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AgendaIntroduction and Overview 10 minsThe MBTI® Instrument 30 minsUnderstanding MBTI Preferences 20 minsVerifying your MBTI® Results 15 minsPreference Splitting Exercises 15 minsCoping with Stress using Type 15 minsProblem Solving and Giving Feedback using Type 15 mins
Learning ObjectivesAfter completing this session, you should be able to:• Discuss how team interactions are influenced by the individual preferences and type of team members• Understand how to communicate and work effectively with others using type• Develop strategies to work others with opposite preferences to yourself
Understanding Your Type• During the program we will explain the ideas underlying the MBTI® tool and ask you to undertake a self assessment• The score you record on the MBTI® instrument will report one of 16 different types as your results• You will use your self-assessment, your results, and Introduction To Type® booklet to decide which type fits best for you• The exercises in this program to show you how the types differ from one another and to help you clarify what your type means for you as a leader
About the MBTI ® Instrument• An indicator – not a test• Forced-choice questions• No right or wrong answers –Takes about 20-40 minutes to complete• Your results are confidential• The MBTI® questionnaire looks only at normal behaviour• There are no good or bad types – all types have some natural strengths and some possible pitfalls or blind spots
Now Let’s Take the MBTI ® Questionnaire • As you answer the questions: • Think of what you prefer when you do not have outside pressures to behave in a particular way • Think of yourself, outside of the roles you play at work or in personal life.
Complete the MBTI Questionnaire Form M1. Read the instructions on the front2. Answer the 93 questions – use a ball point pen and a hard surface3. Do not tear off the side strips and open – we’ll do this together later
Behind MBTIJungs Theory – Basic Mental Processes We make decisions about We take in information information Perception Judgement Sensing Intuition Thinking FeelingYou cant use both methods of taking You cant use both methods of makingin information simultaneously, so we judgments simultaneously, so we develop a preference for using one develop a preference for using one method over another method over another
Behind MBTIJungs Theory – Orientation of Energy Extraversion Introversion Focus on the outer Focus on the inner world of things, world of thoughts, people, and events feelings, and reflections
Jung’s Theory• Jung believed that preferences are an innate inborn predisposition• He also recognised that our innate preferences interact with and are shaped by environmental influences: – Family – Country – Education – and many more…
Jung’s Theory• We will look at four sets of opposites – like our right and left hands• We all use both sides, but one is our natural preference• Jung believed that our preferences do not change – they stay the same over our lifetime• What changes is how we use our preferences and often the accuracy with which we can measure the preferences
Extraversion or Introversion The direction we focus our attention & energy
E–IPeople who prefer Extraversion:• Focus their energy and attention outward• Are interested in the world of people and thingsPeople who prefer Introversion:• Focus their energy and attention inward• Are interested in the inner world of thoughts and reflections We all use both preferences but usually not with equal comfort.
People Who Prefer Extraversion:• Are attracted to the outer world of people and events• Are aware of who and what is around them• Enjoy meeting and talking with new people• Are friendly, often verbally skilled and easy to know• Tend to speak out easily and often at meetings• May not be as aware of what is going on inside themselves
People Who Prefer Introversion:• Are attracted to the inner world of thoughts, feelings, and reflections• Are usually very aware of their inner reactions• Prefer to interact with people they know• Are often quiet in meetings and seem uninvolved• Are often reserved and harder to get to know• May not be as aware of the outer world around them
Where do you prefer to focus your attention?Where do you get energy?• Review the characteristics of Extraversion and Introversion on Page 6 of Introduction to Type• Tick the one that you think describes your natural way of doing things?
Sensing or iNtuition The way we take in information and the kind of information we like and trust
S–NPeople who prefer Sensing:• Prefer to take in information using their five senses – sight, sound, feel, smell, and tastePeople who prefer iNtuition:• Go beyond what is real or concrete and focus on meaning, associations, and relationships We all use both ways of perceiving but we typically prefer and trust one more
People Who Prefer Sensing:• See and collect facts and details• Are practical and realistic• Start at the beginning and take one step at a time• Are specific and literal when speaking, writing, and listening• Live in the present, dealing with the here and now• Prefer reality to fantasy
People who prefer iNtuition:• See patterns, possibilities, connections, and meanings in information• Are conceptual and abstract• Start anywhere and may leap over basic steps• Speak and write in general, metaphorical terms• Live in the future – the possibilities• Prefer imagination and ingenuity to reality
How do you prefer to take in information?• Review the characteristics of Sensing and iNuition on Page 6 of Introduction to Type• Tick the one that you think describes your natural way of doing things?
