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Resource notebook

  1. 1. Resource NotebookTiffany Davis
  2. 2. Background on Sp. Ed. • As mandatory education became widespread, the amount of special classes grew. • By the 1950’s special ed. Programs were available in a lot of school districts. • In the 1954 Supreme court decision Brown v. Board of Ed., it stated it was unlawful to discriminate against against any group of people. • This included children with disabilities because they were discriminated against and segregated from the other children. • Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prevents discrimination against individuals with disabilities in any program that gets federal money….this means schools. • This also helps students not covered by special education services (ie. ADHD) • 1990- Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)- further extended rights of individuals with disabilities with Amendments passed in 2008 (ADAA). • Public Law (P.L.) 94-142–(Education for all Handicapped Children Act) passed in 1975 set federal guidelines for sp. Ed. • This law also described the different categories of disabilities that make students eligible for special educationInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  3. 3. Background cont.• P.L. 94-142- changed to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1990. – Added provisions for children from birth to 5 years and added provisions for supporting the transition of students with disabilities into the work force or for post-secondary ed. – Revised in 1997—it recognized that most students with disabilities spend time in gen. ed classroom meaning gen. ed teachers are involved in students educational plan.• Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004)- Sp. Ed. Teachers teaching core academic content need to be highly qualified• Elementary and Secondary Education act of 1965— reauthorized in 2002 as No Child Left Behind—ensures all students have equal access to quality education – Requires that all students be tested to determine academic progress – This has helped ensure more students with disabilities have access to gen ed setting. Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  4. 4. The Individualized Education Program (IEP) Important Parts:• Presents Levels of Educational Performance: – Info about the student’s current level of academic achievement, social skills, behavior, communication skills, etc. This info serves as a baseline.• Transition Plan: – Describes strategies and services for ensuring students will be prepared to leave school for adulthood and/or post secondary education. – It is updated annually and must be tailored to match the strengths and needs of the student• Specially Designed Instruction: – Must have date service begins with frequency of service, types of accommodations/ modifications that are apart of service and period of time services received.• Accommodations and Modifications: – Has to include complete outline of specialized services the student needs. Also includes whether or not student needs accommodations for district/state assessments.• Assessment Information: – Must clarify how to measure student’s progress toward achieving the annual goals and how to inform parents on the progress Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  5. 5. IEP: Important Parts cont.• Goals and Benchmarks Nevada IEP form: Click Here – Annual Goals—estimate what a student should be able to accomplish within a year – Short-term Objectives—describes the steps needed to achieve an annual goal• Justification Statement – Must include a clear statement of justification for placing a student anywhere that is not a general education classroom for all parts of the school day.• Behavioral Intervention Plan – For every student with behavior problem, must have a plan based on a functional assessment of the student’s behavior. Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  6. 6. IEP: Responsibilities of the Gen. Ed. Teacher • Must bring to attentions of other professionals any suspected students of disabilities. • If there is a suspected student with a disability, document the students characteristics and behaviors that led to concern – Also, collect samples of student’s work, and put together descriptions of their behavior, keeping notes of how you addresses the problem. • Work with Special Education teachers and other professionals to implement interventions and clarify if student needs additional services. • If special education services required, participate in deciding appropriate goals and objectives Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  7. 7. Autism: Background Info• First diagnosed as a disorder by Dr. Leo Kanner in 1943.• It is characterized as a unique disorder that can occur in varying forms and degrees of severity: autism spectrum disorders (ASD).• It’s prevalence may soon lead it to be considered a high-incidence disability.• It typically affects boys more than girls and is usually accompanied by other disabilities.• Many students with autism are of average ability and some are even gifted and talented. Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  8. 8. Autism: Common Educational Problems • Many of the children usually have problems with social interaction. This makes it harder for these children to make friends in the classroom, and this can effect their social environments. • Depending on the severity of the Autism it can affect their learning in the classroom. Some cases can be so bad that it is very hard for them to learn simple vocabulary • In the classroom the noise level can also affect the child with Autism because at their homes they may have a completely different environment, this may cause the child to act out or just shut down completely.EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/autism
