Final Portfolio 1RUNNING HEAD: Final Portfolio Assignment 7: Final Portfolio-Teacher as Professional Developer Tiffany A Simmons Dr. Harvey EDU599: Education Capstone March 8, 2012
Final Portfolio 2 Table of ContentsIntroductory Letter…………………………………………………………………3Learning Outcomes and Indicators…………………………………………………4-7Portfolio Use………………………………………………………………………..7-8Portfolio Entries/Artifacts Artifact 1: Education Platform Statement…………………………………..9-19 Artifact 2: PALSI Results………………………………………………….20-25 Artifact 3: HPL Framework………………………………………………..26-35 Artifact 4: Confirmative Evaluation Report……………………………….36-57 Artifact 5: Instructional Plan……………………………………………….58-63 Artifact 6: Designing and Developing Content/Curriculum, Part 1………..64-71 Artifact 7: Designing and Developing Content/Curriculum, Part 2………..72-82 Artifact 8: Designing and Developing Content/Curriculum, Part 3………..83-89 Artifact 9: Training Announcement………………………………………...90 Artifact 10: Academic Advisor Job Proposal………………………………91-93 Artifact 11: Ambassador Certificate………………………………………..94Portfolio Scope……………………………………………………………………..95Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….96
Final Portfolio 3Dear Reader, The last time this learner completed a portfolio, it was in preparation for a teachingcareer. The teaching career has long since ended, but the desire to be part of the education careerin some capacity has not. It is with this thought in mind that this learner revisited her goals forteaching and learning and made the shift from being extrinsically motivated to being intrinsicallymotivated-and finally being able to articulate a vision and accompanying strategies that shebelieves will work. Contained within are the artifacts that best support this learner’s goal of being a trainingand development professional: an education platform statement, Personal Adult Learning StylesInventory (PALSI) test result that states this learner’s teaching and learning styles, How PeopleLearn (HPL) framework to identify and describe learner profiles, confirmative evaluation reportin both Word and PowerPoint formats, instructional plan, three-part content design anddevelopment plan, and a training announcement. She intentionally chose these artifacts torepresent the activities that training and development professionals undertake to fulfill their rolesand this learner’s quest to understand and learn the various activities that comprise this role.Although this is not an exhaustive collection, and more pieces can be added in the future, this is abeginning that will help the learner achieve her professional goal. This learner welcomes feedback of any kind that will help her improve this portfolio.Many thanks in advance for reading and critquing this piece.Kindest Regards,Tiffany A Simmons
Final Portfolio 4 Learning Outcomes and Indicators The education platform statement and PALSI results were self-discovery documentsdesigned to clarify this learner’s values, beliefs, and learning preferences. Knowing about themenabled her to reflect on past teaching and learning experiences and plan for the future. Planningfor the future requires having a clear vision for teaching and learning events and strategies tomake it real. Prior to the latest portfolio development project, this learner did not have a clearvision for her teaching and strategies that would support it. With these pieces now in place, thislearner could talk about learners and learning. After establishing the education platform statement and analyzing PALSI results, thislearner began examining the learning process and learner profiles through the HPL framework.Learning about how people learn and under what conditions and contexts confirms this learner’sbelief that all people can learn and learn well, given the right tools and the right opportunities.These learners’ prior experiences are useful for learning, and it is this learner’s obligation to usethem to facilitate the learning process. Although learner profiles were included in this learner’sunit and lesson planning, they was not as dynamic and alive as it could have been. With artifactslike a confirmative evaluation report, instructional plan, content/curriculum design anddevelopment project, and a training announcement to firmly support this learner’s educationalplatform statement, PALSI results, and HPL framework analysis, the learner profiles and theircharacteristics are more thoroughly explained and their needs considered and included in theplanning structure. When considering what can be done to ensure that teachers and learners receive whatthey need for a successful learning event, this learner added the confirmative evaluation to thelist of artifacts. Prior to completion of this large-scale activity, this learner had never heard of a
Final Portfolio 5confirmative evaluation. In fact, when learning of it and discovering how beneficial it could beto a full-scope evaluation plan, this learner never recalled an instance in which it was everdiscussed. Teachers used formative and summative evaluations to measure and monitorlearning, and administrators used these assessments to compile data for reporting purposes, butthese evaluations did not touch on learning needs, material and resource requirements, andstakeholder interests. Having those components frames the learning in context and helps theperson doing the evaluating focus on the important issues and concerns raised by thestakeholders. He or she is then able to form a complete picture of what the learning event shouldinclude, along with learning objectives, outcomes, and indicators that signal learning has takenplace. This learner was so impressed with what could be done with a confirmative evaluation,that she will use it to plan the next training event. Once learning needs, goals, and objectives have been identified, materials and resourcesplanned for, and stakeholders’ interests addressed, the instructional plan can be created. Thisinstructional plan includes an overview of the content to be addressed, learner characteristics, thelearning environment (time, location, materials to bring), and motivational framework(establishing inclusion, developing attitude, enhancing meaning, and engendering competence).The instructional plan could also be considered a classroom management tool that keeps theteacher focused on learning outcomes and the learner focused on fulfilling the learningobjectives. The content/curriculum design and development plan is a more detailed document, aspin-off from the instructional plan. Designing and developing content/curriculum is a three-part process. The first partincluded a content analysis which identified the target population to acknowledge them and theirneeds, a concept statement that provided overview of what the curriculum will cover, terms and
