Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Voices from the Front Lines


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Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Voices from the Front Lines
What's Happening on College Campuses Today?
A 75-minute Virtual Conference Series of moderated online panel discussions

Plagiarism is a growing concern and a hot topic in the academic community. Many time-pressured students rely on the internet to locate convenient sources to fulfill their writing assignments, sometimes committing cut-and-paste plagiarism. College faculty, administrators and students believe that the online environment encourages cheating, and are looking for the best ways to encourage students' original work while helping them become better writers.

Please make plans to participate in this important online discussion. You’ll hear from a panel of leading experts who will share their experiences from the front lines of the digital plagiarism issue. You’ll have an opportunity to submit questions to the panel, plus you’ll have access to a range of “best practice” online resources you can use immediately.

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  • Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Voices from the Front Lines

    1. 1. Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Voices from the Front Lines
    2. 2. Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Voices from the Front Lines Moderator: Renee Bangerter, Asst. Professor of English, Fullerton College Donna Bell Academic Integrity Officer Ryerson University William Connolly President Student Council on Academic Integrity, Bentley University Dr. Teresa Fishman Executive Director Center for Academic Integrity, Clemson University Dr. Jon Radue, Professor Brock University Panel: What’s Happening on College Campuses Today?
    3. 3. -Teddi Fishman, Director Center for Academic Integrity, Rutland Institute for Ethics, Clemson University
    4. 4. <ul><li>Research, including Don McCabe’s Academic Integrity Survey, consistently shows us that : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students cheat more than most people (including teachers and administrators) expect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ perceptions of what constitutes “serious” academic dishonesty differ from those of teachers and administrators </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>We have plenty of data to show us what is happening. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Our ability to affect the “what” depends on our ability to address the “why.” </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is what you have to do to get ahead in the real world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All that matters is that I get it done </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subtext: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll be at a disadvantage if I don’t cheat. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Product/outcome based evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-stakes assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses (consequences) of assessments </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m not hurting anyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s not like it really matters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subtext: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This activity doesn’t have any value </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Fragmented learning, </li></ul><ul><li>Acontextual information, </li></ul><ul><li>“Temporary” (disposable) knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of transference </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Process based assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Varied evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>“Room to fail” </li></ul><ul><li>Visibly related (dependent) courses </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative learning </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Culture of learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody isn’t doing it. </li></ul><ul><li>What they are learning has value. </li></ul><ul><li>Test scores and grades are a means to an end, not an end in an of themselves. </li></ul>
    13. 13. -William Connolly, President Student Council on Academic Integrity, Bentley University
    14. 14. <ul><li>Plagiarism is not always intentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professors Assume we will always try to cheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration Assumes that students know everything about Plagiarism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are grey areas of Plagiarism that must be considered </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Immense Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grades are heavily stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Less emphasis on learning than on performance </li></ul><ul><li>They can get away with it </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Integrity is a culture, not a mandate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizing Rules and threatening students with punishment only intensifies the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools need to promote the benefits of integrity on a broader level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Why is it beneficial not to cheat? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Values that will influence behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students who believe plagiarism is wrong will not do it! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Peer Motivation Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth/Change from the Ground  Up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Throughout childhood education, Administration pushes importance of avoiding plagiarism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students respond more positively to their peers! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If cheating is not cool, students will not do it! </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>High School Visits </li></ul><ul><li>Campus Events </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>“State of Integrity” </li></ul><ul><li>Promotional material during finals </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse Student Membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our group is cool </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Executive Board: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bryant Roche-Bernard, Pablo Pareja, Jimmy Palombo, Daniela Carlacci, Chris Liptrot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Important Group Members: Gregg Grenier, Kristen Mausert, Jori Layton, Brittany Dixon, Sierra Fontaine, with help from many others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisor: Coralee Whitcomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(All Pictures from Google Images) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 21. -Donna Bell, Academic Integrity Officer, Ryerson University
    21. 22. <ul><li>Students have easy access to technology “that enables them to dance around academic integrity by cutting and pasting, photographing notes and text messaging test answers to each other, do we throw in the ethical towel or do we, as educators, consider this an opportunity to change our pedagogical approach”. </li></ul><ul><li>-(International Conference on Technology, Knowledge and Society at ) </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>Look at how technology is being used to promote academic integrity and how students are using technology to further their learning. </li></ul><ul><li>look at ways technology is being used to plagiarize and cheat. </li></ul><ul><li>present tips on how technology may be used to engage students in learning. </li></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>There are 3 main ways technology can be used in a positive way in the classroom: </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as a Lever (The TLT Group, AAHE Bulletin). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Student Activities (Penn State World Campus) </li></ul>