  9. 9. Autism: Accommodations/Modifications • Create a structured and predictable environment: reduces behavior problems and relieve stress • Establish clear procedures and routines: helps create a positive learning environment • Use pictures to depict procedures: students with ASD respond better to pictures than words • Set aside a quite space: some students with autism may need a break during the day to be/work alone • Allow for different communications types: (sign language, communication board, etc.) some students have difficulty communicatingInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide forclassroom teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  10. 10. Deaf-blindness: Background • Presence of both a vision loss and hearing disability that causes severe communication and other related problems • Typically are not totally blind or deaf but do have great needs navigating, making sense of events, and learning • Students with deaf-blindness need extensive supportsInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  11. 11. Deaf-blindness: Common Educational Problems • Language Development- Hearing impaired students language development is typically delayed • Literacy- Students who are deaf and hard of hearing have trouble in writing and reading comprehension, because they cannot hear typical spoken conversations • Not being able to read textbooks-Due to the large mass of printed materials in the school systems teachers must make sure that correct accommodations are made in order for the student to succeed.Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  12. 12. Deaf-Blindness: Accommodations/Modifications • Assistive Listening Devices (ALDs) - a small microphone device worn by the instructor that increases the volume and clarity of the class lecture for the student who wears the device. An auxiliary device may also be used in a small group situation, in order to enhance the understanding of several voices. • Interpreters - relay information to and from the student and other people in the classroom. The type of interpreting needed will depend upon the students residual hearing and vision. Interpreting may be done orally, visually • Modify the layout of the classroom to accommodate the students • Every required reading and handout may need to be converted into large print, Braille or audiotape.Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.http://www.pepnetnortheast.rit.edu/publication/tipsheet/deaf-blind.html
  13. 13. Developmental Delay: Background• Defined by IDEA as a child who is experiencing developmental delays as defined by the State and as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures in one or more of the following areas: Physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development• Percentage of All Students receiving IDEA Services: 1.23%• Percentage of all students ages (6-21): .11% W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom Friend, M., & Bursuck, teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. NICHCY. (2009). Developmental Delay. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet No. 9. Retrieved from: http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/dd?pfstyle=wo
  14. 14. Developmental Delay: Common Educational Problems• Physical development (fine motor skills, gross motor skills)• Cognitive development (intellectual abilities)• Communication development (speech and language)• Social or emotional development (social skills, emotional control)• Adaptive development (self-Disability Fact Sheet No. 9. Retrieved from: NICHCY. (2009). Developmental Delay. NICHCY care skills) http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/dd?pfstyle=wo
  15. 15. Developmental Delay: Accommodations/Modifications • Assistive technology (devices a child might need to help with • Routine, organization and the learning process predictability will help produce a • Audiology or hearing services positive learning environment (to ensure student can hear) • Speech and language services (helps with child’s speech) • Medical services • Nursing services • Nutrition services • Physical therapy (helps with motor functions) • Psychological services (helps with emotional problems) Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. NICHCY. (2009). Developmental Delay. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet No. 9. Retrieved from: http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/dd?pfstyle=wo
  16. 16. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Background • An emotional/behavioral disorder is the term used in education to classify individuals who have a mental illness, or other such psychological conditions. • There are many completely different disorders lumped into the general grouping of "behavioral disorder" and the specific signs and symptoms of an eating disorder will be very different than the specific signs and symptoms of conduct disorder. • Statistically, 14.5% of parents of children 4-17 years old have talked with a health care provider or school staff about the child’s emotional or behavioral difficulties. • Many sources agree, however, that finding an exact prevalence rate of emotional/behavioral disorders is difficult, but that these issues may affect as many as 1 in 5 children.EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/emotional-and-behavioral-disorder/background-information
  17. 17. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Common Educational Problems• Disruptive to classroom activity.• Impulsive.• Inattentive, easily distracted.• Disregards all classroom rules.• Poor concentration.• Extreme resistance to change and transitions.• Speaks out, repeatedly.• Is aggressive.• Bullies and intimidates others.• Regular truancy from school.• Dishonest, consistently blames others.• Low self esteem.• Unable to work in groups.• Engages in self injurious behavior. EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/ edsp411fall2011/emotional-and-behavioral-disorder/common-educational- problems