Final Portfolio 6concepts to support the content, and action statements that guided the learning activities. Inaddition, the learning objectives for the curriculum stated what conditions and contexts had to besatisfied in order to indicate successful learning. This learner’s knowledge about learningobjectives improved a great deal upon completion of this portion of the project. As a result, shewill use the template as a guide for future planning. The second part of the content/curriculumdesign and development project included a lesson plan. This lesson plan specified what will betaught, how it will be taught, materials and resources needed, and the supporting activities.Unlike past lesson plans, this template was much easier to follow, and this learner found it easyto create and sustain a flow between the first and second parts of the project, and by extension,the third part. The third and final part of the content/curriculum design and development projectwas a test item template, an assessment tool that confirmed adherence to the learning objectivesand confirmed that learners learned. Learners were expected to produce a finished product asevidence of their learning and demonstrate that what they learned transferred to theirprofessional capacities. Like the content analysis, learning objectives, and lesson plan templates,this learner intends to use the test item template to plan assessment procedures. The ease ofplanning makes this template a great choice. With development and design of content/curriculum done and test runs completed toassure that everything works as it should, this learner feels ready to announce the training event.For the training announcement, this learner used a PowerPoint slide to convey the message. ThePowerPoint presentation can be uploaded to the company or organization’s electronic bulletinboard, posted on the training portal of the website, or sent to the target audience by email. If thecompany or organization plans to use snail mail to announce training, then it could import thisdocument to MS Publisher and mail as a postcard. Any mode that the company chooses to
Final Portfolio 7announce its learning events, it is essential to market the event in an attractive and professionalway. The company or organization may already have logos, stationery, and other brandingmaterials available for use, and the training and development staff should use them for theirmarketing, but the point is to market. If the training and development staff does not market thisevent effectively, its effort to provide a quality training event goes to waste. For bragging points and demonstration that this learner has some real-world experience intraining, she included her ambassador certificate from her workplace. This certificate isdemonstration that this learner is committed to ongoing personal and professional developmentand positions her for future opportunities inside and outside her company. Additionally, it is agood conversation piece, which makes this learner a more attractive candidate for those futureopportunities. Taken together, the artifacts included represent this learner’s desire to rededicate herselfto the field of education and the pursuit of her personal and professional goals. It is hoped thatthese artifacts adequately tell the story of this learner’s journey from self-awareness to thecompletion of a successful learning event. Portfolio Use A portfolio is a useful tool to have in one’s professional arsenal, as this learner initiallylearned when undertaking previous educational courses. Along with the resume and cover letter,a portfolio distinguishes a candidate from the numerous others who are applying the samepositions within a company or organization. It shows evidence of professional growth anddevelopment and a commitment to building valuable skills and competencies needed to advancefurther. This learner plans to use this portfolio to demonstrate to future employers her ability tomeet their needs and, at the same time, fulfill her own goals. The target audience for this
Final Portfolio 8portfolio will be the following: human resource and/or training and development departments ofcorporations, post-secondary educational institutions, and non-profit organizations seekingcandidates for program directors or program managers.
Final Portfolio 9 Artifact 1: Education Platform Statement A learner/educator would include an introductory artifact that lends direction and purposeto the other artifacts that will be included in the portfolio. This learner has chosen to include theeducation platform statement as the lead-off document because she wants to introduce her visionand ideas of what education is and could be. The education platform statement is personal intone but professional in intent, and offers an idea to the intended audience of what this learner’sgoals are. Instead of quoting great philosophers and teachers of education from years past, thislearner chose to use her past experiences as a guidepost for this endeavor. This learner completed an educational philosophy before in preparation for a teachingcareer, but the philosophy, and subsequently the teaching career, did not last. On closerexamination of that fact, this learner discovered that the philosophy was based on extrinsicpressures and ideas rather than intrinsic motivation. That was four years and several realitychecks ago. The educational philosophy has since been revised and now includes a philosophyabout leadership, an area that was never considered or talked about in previous educationcourses; a vision statement that includes ideal learning conditions; and strategies to achieve thatvision. To say that the platform statement stretched this learner is not saying enough. This learner learned a lot about herself in the process of creating this document. Shelearned that her previous philosophy was inadequate to the task of teaching. Revising thatphilosophy, in addition to thinking about leadership, vision statements, and strategies challengedher to get out of the box of being a deliverer of knowledge. She learned that there was so muchmore to teaching than just that. Without a vision and effective strategies to achieve the vision,the philosophy is not going to work. Experience has taught this learner that “shooting from thehip will cause you to misfire,” as quoted from a former colleague. In essence, if you fail to plan,
Final Portfolio 10you plan to fail. With a much clearer perspective on what it means to be an educator, this learneris now equipped to make a more adequate contribution.
