>0
  59. 64. Vitamin B 12 Snapshot
  60. 67. Vitamin C <ul><li>Chemical name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascorbic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antioxidant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scurvy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinpoint hemorrhages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired wound healing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDAs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Females 75 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males 90 mg </li></ul></ul>0
  61. 68. Vitamin C – Snapshot
  62. 69. Rich Vitamin C containing Foods <ul><li>Citrus fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage like vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberries/kiwi </li></ul><ul><li>Melon </li></ul><ul><li>Mango/papaya </li></ul><ul><li>Green and red pepper </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes! </li></ul><ul><li>Baked potatoes </li></ul>0
  63. 70. Long journeys without fresh fruits and vegetables spelled death by scurvy for the crew. ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  64. 71. Can vitamin C ease the sufferings of the common cold? ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  65. 72. Figure 7.10 Scurvy Symptoms—Gums and Skin ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  66. 74. Figure 7.12 Food Sources of Vitamins Selected to Show Range of Values ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  67. 75. The need for Vitamin C. ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  68. 76. Vitamin/Mineral Partnerships <ul><li>Calcium, Phosphorus and Vitamin D </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C and Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Folate and Vitamin B-12 </li></ul>
  69. 77. Should you take a vitamin mineral supplement <ul><li>Let’s take a look </li></ul>
  70. 78. Multi Vitamin Mineral Supplements <ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid natural sources (ie rose hips/oyster shell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy generic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid product which contains vitamins above 100%RDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose supplement which contains beta carotene NOT retinol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional supplements may be needed for calcium and iron especially for women </li></ul></ul>0
  71. 79. Controversy: Vitamin Supplements: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks? <ul><ul><li>Which is the best source? </li></ul></ul>
  72. 80. Vitamin Jargon <ul><li>Megadose: excessively high dose of a vitamin or mineral </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: overdose of vitamin or mineral usually caused by supplement use </li></ul><ul><li>Non vitamin substances: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin B15 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pangamic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inositol </li></ul></ul>0
  73. 82. Figure 7.11 Supplement Label ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  74. 83. Dietary Antioxidants—best from food or best form pills? ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. 0
  75. 85. Some Valid Reasons for Taking Supplements
  76. 86. BOTTOM LINE….on vitamin pills <ul><li>Assess the adequacy of your diet </li></ul><ul><li>If you are falling 75% below for several vitamins/minerals typically, you may want to supplement your diet with a vitamin/mineral pill </li></ul><ul><li>There is no substitute for a healthy diet </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to get your vitamins and minerals is through foods </li></ul>0
  77. 88. Figure C7.3 Vegetable and Fruit Intakes and Cancer in Population Studies ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  78. 89. For your latest cancer fighter, visit your local produce center. ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.

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