Tweet: July 7, 2005 London Bombings - first 24 hours on Wikipedia: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8O-hv3w-MUThis time lapse shows how quickly the London Bombings were reported on Wikipedia. While the initiative wasn’t necessarily designed for news reporting, this became an unintended use of Wikipedia technology and shows an impressive speed of the editors and available information. They used their smart mobile phones to record the situation.
Understanding the interactions of Wikipedia requires some basic concepts from social media theorists.
Tweet: Want to know more about Alexa.com rankings in Canada? See: http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Job_openings/Chief_Program_Officer
Tweet: See Shirky on Ted Talks: http://www.ted.com/talks/clay_shirky_how_cognitive_surplus_will_change_the_world.htmlTweet: See more on Wikimedia: http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Annual_ReportCrowds used to be hard to organize, a threat to order, and described as a mob or angry, anxious.But social media changes the possibilities of organizing large crowds. Shirky (2010) and Surowiecki (2005) propose that a well organized crowd can find solutions more efficiently then the decision making powers of the elite few. While asking a crowd a question for the answer is not a new concept (democracy has been around for some time), social media or web 2.0 enables the crowd to do things previously unattainable. Some examples of rapidly organizing online communities include: Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (World of Warcraft, ebay, Craigslist, Amazon, YouTube and Wikipedia.
Tweet: See qwiki.com to see how videos are produced using available on-line content!Despite the burnout of its editors, technologists and industry continue to find ways to direct the online world to its articles such as mobile devices applications, impressive search engine rankings, online mapping references, and social networking references. Most recently qwiki.com used a software to converge audio feeds of wikipedia content with pictures and videos from the web to automate the creation of videos.
Wikipedia is built to be fast. The word is hawaian for fast. How fast is it? News reporters can’t make it to a news scene before the general public, and if there are any wikipedians on scence, reporters may be better off to get their leads from the online world and this includes places such as wikipedia.from Hawaiian wiki-wiki quick, coined by Ward Cunningham (born 1949), US computer programmer who invented the concept] Taken from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/wiki
Tweet: See Andrew Lih on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92DWIBOjTuEThe quintessential connection to online life and genuine human interaction happens annually at Wikimania where editors have the opportunity to submit papers, have them reviewed and then accepted for presentation at the annual international conference. While other people are playing in MUDS, or meeting up in Second Life, this community socializes through the editing and publishing of the world’s largest online encyclopaedia (Tancer 2007). Users can join projects, create subcommittees or even compete for the WikiCup. Jimmy Wales sums up his goals for the community: “Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That’s what we’re doing” (Lih 2009, 1). Lih’s description of the first ever Wikimania conference adds credence to the popularity and passion of the Wikipedian culture:Suddenly talking about digging through stacks of books to confirm one fact, checking grammar for five hours straight, or creating thousands of maps by hand didn’t seem so dysfunctional. . .into the night, users rearranged plastic chairs and outdoor furniture to cluster around laptops, using the wireless Internet as an umbilical cord to attach to the Wikipedia mother ship, editing, sifting, and adding to the site. (Lih, 2)
Tweet: See Nupedia’s beginnings as told by Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nupedia
Compare Citizendium.org with Wikipedia: http://en.citizendium.org/
Tweet: Alexa.com traffic ranking for Citizendium 81,523. See: http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/citizendium.org
Tweet: “Seen by 400 million unique visitors monthly, Mr. Wales is arguably the single most visible individual on the plane” from: http://prn.to/fkCQPuBarberi, David. (2010). Wikipedia's "Free-Labor, No-Commerce" Strategy Questioned Retrieved from: www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/wikipedia-experts-call-for-no-donations-to-wikipedia-111911964.htmlSo Granular contributions would fill the campaign – so I donated $20 (to learn the system)
Tweet: Wikipedia raised 16 million dollars! See: http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Half_a_Million_People_Donate_to_Keep_Wikipedia_Free!Unfortunately my receipt isn’t good in Canada for tax savings. . .(and we give approximately 45% of our wages to taxes)!* To donate: http://donate.wikimedia.org* To visit our Blog: http://blog.wikimedia.org* To follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/wikimedia* To follow us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/wikipediaThis letter can serve as a record for tax purposes. No goods orservices were provided, in whole or in part, for this contribution.The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is a non-profit charitable corporationwith 501(c)(3) tax exempt status in the United States. Our address is 149 New Montgomery, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, CA, 94105. Tax-exempt number: 20-0049703
Tweet: See Bruns Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond: From production to produsage.There are a variety of levels in the Wikipedia community including: anonymous contributors, registered users, administrators, bureaucrats, stewards, super elites or “developers”, an arbitration committee, and finally its cofounder and patriarch: Jimmy Wales (Bruns, 2008). Registered users get increased editing privileges and the social privilege of a talk page.