  18. 18. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Accommodations/Modifications • For big projects, have different deadlines for each segment so student doesn’t feel overwhelmed • Use a calendar to highlight specific due dates so student knows what to expect. • Build you lessons with very little down-time so student doesn’t get distracted. • Have additional work on-hand to keep student busy. • Use a rubric or other time of checklist. Provide a copy for students and parents so they know expectations. • Be sure to provide directions both verbally and visually so student know what is expected • Have examples of assignment to show to students.EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site:https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/emotional-and-behavioral-disorder/modifications- accommodations
  19. 19. Hearing Impairment: Background Hearing Impairments account for just over 1% of students receiving IDEA services and .11% of all students (Friend, M.). 3 out of 1,000 children suffer from loss of hearing or hard hearing. Its estimated that 30 school children out of 1,000 suffer from hearing loss. If hearing loss is detected at an early age the child has the ability to better develop language and speech development.EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site:https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/hearing-and-visual-impairments/background- information
  20. 20. Hearing Impairment: Common Educational Problems • Language Development- Hearing impaired students language development is typically delayed • Literacy- Students who are deaf and hard of hearing have trouble in writing and reading comprehension, because they cannot hear typical spoken conversations. • Hearing distractions- for students who may have a hearing aid or cochlear implant. The hearing aid or implant magnifies sounds and cannot block out noises that other hearing students can. • Frustration- As with most disabilities students with hearing impairments experience frustration in the classroom, if the proper support is not provided.EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site:https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/hearing-and-visual-impairments/background-information
  21. 21. Hearing Impairment: Accommodations/Modifications • Electronic Mail--for faculty-student meetings • Visual Warning Systems--in case of emergencies • Preferential Seating--unobstructed line of vision to read lips and interpreter • Conscious of Covering Lips--use of hands, books, etc. may cover lips which is difficult for lip readers • Keep Face Within View--facing the blackboard/chalkboard makes it difficult for lip readers • Speak Directly to Student--do not speak to interpreter, speak to the student • Allow Processing Time--gives students time to receive, digest, and question material presented • Repetition-repeat important information and student comments using simple wordsEDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/hearing-and-visual-impairments/accommodations- modifications
  22. 22. Intellectual Disability: Background • According to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, an intellectual disability is a disability that involves significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior • Intellectual disabilities can begin anytime before a child reaches the age of 18 years. An Intellectual disability can be caused by multiple factors that can be physical, genetic, or social. Students who have intellectual disabilities may also have other impairments. Students with severe intellectual disabilities are more likely to have additional limitations than other students with mild intellectual disabilities. • According to the Presidents Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities, an estimated seven to eight million Americans of all ages experience intellectual disability. Intellectual disabilities affect around one in ten families in the United StatesEDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/intellectual-disabilities/background-information
  23. 23. Intellectual Disability: Common Educational Problems • Intellectually disabled children have low tolerance levels and get easily frustrated. This frustration makes it even more difficult to complete school assignments and projects. • Students with intellectual disabilities often struggle to stay on task for extended periods of time. • Students with intellectual disabilities struggle to develop the ability to read words individually and understanding what they have read. They can read stories and when finished, immediately forget what they have read. • Intellectually disabled students have difficulties working in large group settings. Students with intellectual disabilities receive less attention and are more likely to fall off topic. • Students with this disability already have difficulty in following complicated directions, and with a large task it makes learning more difficult. It is more beneficial for them to receive one-on-one instruction by a teacher or specialist. • Intellectual Disabilities make the learning process much more difficult for students.EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site:https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/intellectual-disabilities/common-educational-problems
  24. 24. Intellectual Disability: Accommodations/Modifications • Quiet Work Space. (children with in intellectual disabilities tend to get distracted more easily) • Smaller group/class size. (children with intellectual disabilities and the student-teacher ratio) • Sit the student closer to the teacher/helper for assistance. • Remove distractions on the walls around the student. • Repetition of concepts daily. (consistent practice) • Hands on Learning. (learn a lot through doing tasks rather than just listening) • Provide symbols, diagrams, or pictures instead of word • Allow students to use verbal responsesEDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/intellectual-disabilities/modifications-and-accommodations
  25. 25. Learning Disability: Background • By definition, a learning disability is a condition in which a student has dysfunction in processing information typically found in language based activities, resulting in interference with learning • Students with learning disabilities have average or above average intelligence but experience significant problems in learning how to read, write, and/or do math. • Currently, learning disabilities is the biggest category of special education in the schools. • 52.4 % of All Students with Disabilities, Ages 6-21 • Boys Outnumber Girls Four to OneEDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/learning-disabilities
