Welcome I am ____ Today I am going to talk about the effectiveness of Ti and Writecycle as an instructional support tool for helping students become better writers. In the ed-tech field, we always have to ask about efficacy and whether a particular tech accomplishes the original design principles. We took on an in sdepth analysis of the usage data from Turnitin to try to get to the bottom of this question. The bottom line is that Turnitin delivers statistically-valid long term improvements in student writing … and some best practices emerge that I will also talk about. How many of you are current Tii users or have Tii at your institutions? How many Tii Admins? Libarary Media Specialists? WriteCycle users? Any questions that you would like to make sure I addresss before I go forward now? (use flip charts) I want to make sure I tailor this talk today to the expectations of this group.
Super majority of student open responses (74%) seek help to support academic integrity
Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Voices from the Front Lines What’s Happening in High Schools Now? November 18, 2009 Sponsors:
Moderator David Wangaard, Ed.D. School for Ethical Education Milford, CT
Director of Student Services (grades K-12), Norfolk Collegiate School(independent college preparatory school in Norfolk, Virginia) for 9 years; previous experience in administrative positions (7 years) at Old Dominion University, the College of William and Mary, Longwood University, and Vanderbilt University.
Advisory Board member for the Center for Academic Integrity (C AI) at Clemson University for 2 years; Executive Board member for CAI for 4 years at Duke University prior to association’s move to Clemson University in 2007; member of CAI since its founding in 1992.
Doctoral dissertation: Students’ Perceptions of Academic Integrity and Campus Climate at Small Colleges .
Co-editor of Academic Integrity Matters (NASPA monograph)
Panelist Bill Connolly Bentley University Waltham, MA
What is Plagiarism? According to the Merriam-Webster OnLine Dictionary , to ―plagiarize means
to commit literary theft
to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.
3) to steal or purloin and pass off as one‘s own the ideas, word, artistic productions of another; to use without due credit the ideas expressions or productions of another.
From Langley High School, McLean, VA – Public – http://www.fcps.edu/LangleyHS/honorcode.html
Plagiarism includes the copying of the language, structure, programming, computer code, ideas, and/or thoughts of another and passing off the same as one's own original work, or attempts thereof. Such acts include, but are not limited to, having a parent or another person write an essay (including the purchase of works on-line) or do a project which is then submitted as one's own work; failing to use proper documentation and bibliography.
Acknowledging the research that indicates over 90% of US high school students self-report some form of cheating annually and 40-60% self-report some form of plagiarism, do we understand why students are cheating and how students define cheating?
In the Gap JS10 Judgment “ Cheating is Wrong” Action “ I cheated” “ I value morality but sometimes I fail to practice it.” -11th grade male believes cheating is morally wrong reports doing it anyway (Stephens, 2005)
The following seven slides represent preliminary data from the Achieving with Integrity Project a collaboration of the School for Ethical Education and Dr. Jason Stephens at the University of Connecticut, Storrs
Students’ Beliefs and Behaviors: Plagiarizing a few sentences or paragraphs from the Internet is…. JS1 Behavior Belief No Yes Total Not Wrong Count 27 130 157 % of Total 1.8% 8.5% 10.3% Personal Choice; Neither Right or Wrong Count 75 247 322 % of Total 4.9% 16.2% 21.1% Justifiable Depending on Situation Count 120 312 432 % of Total 7.8% 20.4% 28.3% Wrong because it's against school rules Count 158 144 302 % of Total 10.3% 9.4% 19.8% Always Wrong (regardless of school rules) Count 216 100 316 % of Total 14.1% 6.5% 20.7% All Students Count 596 933 1529 % of Total 39.0% 61.0% 100.0%