Tweet: If you test the system as a registered user, you will be graced by the welcoming committee and encouraged to edit.The Test VandalThe “test vandal” is described by Lih (176) as the person that wants to know if Wikipedia actually works. He describes a scenario: It’s the equivalent of kicking the tires, tapping the microphone, or scribbling a pen on a paper pad. . . Wikipedia has traditionally used undoing new users’ test edits as a chance to surprise them immediately with a welcome message, in the hope of turning them into useful contributors. This invitational approach gives users a sense of wonderment in the common good encourages them to sign on.
Tweet: A sock puppet is a pseudonym for when you work on something you don’t want on your profile (Lih)The Essjay controversy was an incident concerning a prominent Wikipedia participant and salaried Wikia employee, known by the username Essjay, who later identified himself as Ryan Jordan. Jordan held trusted volunteer positions within Wikipedia known as administrator, bureaucrat, arbitrator and mediator. In February 2007, Jordan was found to have made false claims about his academic qualifications and professional experiences on his Wikipedia user page, and to journalist Stacy Schiff during an interview for The New Yorker, and to have exploited his supposed qualifications as leverage in internal disputes over Wikipedia content. The issues highlighted within the controversy included his falsification of a persona and qualifications, the impact of this deception on perceptions of Wikipedia (and its policies and credibility), and the quality of decisions made in his promotion, support, and employment.Lih on Sock Puppets “are extra accounts created by users as alternative identities. Sometimes there may be letitimate uses for them, such as if you’re embarrassed to edit an article about [[Teletubbies]] under your own name. In general, sock puppets are heavily discouraged, because they can be used abusively to stack votes or to create false consensus, sowing mistrust in the community.
Tweet: The topic of Pedophelia (and many more) are a slippery slope for the “Neutral point of View” philosophy.Pedophiles on WikipediaBecause Wikipedia is freely edited by anyone around the world there are attempts at normalizing and/or engaging in illegal activities such as pedophilia. Jana Winter from Fox news explains:Chat room posts show a clear effort by pedophiles to use Wikipedia, which can be accessed unfiltered in public schools across the country, to further their agenda. Message board posts often include links to specific Wikipedia articles that the participants say need to be edited to "normalize" pedophile behavior in the public eye and to recruit more pedophiles into their community. Unfortunately Wikipedia and the internet’s ubiquity has aided a darker side of society. This darker side of the culture makes users more receptive to the idea that Wikipedia and other open source communities need to be carefully watched/investigated.
Tweet: See Lawrence Lessig on “Code is Law”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=us5CUAsH0U0
Tweet: Use the recent changes page to see where you can contribute: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Recent_changes_patrol Recent changes patrol or RC patrol is a Wikipedia communal patrol whereby individual users (also called editors) check the recent changes to various articles for harmful edits.The patrol is entirely voluntary and carries no obligation. At its heart, it is really just a way to try to ensure that every edited article gets checked in a timely manner and is given a boost on its way to becoming a "featured article", while simultaneously ensuring that the rest of Wikipedia is not harmed.You can check for recent changes, label articles with warnings, and make edits.One person I met on Wikipedia was looking only for comma splices and that was her only editorial goal.