  26. 26. Learning Disability: Educational Problems • Students with learning disabilities having problems decoding material that is in front of them. They may take longer to understand words in a sentence. • Students with learning disabilities may not have proper reasoning skills to succeed in a classroom. Those skills include reading comprehension, generalization, adequate background and vocabulary knowledge, induction, and sequencing • Some students with learning disabilities might have motor coordination problems such as find motor impairments. This may cause a student to have poor, illegible handwriting. It could cause them to not be able to hold a pen or scissors correctly • Students with learning disabilities generally having problems with academic surviving skills which means they may not show up to class regularly. They are unorganized. They may not be interesting in school or the material that is being taught. And a student may not interact with the other students very well.EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site:https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/learning-disabilities/common-educational-problems
  27. 27. Learning Disability: Accommodations/Modifications • Behavior contract-Is an agreement between a teacher and student that outlines the student’s expectations, rewards for meeting expectations, consequences for not meeting expectations, and the time frame for which the agreement used to motivate students and to specify to student what is expected of them. • Social skills training-Strategies for improving students’ social interaction skills through modeling and guided and independent practice with feedback for students who do not know how to interact with peers and adults. • Self-control training- A strategy in which students who lack self-control are taught to redirect their actions by talking to themselves for students who know what to do in social situations, but lack the self-control to behave appropriately • Attribution retraining-Teaching program that increases student task persistence and performance by convincing them that their failures are due to their effort and can therefore be overcome for students who exhibit learned helplessnessEDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/learning-disabilities/accommodations-modifications
  28. 28. Multiple Impairments: Background • Two or more disabilities so interwoven that none can be identified as the primary disability • Most students with multiple disabilities have an intellectual disability and a physical or sensory impairment • Many students with multiple disabilities have limited speech and do not easily convey their preferences and needs • Percentage of all students receiving IDEA services: 2.19% • Percentage of all students ages 6-12: .20%Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  29. 29. Multiple Impairments: Educational Problems • Many students with multiple impairments have limited speech and have trouble communicating. • Difficulty in basic physical mobility • Tendency to forget skills through disuse • Trouble generalizing skills from one situation to another; and/or have a need for support in major life activities (e.g., domestic, leisure, community use, vocational).Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.http://www.angelswithspecialneeds.org/monthly/severe-and-multiple-disabilities/
  30. 30. Multiple Impairments: Accommodations/Modifications • Use alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) systems to help them with communicating • Focus on what they can do at all times so they can feel like everyone else • Find out what the childs strengths are and capitalize on them so the student feels successful • Keep your expectations of the child high so they continue to exceed expectations • Never accept rude remarks, name calling or teasing from other children so they never feel like outsidersInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  31. 31. Orthopedic Impairment: Background • Physically disabling conditions that affect locomotion or motor functions (i.e. cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, etc.) • May be the result of a congenital anomaly, disease, accident, or other cause • Percentage of all students receiving IDEA services: 1.08% • Percentage of all students ages 6-21: .10%Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  32. 32. Orthopedic Impairment: Educational Problems • Many students with orthopedic impairments have no cognitive, learning, perceptual, language, or sensory issues. • Individuals with neuromotor impairments have a higher incidence of additional impairments, especially when there has been brain involvement • Complex motor problems can affect several body systemsInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.http://www.projectidealonline.org/orthopedicImpairments.php
  33. 33. Orthopedic Impairment: Accommodations/Modifications • Change the physical environment of the classroom to accommodate any of the physical needs of the students • Provide assisstive technology to allow for full participation of the student in class • Allow for a break in the day to allow the students to move about, take medication, or reposition themselves if they are in a wheel chair. • Have group activities to facilitate social interactionsInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  34. 34. Other Health Impairment: Background • Conditions resulting in limited strength, vitality, or alertness and caused by chronic or acute health problems (i.e. cancer, aids, epilepsy, etc.) • Percentage of all students receiving IDEA Services: 8.42% • Percentage of all students ages 6-21: .77%Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  35. 35. Other Health Impairment: Educational Problems • One main problem is that students with other health impairments often miss a lot of school due to their serious illness. • These illnesses can negatively affect the students educational performance • They may have to take time out during class to take medication, making them miss important informationEDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/intellectual-disabilities/modifications-and-accommodations