84.5% 40.2% 81.4% 49.5% 46.6% 60.4% 20.2% 13.6% 44.5% 27.2% 60.5% 23.5% Six Pairs of “Academic Behaviors”: Conventional vs. Digital Cheating JS29 Cheating Behavior Variable Conventional Digital Copied homework By hand or in person: Copied all or part of another student’s homework and submitted it as your own Using digital means such as Instant Messaging or email: Copied all or part of another student’s homework and submitted it as your own Unpermitted collaboration In person : Worked on an assignment with others when the instructor asked for individual work Online via email or Instant Messaging : Worked on an assignment with others when the instructor asked for individual work Plagiarized a few sentences From a book, magazine, or journal (not on the Internet): Paraphrased or copied a few sentences or paragraphs without citing them in a paper you submitted From an Internet Website: Paraphrased or copied a few sentences or paragraphs without citing them in a paper you submitted Plagiarized a complete paper From a friend or another student: Obtained or purchased a complete paper and submitted it as your own work From an Internet Website: Obtained or purchased a complete paper and submitted it as your own work Used unpermitted notes during an exam Used unpermitted notes or textbooks during a test or exam Used unpermitted electronic notes (stored in a PDA, phone or calculator) during a test or exam Copied from someone else during an exam From a friend or another student: Copied from another’s paper during a test or exam with his or her knowledge Used digital technology such as text messaging to “copy” or get help from someone during a test or exam
Belief-Behavior Incongruity JS30 Cheated n = 1469 Did Not Cheat n = 61 (4.0%) Was “Cheating” n = 834 All Students N = 1530 Was Not “Cheating” n = 635 (41.5%) Not Morally Wrong n= 452 (29.5%) Morally Wrong n= 382 (25.0%) Self-Reported Behavior (Researcher defined cheating) Student Deontic Judgment of Cheating Student Definition of Behavior
Four Models of Moral Functioning JS31 Responsibility Judgment Moral Judgment Moral Behavior Socrates/Kohlberg Kohlberg & Candee (1983) Moral Judgment Moral Behavior Blasi (1983, 1984) Moral Self Moral Judgment Moral Behavior Moral Disengagement Bandura (1986, 1989) Moral Judgment Moral Behavior
Note. *** p ≤ .001. This means that 36% of the observed variance in cheating behavior is explained by moral judgments and disengagement Stepwise Regression with all Predictors of Cheating Behavior JS32
What can be done to change the culture of schools in support of academic integrity?
Achieving with Integrity Commitments and Committees Integrity Pledges and Councils Community Shared Responsibility of Students, Teachers, Administrators and Parents Curriculum and Instruction Mastery Oriented Teaching and Learning; Pedagogical Caring and Fairness Core Values Respect Trust Honesty Responsibility Effort Advancing Academic Integrity as a School Community JS12 A Conceptual Model (Stephens & Wangaard Unpublished)
Three Levels of Intervention JS14 Based on Larson’s (1994) Model of Public Health and Disease Control Universal Interventions: Proactive and Preventative Targeted Group Interventions: Rapid and Effective Response Systems Individual Interventions: Intense, one-on-one contracting & assessment 100% of Students 20-40% of Students 5-10% of Students
Three Levels of Intervention JS15 School-wide Education First Year Orientation Program, Student Assemblies, Student Handbook, Honor Code Reading and Signing Ceremony; School Culture that Promotes Academic Engagement and Honesty. Classroom Prevention Classroom-based, subject area-specific discussions about the import of integrity and what constitutes dishonesty; Fair and caring instruction and assessment; Real-time, in situ reminders of AI. Individual Remediation Immediate and consistent responses to academic dishonesty; Ethical and effective procedures for adjudicating contested cases of misconduct; “Developmental” sanctioning aimed at strengthening understanding of and commitment to AI. Students, Teachers, Administrators, and Parents Students and Teachers Students
Catalyzing agent to advance culture of academic integrity
Critical to engage students & teachers
Connect core values and moral motivation to integrity issues
Seek to improve teaching strategies
This committee includes representatives from faculty, administration, students and parents who address the issues surrounding academic integrity and the challenges in establishing a school-wide culture of integrity.