Tweet: See article on automated editing titled: “Wikipedia Bots”: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:BotsThe Wikipedian Police.While benevolent Wikipedians could take care of numerous malicious edits, the metrics of completing this on a human scale is not in their favour. Programmers continuously create Wikipedia bots as a means to eradicate the menial task of reverting vandalism on the site. The Article “Wikipedia:Bots” defines automated bots: Bots are automated or semi-automated tools that carry out repetitive and mundane tasks in order to maintain the 3,365,694 articles of the English Wikipedia. Bots are able to make edits very rapidly and can disrupt Wikipedia if they are incorrectly designed or operated. For these reasons a bot policy has been developed. (Wikipedia 2010, July 30)The encyclopedia anyone can edit: late traffic engineerHans Monderman discovered in the Netherlands,and here in South Kensington, that sometimesif you remove some of the external rules and signs and everything else,you can actually end upwith a safer environment in which people can function,and one in which they are more human with each other.They're realizing that theyhave to take responsibility for what they do.And Wikipedia has embraced this. Zittrain, September 2009. Ted.com (Retrieved from: Retrieved from: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/jonathan_zittrain_the_web_is_a_random_act_of_kindness.html) In Essence - Policing Wikipedia is not an easy feat as new issues arise daily because it is a community that is in constant flux (Burger 2009).The Counter Vandalism Unit (Zittrain, September 2009) Retrieved from: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/jonathan_zittrain_the_web_is_a_random_act_of_kindness.html
Tweet: See Zittrain on the Benevolence of the Web and a few laughs: http://bit.ly/150YlSZittrain explained why roads that seem dangerous might actually be safer: “late traffic engineerHans Monderman discovered in the Netherlands,and here in South Kensington, that sometimesif you remove some of the external rules and signs and everything else,you can actually end upwith a safer environment in which people can function,and one in which they are more human with each other.They're realizing that theyhave to take responsibility for what they do.And Wikipedia has embraced this. Zittrain, September 2009. Ted.com (Retrieved from: Retrieved from: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/jonathan_zittrain_the_web_is_a_random_act_of_kindness.html)And from Wired December 2004: Roads Gone Wild Retrieved from: (http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.12/traffic.html?pg=2&topic=traffic&topic_set=)
Twitter: See Herdict.org to for updates on censorship around the world.
The Emotional Toll of Wikipedia Lih (184,185) describes several versions of Wikipedian’s who eventually get burned out and then quit their addiction completely due to stress. Lih reports that Wikipedian’s “started to put ‘stress meters’ on their pages to indicate what state they were in” (184). (Lih 2009, 184): “Defcon warnings; some used a thermometer to show their stress level: “just fine” to “A bit tense” to “I quit/I need a vacation.”
RickK was prolific, and a fixture in the ad hoc vandal fighting brigade that would watch the Recent Changes for erroneous edits and miscreants. At his peak, he averaged more than 2,000 edits a month, oftentimes spending hours in a row keeping Wikipedia pristine.Eventually he became embroiled in a repetitive revert flame war, another admin blocked him, then 12 minutes later he was reinstated but this was his tipping point.
Total edits more than 36,000 on 19,777 different pages in Wikipedia. (Lih)
Wikipedia Enters the Sun King’s Courtby MokaFriday, February 18, 2011 at 06:57 AM EST
Campus technology day 2011 2.0
WIKIPEDIA<br />Exploring Interactions, Identities and AddictionTim BrunetUniversity of AlbertaMembers of the Electronic Street TeamShida Azari, Jessica Bukovac, Taylor LaPorteUniversity of Windsor<br />
(Load time: 1.236 Seconds)<br />This image was originally posted to Flickr by zordroyd at http://flickr.com/photos/99198060@N00/369530358. It was reviewed on 09:53, 3 May 2007 (UTC) by the FlickreviewRrobot and confirmed to be licensed under the terms of the cc-by-sa-2.0.<br />Average load time retrieved from: http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org<br />