  36. 36. Other Health Impairment: Accommodations/Modification • Make a packet of all the work the student has missed due to serious illness at the end of each week. This way someone can deliver it to the student and it will help them keep up with as much missed work as possible. • Find out student’s most difficult problems by having them write or draw about it and it will enable you to help them work through it. • Provide materials to the student about other who have had their disease so they can learn how others have coped with it. • Work closely with the families so they can provide you with information concerning the students status and needs.Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide forclassroom teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  37. 37. Speech/Language Impairment: Background • Speech is disordered, interferes with communication and can cause speaker or listeners distress • Three kinds of speech disorders are articulation, voice, and fluency • Language is disordered when comprehension is impaired or does not develop normally • Language disorders may involve form, content, or function • Percentage of all students receiving IDEA services: 18.7% • Percentage of all students ages 6-21: 1.7%Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  38. 38. Speech/Language Impairment: Educational Problems • Students may be unable to pronounce sounds correctly • They may lag behind socially due to their inability to communicate affectively • Students may not be able to communicate any issues they may be having • They may not understand questions being asked • They can have incorrect grammar and a limited use of vocabularyInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  39. 39. Speech/Language Impairment: Accommodations/Modifications • Create an atmosphere of acceptance: this will encourage students to participate more in class • Encourage/teach listening skills: this will help them learn different techniques that will help them be successful students • Use modeling to expand student’s language • Provide many meaningful contexts for practicing speech and language skills to help them succeedInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  40. 40. Traumatic Brain Injury: Background • Occurs when a student experiences a trauma to the head from an external force that is injurious to the brain and can include temporary loss of consciousness (i.e. car accident, falling, sports accidents, etc.) • TBI is the leading cause of disability and death among children with more than one million children sustaining one every year • Percentage of all students receiving IDEA services: .38% • Percentage of all students ages 6-25: .04%Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  41. 41. Traumatic Brain Injury: Educational Problems • Some students with TBI might have experienced a loss of previous intellectual capacity • They can experience difficulty initiating an organizing their learning tasks, remembering what they learned, reasoning and problem solving. • Some students may even have limited use of their arms and legs and can have other fine motor skills problems. • They can also display behavior problemsInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  42. 42. Traumatic Brain Injury: Accommodations/Modifications • Seat students near the teacher and minimize distractions to ensure the student pays attention • Provide written materials to back up classroom instruction and help with memory problems • Display classroom schedule to help keep the student focused on what will be coming up • Allow for extra time for completion of in-class activities/assignments so the student doesn’t feel rushed • Encourage students to repeat information to ensure comprehensionInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  43. 43. Vision Impairment: Background Visual Impairments account for .42% of students receiving IDEA services and .04% of all students. .06 out of 1,000 individuals suffer from severe visual impairments which include legally and totally blind. 12.2 our of 1,000 people under the age of 18 suffer from a visual impairments.EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site:https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/hearing-and-visual-impairments/background- information
  44. 44. Vision Impairment: Educational Problems • Visual-Spatial ability- Students with a visual impairment have a hard time visualizing anything • Reading the Board/ Notes- students with a visual impairment can quickly fall behind because they can only listen to what the teacher is doing and not able to see a demonstration or read about what is being taught • Not being able to read textbooks-Due to the large mass of printed materials in the school systems teachers must make sure that correct accommodations are made in order for the student to succeed. • Frustration- Just like students with hearing impairments a student with a visual impairment may experience frustration as well.EDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site:https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/hearing-and-visual-impairments/background-information
  45. 45. Vision Impairment: Accommodations/ Modifications • Alternative Print Formats--allows student to receive same information • Appropriate Lighting--too much or too little prohibits student learning • Adaptive Computer Equipment--student learns with his/her ability • Readers For Exams--students may be tested with the same test, but a different way • Recorded Lectures --student may go back to lectures to reinforce learning • Plan Ahead--have necessary materials to give to student the SAME time as the rest of the class • Repetition--repeat aloud what is written on the board or the handoutsEDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site: https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/hearing-and-visual-impairments/accommodations- modifications