The S tudent A cademic I ntegrity and L eadership program ( S.A.I.L .) is a student-run organization centered on making ethics a higher priority at ECHHS.
By being a member of Honor Councils and Ethos discussion groups at school, being a S.A.I.L . mentor, or by simply anchoring themselves to a tenet of character and integrity, S.A.I.L . students contribute to this mission of ethical reprioritization.
S.A.I.L AND ECHHS National Honor Society teamed up to create Cheating Chat Day.
The goal of this event is to establish an understanding between students and teachers as to what constitutes cheating. Each teacher is encouraged to take five or more minutes of each class period to discuss the importance of addressing the issue of cheating in the classroom. Guidelines are provided. Setting aside one day for discussion in every class period helps to clarify what constitutes cheating and it makes an impact on students’ impression of cheating, and the value of integrity.
Source: National Council of Teachers of English . 2005. The Council Chronicle . www .ncte.org/ pubs/chron/highlights/122871.htm (accessed Feb. 18, 2008). Teachers Did Not Discuss Plagiarism Teachers Discussed Plagiarism Grades 3-5 (understood) 49% 61% Grades 6-12 (felt it was acceptable) 37% 22%
Character Education Partnership (CEP) - Academic Integrity Network: http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/ain.htm
Center for Academic Integrity (CAI) :
The School for Ethical Education (SEE’s) Integrity Works! website: http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/
Flowchart for Honor System DW2 Suggested schematic to implement a secondary school honor system. On line, each box is linked to supporting text and examples from a survey of public and private schools. See link at-- http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/example-aipolicy.htm
The School for Ethical Education’s (SEE) Academic Motivation & Integrity Survey (AMIS) is designed to provide school leaders information and analysis of student perceptions, beliefs and behaviors related to academic integrity in their school.
Analysis of a completed AMIS creates a baseline of data for future comparison and meaningful information to guide the school community in strategies to advance academic integrity and resist cheating.
AMIS is an assessment instrument for The School for Ethical Education’s Integrity Works! program, which is a school intervention designed to promote academic integrity in middle and high schools. (http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/index.htm)
There are a number of reasons why the AMIS is a good choice for your school. Here are two reasons:
Cheating is endemic in US secondary schools. Current research indicates that 90% or more students report some cheating behavior during each school year. The AMIS can provide a detailed picture of the extent and nature of problem at your school.
Students in our research overwhelming voice support for their school leaders to implement strategies to reduce cheating and promote academic integrity. The AMIS can inform this process and its effects in a research-driven, evidence-based manner.
Are there school polices that help promote academic integrity and prevent cheating/plagiarism?
Students’ Perceptions of School Academic Integrity Policies JS5 How would you rate... Low Med High Your understanding of your school’s policies on cheating 13% 16% 71% The average student’s support of these policies 53% 40% 8% The effectiveness of these policies 48% 34% 18%
A study by Sandra Nagelson in a 2007 edition of the journal Plagiarism found that teachers of undergraduates “dealt with” cases of plagiarism only about 38 percent of the time; of those, nearly half (48 percent) used “informal counseling” methods to counsel students.
Nagelson, Sandra. 2007. “Academic Misconduct by University Students: Faculty Perceptions and Responses.” Plagiary: Cross-Disciplinary Studies in Plagiarism, Fabrication, and Falsification 1: 1–10.
The purpose of this Honor Code is to communicate the meaning and importance of academic integrity to all members of the school community and to articulate and support the interest of the community in maintaining the highest standards of conduct in student learning. [Your school name here] embodies a spirit of mutual trust and intellectual honesty that is central to the very nature of learning, and represents the highest possible expression of shared values among the members of the school community. The core values underlying and reflected in the Honor Code are:
Academic honesty is demonstrated by students when the ideas and the writing of others are properly cited; students submit their own work for tests and assignments without unauthorized assistance; students do not provide unauthorized assistance to others; and students report their research or accomplishments accurately,
Respect for others and the learning process to demonstrate academic honesty,
Trust in others to act with academic honesty as a positive community-building force in the school,
Responsibility is recognized by all to demonstrate their best effort to prepare and complete academic tasks,
Fairness and equity are demonstrated so that every student can experience an academic environment that is free from the injustices caused by any form of intellectual dishonesty, and
Integrity of all members of the school community as demonstrated by a commitment to academic honesty and support of our quest for authentic learning.
