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Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit
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Speaker Presention by Irena Bojanova of the University of Maryland University College | December 17, 2013 | Federal Cloud Computing Summit

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Irena Bojanova, Professor & Program Director in Information and Technology Systems at the University of Maryland University College, spoke at the Federal Cloud Computing Summit on Dec. 17, 2013 at the …

Irena Bojanova, Professor & Program Director in Information and Technology Systems at the University of Maryland University College, spoke at the Federal Cloud Computing Summit on Dec. 17, 2013 at the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C.

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  • CSA’s provides a simple frameworkto help organizations evaluate initial cloud risks and inform security decisions. This a quick method helps understand: Importance of what is considered to be moved to the Cloud; Organization's risk tolerance; Which combinations of deployment and service models are acceptable. It also helps get a good idea of potential exposure points for sensitive information and operations.
  • Multi-Tenancy implies use of same resources by multiple consumers from same or different organizations, as cloud services leverage shared infrastructure, data, metadata, services, and applications. Data and applications of one consumer may reside with data and applications of other consumers. The impact is visibility/access to confidential residual data or trace of operations by other tenants through the shared platforms, storage, and networks.
  • A concise version of the discussed by NIST multi-tenancy risks is provided.
  • A concise version of the discussed by NIST multi-tenancy risks is provided.
  • Cloud Computing Use Case Group started collaborative work to describe and define cases and demonstrate the benefits of cloud, with the goal to highlight the capabilities and requirements that need to be standardized in cloud environments to ensure interoperability, ease of integration, and portability. The following table presents concise definitions, based on their and the testing standards group work.CSA -- Table.
  • Concise presentation on cloud portability and interoperability categories listed by The Open Group.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Future of Cloud Computing Irena Bojanova, Ph.D. UMUC, NIST
    • 2. No Longer On The Horizon Essential Characteristics • Pay/charge-per-use access to applications, software development & deployment environments, and computing infrastructure. • Optimized, efficient computing through enhanced collaboration, agility, scalability, and availability. • On-demand Self-Service • Broad Network Access • Resource Pooling • Rapid Elasticity • Measured Service Service models (SPI) Natural evolution of the Web: • Software as a Service (SaaS) • Platform as a Service (PaaS) • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Web Sites Applications Deployment models • • • • Private Community Public Hybrid  Next logical step for IT industry  Strategic weapon in enterprise computing  Norm in every sector of society. SaaS Developer Platforms PaaS Compute and Store IaaS Governments, organizations, and individuals adopt cloud computing  to manage information instead of infrastructure.
    • 3. Now Focus On • Initial Risks Evaluation – using CSA’s framework • • • • Importance of data and applications/functions/processes to be moved to Cloud Risk tolerance of organization Acceptable deployment and service models combinations Potential exposure points for sensitive information and operations. • Multi-Tenancy – the True Cloud solution • • •    Data and applications of different consumers share platforms, storage, and networks Tightly related to resource pooling  Economies of scale, passed to costumers Use of newest technology and the latest software versions Logical separation is a suitable substitute for physical separation. Main risks come from not knowing the architecture One of top 6 questions to ask: Is it hosted or a true Cloud solution? • Cloud-Based Integration – iPaaS • Silos –- applications and data cannot interact with on-premise systems. • iPaaS –- development, execution and governance of integration flows • Connecting on-premise and cloud-based processes, services, applications, and data • Within individual or across multiple organizations.
    • 4. Now Focus On (Cont.) • Cloud Portability, Interoperability, and Federation • • • • •   Applications and data are easily moved between platforms and providers Scaling one service across disparate providers , while appearing and operating as one system Interoperability is closely related to rapid elasticity and multi-tenancy Connecting clouds through network gateways  hybrid Cloud environment Interconnecting services of providers from disparate networks Providers wholesale or rent resources to balance workloads and handle spikes in demand Standard, pre-negotiated set of contracts.; Federation agreements. Benefits for Consumers  Choose best provider by flexibility, cost, and availability of services  Use most appropriate infrastructure environment  Distribute workloads around globe ;move data between disparate networks. Benefits for Providers  Earn revenue from idle or underutilized resources  Expand geographic footprints without building new points of presence.  Considerable effort: IEEE CS P2302 – Standard for Intercloud Interoperability and Federation.