    25. 26. <ul><li>Create your own “electronic reserves” system </li></ul><ul><li>Directly link to articles from Blackboard via the Library’s databases </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT): </li></ul><ul><li>World Lecture Hall: </li></ul>
    26. 27. 06/09/09 Turnitin Webinar Series-- Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Voices from the Front Lines Webinar #1: What's Happening on College Campuses Today <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Google searches by entering in the phrase you suspect with quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Using </li></ul><ul><li>Using on-line technology to help educate students through workshops/tutorials/modules </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>Ways in which technology may be used negatively in the classroom: </li></ul><ul><li>On-line test cheating </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of electronic files between students </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones/text messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Mp3 players </li></ul><ul><li>Calculators </li></ul><ul><li>Editing services that go beyond editing </li></ul><ul><li>Online access to instructor manuals /testbanks </li></ul>
    28. 29. <ul><li>‘ Ugly’ ways in which technology has been used in the classroom: </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana University School of Dentistry students hacked into password-protected files to view test materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing papers from online paper mills. </li></ul><ul><li>Submission of false documents created using technology. </li></ul>
    29. 30. <ul><li>How Technology CAN HELP in Blackboard </li></ul><ul><li>Have students post topic on discussion board. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an online research “log”. </li></ul><ul><li>Use an online “journal” for reflective purposes. </li></ul>
    30. 31. <ul><li>Villano (2006) suggestions for responsible internet use </li></ul><ul><li>sources for a plagiarized paper - first three pages of a search return. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Questia </li></ul>
    31. 32. <ul><li>McMurty (2001) tips to combat e-cheating </li></ul><ul><li>Know what’s available online before assigning a paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Design assignments with specific goals and instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Require oral presentations or have students submit an explanation of thesis statement and research process </li></ul><ul><li>Have students submit essays electronically </li></ul>
    32. 33. “ Technology didn’t cause cheating, it only made it easier” (Harned & Sutliff, 2004, Academic Honesty: Teaching Kids Not To Take The Easy Way Out , )
    33. 34. -Jon Radue, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
    34. 35. <ul><li>Deter </li></ul><ul><li>Dialog </li></ul><ul><li>Defend </li></ul><ul><li>Detect </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Define </li></ul>
    35. 36. <ul><li>Complete online tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Attend Student Development Centre/Library presentations on time management, Library research, essay writing, and many other relevant information literacy skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to quote, paraphrase and summarize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know when, and how, to use and cite a quotation, a paraphrase, a summary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other web sites (e.g. Berkeley, OWL) </li></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>Know the submission requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the citation style required (APA, MLA, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know if group work is acceptable/how much collaboration is allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You should be informed (in Syllabus) if submission to a phrase detection site (such as Turnitin) is required </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for clarification </li></ul>
    37. 38. <ul><li>Take care of your work/know your computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backups to a dated secure site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB Key (handle with care!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save drafts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider locking/encrypting documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear a public/lab computer's cache, and logoff </li></ul></ul>
    38. 39. <ul><li>Don't let others influence your work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McCabe's Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be careful of how you help others </li></ul><ul><li>If requesting help, or working collaboratively, don't record ideas/solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Ask others to proofread your work to detect possible citing and other problems </li></ul>
    39. 40. <ul><li>You are already keeping copies of your own work (on your Institution's email server) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a copy of resources consulted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easy with Zotero </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similarly, keep copies of printed book/journal title pages, and relevant other pages </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a journal/log of all your work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe via Zotero, with tags identifying work consulted, but not used </li></ul></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>Contribute to group work </li></ul><ul><li>As part of a group, ensure that you can prove the originality of your work if someone else in the group plagiarizes </li></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><li>Take care with note-taking/research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark a paraphrase you developed with a P; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a quote with Q; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a summary you wrote with S; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>your own words with M; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common knowledge with C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use RefWorks or Zotero to keep the full reference (and more) for each piece of work </li></ul>
    42. 43. <ul><li>Be aware of your environment </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for permission to 'recycle' your own papers </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Professor if you can hand in work in stages—Lit review, hypothesis, first draft, … </li></ul><ul><li>Submit to a phrase matching site such as Turnitin (try </li></ul><ul><li>Get to know the TA or Professor </li></ul>
    43. 44. <ul><li>There are several good programs and Web sites available to encourage you to start writing early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writer's Block, Treepad, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind Mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. <ul><li>Give credit to your sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It strengthens your own work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipson's Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And remember, &quot;over-citing is no oversight&quot; </li></ul>
    45. 46. <ul><li>Know the procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact the Student Ombudsperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't panic—you are not guilty until proved otherwise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collect and organize all your relevant work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A printout from Zotero is easy and comprehensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask to see any computer reports (Turnitin) </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest and calm </li></ul><ul><li>There is usually an appeals process </li></ul>
    46. 47. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Academic Integrity </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2009 Annual International Conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oct. 16-18, Washington U., St. Louis, Missouri </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. We’d Appreciate Your Feedback! /