Exploring the “Loosely Coupled System” of the <br />Wikipedian Community and Canadian Public Universities<br />Wikipedia<br />The learning organization is based on equality, open information, little hierarchy, and a culture that encourages adaptability and participation, enabling ideas to bubble up from anywhere to help the organization seize opportunities and handle crises. In a learning organization the essential value is problem solving, as a opposed to the traditional organization designed for efficient performance.” (Daft & Armstrong 2009, 27)<br />Loosely Coupled System<br />“In contrast to the prevailing image that elements in organizations are coupled through dense, tight linkages, it is proposed that elements are often tied together frequently and loosely. Using educational organizations as a case in point, it is argued that the concept of loose coupling incorporates a surprising number of disparate observations about organizations, suggests novel functions, creates stubborn problems for methodologists, and generates intriguing questions for scholars.”<br />(Wieck 1976, 1)<br />“Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing.”<br />(Wikimedia Founder Jimmy Wales)<br />Abstract<br />Jimmy Wales created Wikipedia as a “Learning Organization” (Daft & Armstrong, 2009) to make it adaptable, fast, inclusive and comprehensive (Shirky, 2010). Alexa.com traffic rankings lists Wikipedia in the top ten websites in Canada, while the PEW Research Center recently published that “Education level continues to be the strongest predictor of Wikipedia use” (PEW Research, 2011). After more than 10 years of evolution, Wikipedia seems to be “loosely coupled” with the typical Canadian public university. The researcher will review online documents regarding organizational processes and conduct interviews within both the Wikipedian community and two university communities. This research project uses “Loosely Coupled Systems ” as the theory to explore how Wikipedia and Canadian Public Universities coalesce organizational processes. <br />Loyal Wikipedians argue that collaboration improves articles over time, just as free open-source software like Linux and Firefox is more robust than for-profit competitors because thousands of amateur programmers get to look at the code and suggest changes. <br />(Time Magazine May 29, 2005).<br />Methodology<br />Interview Location<br /><ul><li>University of Windsor
Telephone</li></ul>University<br />Canadian public universities are typically designed as a “Professional Bureaucracy”. The Key means of coordination includes a standardization of skills and requirements for official standing in professional accrediting organizations. The institution gives careful consideration to standards for graduating students and hiring faculty. Employees are specialized and relegated to specific tasks usually listed on a detailed organizational chart.<br />(Daft & Armstrong 2009, 16) <br />References<br />Ayers P., Matthews, C., Yates, B. (2008). How Wikipedia Works And <br /> how You Can be a Part of It. San Francisco: No Starch Press. <br />Broughton, J. (2008). Wikipedia, The Missing Manual. Sebastopol <br /> CA: O’Reilly Media<br />Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond: from <br /> production to produsage. New York: Peter Lang.<br />Daft, Richard L., & Armstrong, Ann. (2009). Essentials of <br /> Organizational Theory and Design. Canadian Edition. Cincinnati, <br /> OH: South-Western College Publishing.<br />Lih, Andrew. (2009). The Wikipedia Revolution: How a bunch of <br /> nobodies created the world’s greatest encyclopedia. New York: <br /> Hyperion.<br />O’Sullivan, Dan. (2009). Wikipedia a new community of practice? <br />Farnham, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate<br />Professor Wikipedia. (2008). Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eaADQTeZRCY<br />Shirky, Clay. (2009). Cognitive surplus: creativity and generosity in <br /> a connected age. Penguin.<br />Wieck, Karl E. (1976). Educational Organizations as Loosely <br /> Coupled Systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, volume 21 <br /> (no. 1), 1-19.<br />Zittrain, J. (2008). The Future of the Internet – and How to Stop It. <br /> New Haven: R.R. Donelly.<br />“Please note that the APA Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects that cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries.“<br />(Owl Purdue Online Writing Lab, n.d.)<br />Timothy A. Brunet<br />email@example.com<br />Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikeeperez/2453225588/<br />Professor Wikipedia?<br />
Nupedia vs Wikipedia<br />Picture retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Steel_Cage_Match_-_Angle_vs_Cena.jpg<br />
“I do have the right to permanently delete things-particularly when they have little merit and when they are posted by people whose main motive is evidently to undermine my authority and therefore, as far as I’m concerned, damage the project.”<br />Larry Sanger Cofounder of Wikipedia<br />(Shirky 2008)<br />Picture retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Larry_Sanger.jpg<br />