    • 5. New Trends Nexus of Forces –evolving through convergence and mutual reinforcement of:  Social  Mobile  Cloud  Big Data • Social media and mobile apps provide platform for effective social and business interactions. • Cloud offers convenient and cost effective computational and information delivery infrastructure. • New digital economy is being built upon this Nexus in combination with the Internet of Things, unlocking an incredible opportunity to connect everything together. The gap between ideas and actions is being rapidly reduced through: Near-global connectivity Pervasive mobility Industrial-strength compute services Access to vast amounts of information Without Cloud • • • Social interactions – no place to happen at scale Mobile – no connection to data and functions Information – stuck inside internal systems.
    • 6. New Trends (Cont.) • Personal Clouds (PC’s) • • • • PC idea reborn -- control on data, apps, terms of service Personal devices  Personal services; self-hosted, provider-hosted, or hybrid Interoperable and addressable through XDI p2p marketplace – Find and engage with anyone with PC’ – trust, reputation. • Hybrid Clouds Evolution • From integration of internal private clouds & public services  Towards bringing together personal clouds & external private services • Will have to be design with interoperability and federation in mind. • Private Clouds Evolution • Will have to be designed with hybrid future in mind to be able to handle future aggregation, integration, interoperability, and customization of services • Organizations implementing such clouds will have to: • Handle overdrafting and cloudbursting • Take role of cloud service brokers.
    • 7. New Trends (Cont.) From • Cloud ~ provides ubiquitous, on-demand, elastic, selfconfigurable, cost effective computing. and • Mobile ~ convenient gadgets, with regional wireless communication and limited data services and computing and power resources. Flyables Drivables To • Cloud-Based Mobile Augmentation (CMA) ~ employs Cloud to increase, enhance, and optimize computing capabilities of mobile devices. and • Cloud Mobility ~ low-end mobile devices access cloud computing resources and globally connected mobile enabled resources. Wearables Scannables
    • 8. Evaluating Initial Cloud Risks Steps in Evaluating Risk Details 1. Identify asset for cloud deployment • Determine exactly what data or applications/ function/ process is being considered for the Cloud. Potential uses of asset to account for: • Scope creep — data and transaction volumes often become higher than expected. 2. Evaluate asset Ask what would be the harm if: • Determine how sensitive that data is and how important that application/ • Asset became widely public and widely distributed function/ process is to organization. Assess confidentiality, integrity, and • Asset were accessed by employee of Cloud provider availability; and how risk changes if all/ part of that asset is in the Cloud • Process/function were manipulated by outsider — similar to project outsourcing assessment, just with wider range of • Process/function failed to provide expected results deployment options. • Data were unexpectedly changed • Asset were unavailable for a period of time 3. Map asset to cloud deployment models Which model is acceptable for identified asset: • Determine if any risks implicit to different deployment models (private, • Public; Private, internal/ on premises public, community, hybrid) and hosting scenarios (internal, external, • Private, external — look at dedicated or shared infrastructure combined) are acceptable. • Community — look at hosting location, service provider, • At this point there should be a good idea of the comfort level for community members transitioning to the Cloud, and which deployment models and locations fit • Hybrid — look at least at rough architecture of where desired security and risk requirements. components, functions, and data will reside 4. Evaluate cloud service models and providers • Focus on degree of control organization will have at each SPI tier to implement any required risk management (risk mitigation). • For a specific offering, switch to a fuller risk assessment. Consider: • SaaS • PaaS • IaaS 5. Map out data flow Consider: • For specific provider offering, map out data flow between organization, • Private cloud service, any customers/ other nodes. Understand whether and how • Public data can move in and out of the Cloud. • Community • For any offering, sketch out rough data flow for any deployment option • Hybrid on your acceptable list, to help you identify risk exposure points when making final decisions. Consider: • Providers' offerings Consider: • Providers' offerings
    • 9. Multi-Tenancy Examples of Shared Resources by Service Model Service Model Shared Resources Shared By SaaS Same application or database Different consumers Paas Same operating system, and supporting data and networking services Different processes Iaas Same hardware via a hypervisor Different VMs General Methods for Achieving Multi-Tenancy Multi-Tenancy Via Database Virtualization Physical separation Description Database and configuration, with isolation provided at the application layer. VM technology, providing hardware emulation layer over the real hardware. Multiple copies of server OSs are run within one physical machine, while sharing physical hardware (network cards and disk storage) between virtual OS instances. Resources are provided to tenants individually — each tenant uses only dedicated hardware. Cost Least costly. Might reduce services costs and expenses, but is more costly compared to multi-tenancy via databases. Most costly.