Honor Codes & Pledges JS22 Honor Code, cont. This Honor Code summarizes the Honor Policy, which defines the expected standards of conduct in academic affairs. The Honor Policy is published on our school website [link]. The Honor Council is the school body charged with enforcement of the Honor Code. The student body and faculty at [your school name here] will not tolerate any violation of the Honor Code. See examples of Codes: http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/pdf/HonorCodeExamples.pdf
Honor Codes & Pledges JS23 Honor Pledge An honor pledge can be hand written out by each student and affirmed by a dated signature of the student and a parent or guardian at the start of each school year and turned in as a first exercise to the student’s English teacher. General Pledge I pledge to maintain a high level of respect and integrity as a student representing [your school name]. I understand and will uphold the Honor Code in letter and spirit to help our school advance authentic learning. I will not lie, cheat, plagiarize or be complicit with those who do. I will encourage fellow students who commit honor offenses to acknowledge such offenses to their teacher or the Honor Council. I make this pledge in the spirit of honor and trust.
Honor Codes & Pledges JS24 Project Pledge On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this assignment. See examples of Pledges: http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/pdf/HonorPledgeExamples.pdf
See the Signs (Different voice/style, off topic, mixed citation styles or formatting, lack of refs, anomalies in diction)
Know the Online Sources (e.g., Cheathouse.com , School Sucks , Screw School , The Paper Store )
Search Suspicious Sections of Papers (using free search engines such as Google or Yahoo)
Use Plagiarism Detector (e.g., www.turnitin.com )
Strategies for Confronting
Non-Confrontational (don’t be anger or accusatory; provide evidence and ask questions)
Indirect to Direct
*Adapted from Harris, R. (2001). Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers . Online at: http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm
Consequences DW3 Finding of Negligence The Honor Council will assign a reflective activity to be completed in writing where the student will show Understanding of how greater attention and adherence to the Honor Code could have avoided the negligent act. For the full table and citations of examples go to – http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/pdf/HonorCouncil.pdf Minor Offense Meaningful Offense (not pre-meditated) Meaningful Offense (Pre-Meditated) First 50% off assignment, offer to redo for full credit, written reflection assignment for teacher 0% on assignment, offer to redo for 50% credit, 9-month probation for Honor Council or Honor Societies, written reflection assignment for teacher 0% on assignment, 9-month probation for Honor Council or Honor Societies, written reflection assignment for teacher Second 0% on assignment, offer to redo for 50% credit, 9-month probation for Honor Council or Honor Societies, written reflection assignment for Honor Council 0% on assignment, disqualification for Honor Council or Honor Societies, 30-day suspension from all extra-curricular activities, written reflection assignment for teacher 0% on assignment, disqualification for Honor Council or Honor Societies, 30-day suspension from all extra-curricular activities, 10 hours of community service, written reflection assignment for Honor Council
Break down assignments in stages or pieces (topic, research questions, bibliography, outline, ROUGH DRAFT, and final draft) – gives teacher chance to catch plagiarism early AND is an opportunity to give points for each step.
Require printouts or copies of Internet and other sources
Make parameters of EACH assignment explicitly clear – don’t assume that students will understand, especially if expectations change significantly from one assignment to the next.
Have students explain their topic orally to the teacher one-on-one OR to the class.
Should teachers be concerned about homework copying?
A Person-in-Context Model Context Person The Problem of Academic Dishonesty JS33 Cheating Behavior Perception Judgment Motivation Character Peers Parents Teachers Others School Climate Cultural Norms Sociohistoric Context