Dear Tim,Thank you for your gift of CAD 20.00 to the Wikimedia Foundation, received on February 17, 2011. I’m very grateful for your support. Your donation celebrates everything Wikipedia and its sister sites stand for: the power of information to help people live better lives, and the importance of sharing, freedom, learning and discovery. Thank you so much for helping to keep these projects freely available for their more than 400 million monthly readers around the world.Your money supports technology and people. The Wikimedia Foundation develops and improves the technology behind Wikipedia and nine other projects, and sustains the infrastructure that keeps them up and running. The Foundation has a staff of about fifty, which provides technical, administrative, legal and outreach support for the global community of volunteers who write and edit Wikipedia. Many people love Wikipedia, but a surprising number don't know it's run by a non-profit. Please help us spread the word by telling a few of your friends.And again, thank you for supporting free knowledge.Sincerely Yours,Sue GardnerExecutive Director<br />(Sue Gardener, personal communication, February 17, 2011)<br />
The End<br />“There is a fatal flaw in the system. Vandals, trolls and malactors are given respect, whereas those who are here to actually create an encyclopedia, and to do meaningful work, are slapped in the face and not given the support needed to do the work they need to do.<br /> There is no reason to continue here.” <br />Lih 2009<br />
Be transparent<br />Teach Social Network Theory<br />Set up “Learning Organization” structures on campus. <br /> (Daft & Armstrong, 2009)<br />Host Wikimania<br />Wales – Honourary Doctorate<br />
Online survey available at: http://app.fluidsurveys.com/s/brunetwikipedia<br />
References<br />Alexa/Wikipedia, (July 2010). Retrieved from: http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org<br />Barberi, David. (2010). Wikipedia's "Free-Labor, No-Commerce" Strategy Questioned Retrieved from: www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/wikipedia-experts-call-for-no-donations-to-wikipedia-111911964.html<br />Bruns, Axel. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond: From production to produsage. Peter Lang.<br />Burger, Megan (2009). Wikipedia loses thousands of editors. TechWorld. Retrieved from: <br /> http://news.techworld.com/networking/3207443/wikipedia-loses-thousands-of-editors/<br />Cohen, Noam. (2007). A contributor to wikipedia has his fictional side. New York Times. Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/05/technology/05wikipedia.html<br />Gotved, Stine. The Construction of Cybersocial Reality. In Critical Cyberculture Studies. New York: New York UP, <br /> 2005.<br />Katonda News Network, (2010). Wikipedia introduces pending changes to control vandalism. Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.katonda.com/news/16/2010/1278<br />Lih, A. (2009). The Wikipedia revolution : how a bunch of nobodies created the world's greatest encyclopedia. New York : Hyperion.<br />Moka. (2011). Wikipedia enters the Sun King’s court. Retrieved from: http://watchingthewatchers.org/indepth/1385372/wikipedia-enters-sun-kings-court<br />RaghanvendraRao, N. M., (2009). Feature Writing. PHI Learning Private Limited.<br />Shirky, Clay. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. Penguin.<br />Shirky, Clay. (2009). Cognitive surplus: creativity and generosity in a connected age. Penguin.<br />Stren, O. (2010, July 26). Wikipedians do it for love. Really. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/technology/wikipedians-do-it-for-love-really/article1652015/<br />Tancer, B. (2007). Look Who’s Using Wikipedia. Time Magazine. Taken from: <br /> http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1595184,00.html<br />Tapscott, D., & Williams, A. (2006). The Perfect Storm. In Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes <br /> Everything. Portfolio. 34-64.<br />Vaknan, Sam. (2010, June 16). Is Wikipedia a cult? Wikipedia strikes back. Global Politician. Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.globalpolitician.com/26478-wikipedia-cult-tynan-wales-reagle.<br />Wikipedia: London Bombings (2006). YouTube. Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8O-hv3w-MU)<br />
References (continued)<br />Wikipedia/User Talk:I dream of horses (2010). Retrieved from: <br /> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:I_dream_of_horses<br />Wikipedia/Wikipedia:Bots. (2010, July 30) Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Bots.<br />Winter, J. (2010). Exclusive: Pedophiles find a home on Wikipedia. Fox News.com. Taken from: <br /> http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2010/06/25/exclusive-pedophiles-find-home-on-wikipedia/<br />Wired. (December 2004): Roads Gone Wild. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.12/traffic.html?pg=2&topic=traffic&topic_set<br />Zittrain, Jonathan. (September 2009). The Web is a random act of kindness. (Retrieved from: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/jonathan_zittrain_the_web_is_a_random_act_of_kindness.html)<br />