    • 10. Security Risks • • PaaS builds upon IaaS, SaaS in turn builds upon PaaS  security issues and risks are inherited just as capabilities are. Lower down the stack, provider stops bearing responsibility, and consumer becomes responsible for more security capabilities and management. Service Model SaaS PaaS IaaS Integrated Features Extensibility Security • Most integrated • Least functionality built consumer directly into the extensibility offering • Customer ready • More futures extensible than SaaS • Relatively high level of integrated security - provider responsible • Negotiated into contracts for service (service levels, privacy, compliance) • Less complete built-in capabilities • Securing the platform -- provider responsible • More flexibility to layer on additional security • Applications developed on platform and developing them securely -- consumer responsibility • Protecting underlying infrastructure and abstraction layers -- provider responsible • Less integrated security capabilities and functionality beyond that • Reminder of stack -- OSs, applications, content -managed/ secured by consumer • Few if any application-like futures • Enormous extensibility
    • 11. Multi-Tenancy Risks (1) Deployment Model Multi-tenancy Risks and Mitigation Implications: Workloads of different consumers may reside: • Concurrently on same computer system and local network, • Separated only by access policies implemented by provider's software. Consumers security could be compromised by flaw in: General • Implementation or • Provider’s management and operational policies and procedures. Multi-tenancy risks: • Reliability – failure may occur • Security – attack may be perpetrated by consumer Implications: • General risks apply, as there could be authorized but malicious insiders • Different organizational functions (payroll, sensitive PII storage, IP generation) can become accessible to not authorized users and classes of data disclosed. On-site Risks mitigation: • Logical segregation techniques at network layer, such as VPN Routing and Forwarding (VRF) Private • Clients are restricted to organization members or authorized guests/ partners. Implications: • On-site private cloud risks apply. Risks mitigation: Outsourced • FISMA and OMB policy require external cloud providers to handle federal information or operating information systems on behalf of the federal government meet same security requirements as federal agencies.
    • 12. Multi-Tenancy Risks (2) Deployment Model Multi-tenancy Risks and Mitigation Implications: • On-site private cloud risks apply, but more organizations are encompassed. On-site Risks mitigation: • Restricted number of possible attackers, but more than with private onCommunity side cloud. Implications: • On-site community cloud risks apply. Outsourced Risks mitigation: • Restricted number of possible attackers, but more than with private cloud. Implications: • Workloads of any combination of consumers may be sharing a single machine • Workload may be co-resident with workloads of competitors or adversaries. Risks: Public • Large collection of potential attackers, as public clouds aim scaling in consumers and resources to achieve low costs and elasticity. Risks mitigation: • Limited kinds of data for computations in the cloud • Data encryption (but then data needs to be unencrypted to be processed) • Physical separation – rent entire computer systems rather than VMs (mono-tenancy), VPNs, segmented networks, or advanced access controls.
    • 13. Interoperability (1) Interoperability, Portability, and Cloud Service Models Service Model Interoperability and Portability IaaS • Interoperability and portability of customer workloads are more achievable in IaaS service • IaaS building blocks are relatively well-defined, e.g., network protocols, CPU instruction sets, and legacy device interfaces PaaS • Application written to use specific services from a vendor's PaaS will require changes to use similar services from another vendor's PaaS • Efforts on development of open and proprietary standard API's to enable cloud management, security, and interoperability: Open Cloud Computing Interface Working Group (OCCI), Amazon EC@API, ... • Common container formats: DMTF'S Open Virtualization Format (OVF). • Application written to those standards is far more likely to be interoperable and portable. SaaS • Portability of workloads requires a level of compatibility and interoperability between SaaS applications.
    • 14. Interoperability (2) Interoperability of Between Application Need of Application components deployed as: Dynamic discovery and composition: • SaaS • Discover instances of application components • Applications using PaaS • Combine them with others at run time. • Applications on platforms using Note: Application component may be a complete IaaS monolithic application or part of a distributed application. Platform Platform components deployed as: • PaaS • Platforms on IaaS Standard protocols for service discovery and information exchange — indirectly these enable interoperability of applications on these platforms. Management • Cloud services (SaaS, PaaS, Iaas) and programs for implementation of on-demand self-service. Standard interfaces for cloud services — to create generic system management products for both cloud services and in-house systems. Publication and Acquisition Portability of Data Application Platform • Platforms, cloud PaaS services and Standard interfaces to these stores — to lower cost of for marketplaces (including app stores). software provideers and users. Enables Re-Use of • Data components across different applications • Application components across cloud PaaS services and traditional computing platforms • Platform components across cloud IaaS services and non-cloud infrastructure (platform source portability) • Bundles containing applications and data with their supporting platforms (machine image portability)

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