  46. 46. At-Risk Students: Background • Includes students who are considered at risk intellectually, socially, emotionally, behaviorally, and/or physically • These students are considered at risk because there is a high likelihood they will drop out of school prior to receiving a high school diploma • Includes students living in poverty, students who have been abused or neglected, and students who live in a household where substance abuse occurs.Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  47. 47. At-Risk Students: Educational Problems • Some have a tendency to be noncompliant, have problems monitoring their own learning, behavior. • They can have language delays, difficulties with social relationship, and problems understanding the consequences of their behaviors • They can score significantly lower on academic assessments, many not have nutritious meals or a safe place to complete homeworkInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  48. 48. At-Risk Students: Accommodations/Modifications • Set high but realistic expectations- this will keep the student motivated and help them feel like they can succeed • Have peers be teaching partners- they can learn from one another and will help make the students feel like they belong and develop social skills • Collaborate with other professionals- sometimes students need someone to talk to and the professionals can provide additional resources • Support family and community involvement- try to work with the parents and helps the student feel like you careInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  49. 49. English Language Learners: Background • Students from racial and cultural minorities used to be innappropriately placed in special education programs based on discriminatroy assessment practices • It also involves bias in curriculum and instruction, and the special education referral process • Approximately 10.3% of all public school students are English Language learnersInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  50. 50. ELL: Educational Problems • They have a hard time understanding what is going on in the classroom and can lag behind academically • They don’t socialize with other students because they can’t communicate with them • They can become frustrated and seclude themselves to avoid being called on or interacting with the classInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  51. 51. ELL: Accommodations/Modifications • Teach cultural awareness to the class so everyone is more accepting of other students • Allow for more time on tests and assignments so they can finish them • Let the ELL students use pocket translators on difficult assignments so they can complete them • Use peer tutoring to allow for social interactionInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  52. 52. Students with Gifts and Talents: Background • As defined in the 1988 Jacob Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act: children and youth who possess demonstrated or potential high-performance capability in intellectual, creative, specific academic, and leadership areas or the performing and visual arts. • Broad definitions allows for the fact that twenty percent could be identified as being gifted or talented. • In schools today, around 6% of students are served as gifted and talentedInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  53. 53. Students with Gifts and Talents: Educational Problems • They tend to have insatiable curiosity, keen memory, unusual ability to concentrate, wide variety of interests. • They can be well liked but some can be unpopular and at risk for serious emotional problems • They tend to help other people but this can sometimes interfere with advanced learning opportunities • They have high expectations set for them which can lead to feelings of frustration, isolation and alienation.Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  54. 54. Students with Gifts and Talents: Accommodations/Modifications • Curriculum compacting- this will help the student not become bored with the class because material they already know will not be recovered and they can spend more time on special interests • Acceleration- students can skip a grade or complete standards for two grades in one year so they do not become bored • Enrichment- allows students to to elaborate on concepts being presented that usually require high levels of thinking • Differentiation- vary the assignment/activities each day so the students don’t become boredInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  55. 55. Constructing an Inclusive Classroom Environmental Techniques Lesson-Planning Techniques • Carefully arrange classroom to • Use a variety of classroom decrease noise, improve the grouping arrangements because level of student interaction, and students with special needs increase the amount of time benefit both form whole-class, students spend on academic one-on-one, and group tasks activities • Place students that are easily • Make sure the lesson leaves distracted away from any wall little down time so students decoration who get easily distracted will • Make sure there is adequate always have something to do lighting for any students with visual impairmentsInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  56. 56. Constructing an Inclusive Classroom Community Techniques Universal Design for Learning• Encourage students to become active • The idea is that instructional material, in the community and lead by example methods, and assessments designed by doing community service as well. with built-in supports are more likely to be compatible with learners with• Have different group from the special needs community come and talk to the students to teach them what they are • The use of template with partially about and inspire them to get involved filled-in sections and links to more information can help students construct a better essayInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  57. 