T–FPeople who prefer Thinking:• Make their decisions based on impersonal, objective logicPeople who prefer Feeling:• Make their decisions with a person-centered, value-based process Both processes are rational and we use both of them, but usually not equally easily.
People who prefer Thinking:• Use logic to analyse the problem, assess pros and cons• Focus on the facts and the principles• Are good at analysing a situation• Focus on problems and tasks – not relationships• May overlook the personal impacts of decisions, their emotions or those of others
People who prefer Feeling:• Use their personal values to understand the situation• Focus on the values of the group or organisation• Are good at understanding people and their viewpoints• Concentrate on relationships and harmony• May overlook logical consequences of individual decisions
How do you make decisions?• Review the characteristics of Thinking and Feeling on Page 7 of Introduction to Type• Tick the one that you think describes your natural way of doing things?
Judging or Perceiving Our attitude to the external world and how we orient ourselves to it
J–PPeople who prefer Judging:• Want the external world to be organised and orderly• Look at the world and see decisions that need to be madePeople who prefer Perceiving:• Seek to experience the world, not organise it• Look at the world and see options that need to be explored We all use both attitudes but usually not with equal comfort
People Who Prefer Judging:• Like to make plans and follow them• Like to get things settled and finished• Like environments with structure and clear limits• Enjoy being decisive and organising others• Handle deadlines and time limits comfortably• Plan ahead to avoid last minute rushes
People Who Prefer Perceiving:• Like to respond resourcefully to changing situations• Like to leave things open, gather more information• Like environments that are flexible; dislike rules and limits• May not like making decisions, even when pressed• Tend to think that there is plenty of time to do things• Often have to rush to complete things at the last minute
How do you deal with the outer world?• Review the characteristics of Judging and Perceiving on Page 6 of Introduction to Type• Tick the one that you think describes your natural way of doing things?
Combined your preferences to estimate your type What do you estimate your E or I type to be? S or N ___ ___ ___ ___ T or F J or P
There is variation within each type and typedoes not measure:• Intelligence • Illness• Affluence • IQ• Normalcy • Stress• Maturity • Trauma• Emotions • Psychiatric Illness
Scoring Your Responses• Tear the perforated left side of the form to open the scoring sheet• Count the number of Xs in each row and write the number in the shaded area at the end of that row• Tally each column at the bottom of the page• Copy you score into the Raw Points box• Determine your Reported Type• Determine your preference clarity
Using the Self-Scorable Form M• Participants tear off and keep the cover sheet• Facilitator to collect the rest of the form
Tied Scores for Reported Type:• A tied score is when you answered an equal number of questions on each side of the dichotomy: – E.g.. E = 10 I = 10We use a tie-breaking formula: – I slight – N slight – F slight – P slightWhy?
Cultural Norms• E, S, T, and J are the cultural norms in the USA – I, N, F and P are less preferred• If a person is close or tied, there is probably some environmental pressure from the cultural norms• Something is pulling them in the direction that is opposite to the cultural norms – their inborn preferences
Reported and Self-Estimate Type• If these are the same – look up the one-page profile in Introduction to Type® booklet and decide if it describes how you usually think and act• If they are different, read the profiles for both self- estimate and reported MBTI® type in Introduction to Type® booklet and decide which is the more accurate
Levels of Confidence True Type (never sure) ‘Best-fit’ Type Self-estimate Type & Reported Type
Agreement on Reported Type• 2/3 – 3/4 of any group will agree with their reported type• They will report general agreement with the Introduction To Type® profile• When people disagree, it’s usually on one preference – and often one where they had a slight result
Have I Changed Type?• When people report having ‘changed type,’ they are most likely to have had an incorrect administration – the mind set was not done properly, resulting in the reporting of ‘work type’ or ‘ideal type.’
Why isnt everyone like me?• What would an organisation be like if it were run entirely by people who shared your preferences?• You can determine the type of a workgroup by constructing a "Type Table"
Type Table# = ___ ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJE= ___ I = ___S= ___ N = ___T= ___ F= ___ ISTP ISFP INFP INTPJ= ___ P = ___Modal Type (Most Frequent Type) ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP__ __ __ __Group Type (Most FrequentPreference) ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ__ __ __ __
Working with the Type Table• What challenge exists in working in a group that has a different "group type" than your own type?• What actions might you take to work together effectively?
E–I Splitting Exercise• In your groups, create 3 questions that will give you better insight into the opposite to your preference on this dichotomy (5 minutes)• Elect a spokesperson who will actually ask the questions
E–I Splitting ExerciseWhat are some of the Observable BehaviouralDifferences you notice between E’s and I’s?