57. Building Collaborative Teams Collaborating with Professionals - Co-Teaching allows for more individualized instruction for students with disabilities while still allowing them to be included in the gen. ed classroom - If your having trouble, professionals can help give you tips and strategies for a smoother inclusive classroom Collaborating with Parents -Get to know the parents so they will trust you more and they can clue you in to any problems the student may have and they feel more involved in the students educations -It is also good to know the parents’ reactions to their child’s disability because you can provide them with resources if they need it -This can be done through more communication (i.e. calling home, parent conferences, etc) Collaborating with Community Members -This can help the students become more involved in the community -Have a few community members come in and talk about what organizations/community services they are involved in so they can inspire the students to become more involvedInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  58. 58. Co-Teaching Models • One teach, one observe- the teacher that observes the behaviors of certain students • Station teaching-three groups of students are arranged. Two stations have the teachers assisting with learning while the third work alone or with a partner • Parallel teaching-divide the class into two groups and each teacher teaches a separate group • Alternative teaching-Have one teacher work with most of the class; the other works with a small group • Teaming- teachers share leadership in the classroom • One teach, one assist-the assisting teach keeps individuals on taskInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  59. 59. Problem-Solving Strategies • Know when to ask for help. Some things you can’t fix on your own—shared problem solving is the basis for collaboration • Identify the problem- ask other collaborators if they agree on what the problem is • Propose solutions- create a wide range of options • Evaluate ideas-consider whether they seem likely to resolve the problem and are realistic • Plan specifics- after selecting ideas, more detail planning needs to occur • Implement the Solution- test to see if the ideas work • Evaluate Outcomes- did the solutions work and to what extentInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  60. 60. Classroom Management Strategies • Physical Organization: use of space, lighting, floor space, storage – Prevents distraction and creates a conducive learning environment • Classroom Routines: keep the classroom routine predictable so all the students know what is expected of them at any given time. – Prevents students with disabilities from feeling overwhelmed • Use of time: always keep students busy – Prevents students who are easily distracted from becoming distractedInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  61. 61. Positive Behavioral Supports • Rules help create a sense or order and expectations for a classroom • Have clear expectations for the student so they know exactly what is expected of them • Have consistent consequences that are clear strictly enforced to prevent students from acting out.Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  62. 62. Individualized Behavior Plans • You and other professionals can come up with a behavior intervention plan for individual students who are acting out. • It clearly specifies different expectations of the students behavior and includes a plan on how to reach the goal • This may require collaboration with the students and his/her peers and family • It is necessary to monitor the effectiveness of the plan to determine whether or not it is working.Info from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  63. 63. Social Skills Instruction • Create an atmosphere of tolerance so students feel comfortable working with others • Have the students do group work to try and encourage social skills • When doing group work, try and mix up who works with whom so the students don’t always work with the same people • Have a cultural awareness day so the students can learn about different cultures of the worldInfo from: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroomteachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  64. 64. Outside Resources for Working with Students with Disabilities • http://www.autisminternetmodules.org/ • http://www.autism-society.org/ • http://www.autism-community.com/resources/for-educators/#assessingstudents • http://thecoffeeklatch.com/inclusion-mainstreaming-the-least-restrictive-environment/ • http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/emotionaldisturbance • http://www.projectidealonline.org/intellectualDisabilities.php • http://www.communitycounselingservices.org/poc/view_doc.php ?type=doc&id=10365&cn=208 • http://www.thearc.org/ • www.addinschool.comEDSP 411-1002. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2011 from the EDSP Google Site:https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/autism
  65. 65. Picture resources• http://rischools.wikispaces.com/Cranston+High+School+East• https://sites.google.com/site/edsp411fall2011/autism• http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/edi/pcp/course07.html• http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/• http://phillips.blogs.com/goc/2010/08/childhood-leukemia.html• http://www.mostonline.org/membersonly/milestones.htm• http://excellads.com/• http://docakilah.wordpress.com/2011/06/10/hamburgers-linked-to-asthma-in-children/• http://kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/sight/hearing_impairment.html• http://www.ehow.com/info_8141140_puzzle-games-children-developmental-delay.html• http://www.easyiephelp.com/easy-iep-help/individuals-disabilities-education-act-idea/• http://www.shutterstock.co.in/pic-5808763/stock-vector-vector-classroom-full-of- students-seated-at-their-desks-detailed-illustration.html

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