• E’s are more talkative, energetic, and overtly enthusiastic about the task.• I’s go silent when first asked a question.• E’s answer questions immediately.• I’s wait to see who will answer.• E’s talk over one another.• I’s preserve space between themselves.• E’s rugby-huddle.
• In the E group, one or two look introverted.• In the I group, one or two look extraverted.
E–I Splitting exercise• What are the implications and applications of this splitting exercise?• Communication breakdown• Conflict between the two Types
S–N Splitting ExerciseLook at the following picture for 11/2 minutes, insilence, and then be prepared to share with thegroup what you think you have been looking at.
People with a preference for S:• Describe what they literally see: – physical attributes of the picture (colour, shapes, artist’s name, size)• Then they try to make sense out of the shapes – object sense• We can usually agree with the interpretations of the shapes.
People with a preference for N:• Interpret the picture, seeing possibilities and meanings that are highly personalised• They often make up a story about the picture• There is often an all-encompassing meaning or message.
What can we conclude?• We all look at the same image but see different things.• Who sees it correctly?
S–N Splitting Exercise• What are the implications and applications of this exercise?• We must remember that we all trust our own perceptions, while knowing that there are many other ways of seeing the same object/situation.
T–F Splitting Exercise• Imagine that you have been invited to a party with your partner or a close friend.• Your partner/friend arrives, ready for the party, and you look at what they are wearing and say to yourself ‘Oh no! Are they really going to wear that?’• What do you do and say in these circumstances? Discuss in your groups.
• T’s concentrate on achieving their desired outcome – the partner/friend changes clothes or they don’t go.• T’s are frank and to-the-point in stating their views about the clothing.• F’s often say they don’t care what the person is wearing.• F’s are often concerned about embarrassing the person, take a tactful, indirect approach.
T–F Splitting Exercise• What are the implications and applications of this exercise?• T’s look for faults and helpfully point them out.• F’s look for good things and point them out.• Which is the best approach?
J–P Splitting Exercise 1• There are two signs at opposite ends of the room A. I have to get my work done before I can play B. I can play anytime• Form a line that indicates how much each of these appeal to you, which comes closest to how you usually feel or act
J–P Splitting Exercise 2• Assuming that you are all friends, plan a social picnic for your group
J–P Splitting Exercise 2• J’s plan everything to the nth degree, liking to cover every contingency.• P’s leave things open, desiring flexibility.
J–P Splitting Exercise• What are the implications and applications of this exercise?• J’s form a poor opinion of P’s.• P’s have to look like J’s if they are to succeed in organisational settings.• J’s pay a price for their need to organise everything – continuous low-grade stress.
Sources of Stress• Each of the preferences provide an indication of where the source of stress may be for an individual• Aim to understand what may cause stress for you, or someone who does not share the same preference as you, and what you could do to minimise that stress
Typical Work Stressors for each of the Preferences Stressors for Extraverts • Working alone • Having to communicate mainly by email • Lengthy work periods with no interruptions • Having to reflect before taking action • Having to focus in depth on one thing • Getting feedback in writing only Stressors for Introverts • Working with others • Talking on the phone a lot • Interacting with others frequently • Having to act quickly without reflection • Too many concurrent tasks and demands • Getting frequent and verbal feedback
Coping with Being Different Your Workgroups Preference Preference Consider these tactics: • Networking with others outside your team • Asking them to voice their ideas • Paying attention to written notices and email • Allowing others to think about your idea before they provide feedback (count to three – or ten…) Extraversion Introversion Your Workgroups Consider these tactics: Preference Preference • Arriving at work early to take advantage of quiet time • Intentionally seeking out private/reflective time – take the long way home • Planning private breaks throughout the day to collect your thoughts • In meetings, voicing even partially thought-through Introversion Extraversion perspectives
Typical Work Stressors for each of the Preferences Stressors for Intuitive Types • Having to attend to realities • Having to do things the proven way • Having to attend to details • Checking the accuracy of facts • Needing to focus on past experience • Being required to be practical Stressors for Sensing Types • Attending to own and others insights • Having to do old things in new ways • Having to give an overview without details • Looking for the meaning in the facts • Focussing on possibilities • Too many complexities
Coping with Being Different Your Workgroups Consider these tactics: Preference Preference • Getting involved in projects that require long-range or future thinking • Practice "brainstorming" with the rest of the team • Preparing yourself for "roundabout" discussions – look for patterns • Going beyond specifics – try to discover meanings Sensing Intuition and themes Your Workgroups Consider these tactics: Preference Preference • Practice presenting information in a step-by-step manner • Providing specific examples of vital information • Honouring organisational values surrounding experience and tradition • Reading the fine print and getting the facts straight Intuition Sensing
Typical Work Stressors for each of the Preferences Stressors for Thinking Types • Using personal experience to assess situations • Adjusting to individual differences and needs • Noticing and appreciating what is positive • Focussing on processes and people • Using empathy and personal values to make decisions • Having others react to questioning as divisive Stressors for Feeling Types • Analysing situations objectively • Setting criteria and standards • Critiquing and focussing on flaws • Focusing on tasks only • Being expected to use logic alone to make decisions • Asking questions that feel divisive
Coping with Being Different Your Workgroups Consider these tactics: Preference Preference • Working on projects in which alternative causes and solutions are evaluated in personal terms • Reminding yourself that factoring in the impact on people is logical even if people arent • Softening critical remarks – finding the positive, too • Asking for others opinions and concerns, looking for Thinking Feeling points of agreement before discussing issues Your Workgroups Consider these tactics: Preference Preference • Practice laying out an argument logically by saying if…then, or by considering the causes and effects • Understanding that critical feedback is often given in the spirit of improving your professionalism • Bringing attention to stakeholders concern regarding projects/work • Using brief and concise language to express your Feeling Thinking wants and needs
Typical Work Stressors for each of the Preferences Stressors for Judging Types • Waiting for structure to emerge from process • Too much flexibility around time frames and deadlines • Having to marshal energy at the last minute • Staying open to reevaluation of tasks • Dealing with surprises Stressors for Perceiving Types • Having to organise themselves and others planning • Working within timeframes and deadlines • Others distrust of last minute energy • Having to finish and move on • Developing contingency plans • Being required to plan ahead
Coping with Being Different Consider these tactics: Your Workgroups Preference Preference • Seeking out projects that have definite milestones and a final deadline • Trying to wait on a decision for a few days, continuing to gather more information and paying attention to ideas that may come up • Understanding that work is progressing despite differences in work styles Judging Perceiving • Making your own milestones and deadlines Consider these tactics: Your Workgroups • Recognising that deadlines set by the organisation Preference Preference may not be negotiable • Using a past decision you believe others rushed to demonstrate the advantages of slowing down to gather more information • Becoming active in projects where the process is just as important as the outcome Perceiving Judging • Keeping "surprises" to a minimum and reducing your options
Delivering Feedback that caters to Type E IDiscuss with a peer if necessary. Reflect on need for corrective feedback S NDescribe the actual and specific unwanted Relate the actual behaviour to the big picturebehaviour or unfulfilled responsibilities you have Give your impressions about how this behaviour orobserved. unfulfilled expectation has affected outcomes.Be concrete, factual, and verifiable. Present your interpretation of the facts. T FDetermine and express the logical outcomes of Disclose your values and feelings.this behaviour on you and others. Explain why this correction is important to you andConsider the pros and cons of your planned why it matters.action. J PDetermine any present or future action plans and Allow for input from the other person and flexibilitysecure the other persons commitment to change. in determining any steps.
SNTF Problem SolvingiNtuition Thinking• Intuit probable causes • Weigh practicality of• Generate alternatives, alternatives interpretations of the • Examine consequences factual data• Seek patterns relating iNtuition Thinking • Weigh gains/losses this problem to others 2 3 1 4 FeelingSensing • Determine “fit” with• Identify and clarify personal and problem (who, what, • organisational values when, where) Sensing Feeling` • Assess effects on• Gather relevant, relationships/ specific data organisation• Use facts verifiable by a • Determine how to win reliable source others to solution
Further Application of SNTF Problem SolvingAbstract LogicalWhat else could this mean?Imaginative N T What are the pros and cons? ReasonableWhat else can we come up with? What are the logical consequences?Conceptual QuestioningWhat other ideas are there? But what about…?Theoretical CriticalHow is it all connected? iNtuiting Thinking What is wrong with this?Original: Questions Questions ToughIs there a new way to do this? Why arent we following through now? 2 3 1 4Concrete EmpatheticWhat do we know? What do we like and dislike?Realistic Sensing Feeling CompassionateWhat are the real costs? Questions Questions What impact will this have on people?Practical AccommodatingWill it work? How can we make everyone happy?Experiential AcceptingCan you show me how it works? What is beneficial in this?TraditionalDoes anything really need changing? S F Tender What about the people who will be hurt
What Now?• How does your type contribute to the team?• What are the pitfalls for your type?• What are your next steps?