Final Portfolio 11RUNNING HEAD: Education Platform Statement Assignment 4: Education Platform Statement Tiffany A Simmons Dr. Harvey EDU 599: Education Capstone February 1, 2012
Final Portfolio 12Introduction This learner once had the idea/vision of all learners streaming into her classroom, thirstyfor the knowledge needed to reach the next level of their academic journeys. “To be greatwriters…..to be literate citizens” (Simmons, 2004) sounded lofty and purposeful enough tocreate excitement about learning, but it would not enough to sustain the teacher or the learner.Seven years and several reality checks later, this learner has come to the realization that the ideasand visions were not a true representation of her beliefs and values. Instead, they were more forthe purpose of finishing an assignment and getting a grade. In short, this philosophy was nottaken seriously by the learner, and it showed itself when the learner began student teaching andcontinued through to full-time teaching. Admittedly, this was a painful realization, but it haspresented the learner with an opportunity to revisit the educational philosophy. The educational philosophy, as this learner discovered, is not a bunch of words on a page.At the heart of any philosophy is a belief and value system that justifies and sustains it. In turn,the beliefs and values that the learner/educator possesses authenticates the philosophy. For thislearner/educator, this meant revisiting, rethinking, and reimagining what education is and what itmeans to be an educator. After over four years of being away from education, and coming backto it again, it was time to reflect and remember what drew this learner/educator to the professionto begin with and what that would mean going forward. This learner/educator is excited about sharing her vision and ideas with those who areinterested in education and educators. After giving it much thought and reflection, this learner isfinally ready to share the vision that she has of education and what her role will be in it. Theultimate goal is to create and promote vibrant, active learning communities that everyone wouldbe excited to belong to. Within these pages, this learner/educator will articulate a new, improved
Final Portfolio 13philosophy of education, a philosophy of leadership, a vision of teachers and learners, a vision ofthe educational environment in which this learner desires to work, and the strategies to achievethe vision in current or anticipated work.Philosophy of Education “I’m a believer in essentialism…I use (Robert Dewey’s) idea of progressivism to take the writing experience to the next level.” -Tiffany Simmons, 2004 “Believe: believe in the potential of your learners. Believe in your worth and value as teachers. Believe that what you have to teach is valuable and relevant to the learner.” -Tiffany Simmons, 2012 This learner included both philosophies in this section to represent the shift in thinkingthat occurred between the two time periods. The initial philosophy statement included theoriesand ideas from other philosophers and writers, who may or may have had education in mindwhen they formulated their theories. It was a well-meaning philosophy, but it was not acomplete and true representation of what this learner believed and valued about education. Thesecond philosophy statement came about as a result of this learner’s growth and experiencesinside and outside the educational setting. Keeping in mind those comparisons, this learnerconcluded that previous teaching experiences did not work out because the philosophy thatundergirded them was not authentic-just a means to have something written. After having timeto reflect some more, this learner revised her philosophy to include her beliefs and values aboutlearning and learners. Her work experiences after teaching have shown that learners, no matterwhat background they come from, have the ability and the potential to do great things-if teachers
Final Portfolio 14believe in them, if teachers believe in their own abilities, and if the content is valuable andrelevant to the life and experience of the learner. All learners have the potential to learn-and learn well. Contrary to previous thought,learners do not come to the learning experience as “blank slates,” waiting to be poured into.They have previous personal and professional experiences that have educational value; it is theteacher’s responsibility to bring those out. Finding out what the learner needs to be successful,know who they are, and what they value about learning all show that the teacher believes in thelearner’s potential. Setting high expectations and implementing some structure and routine toclassroom life stabilizes the learning process and shows that the teacher has respect for thelearner, the learning process, and most importantly, for himself or herself as an educator. An area that educational literature seldom speaks about is the teacher’s belief in theirworth and value in the profession of teaching-that they have something to offer to the students.To demonstrate that worth and value, teachers practice continuous learning. They have plansand goals for student learning, as well as for their own learning. Additionally, they are willing tocollaborate with colleagues to ensure the integrity and equity of the learning environment.Finally, a teacher who values their teaching reflects on it often, with the goal to improve howthey plan and deliver instruction. Teachers who believe in the potential of their learners, and the worth and value of theirteaching, also believe that what they teach has some value. Staying current with the trends ofone’s content area is a given, and should be required, but there is more to it. Following federal,state, and local core content for assessment-and being able to articulate them- is the bestindicator that a teacher believes that what they teach has relevance and value to the learner. If ateacher can confidently articulate the reason something is being taught and why it needs to be
Final Portfolio 15learned, learners will see its relevance, grab onto the learning process, and share the teacher’sexcitement for learning the particular content area. Without learners, teachers cannot teach. Without teachers, learners cannot learn. That iswhy teachers must believe in the potential of every learner he or she comes across; that is whyteachers must recognize and believe in their own worth and value as teachers, and why teachersmust believe that what they teach has value and relevance to the learner. When those three“beliefs” come together, teachers and learners will become dynamic partners in the learningprocess.Philosophy of Leadership Although pre-service teachers were expected to formulate an educational philosophy toguide their practice as teachers, they were never asked to do a similar thing for leadershipphilosophy. So, to this learner, developing a philosophy of leadership is new. Thinking aboutthe teacher as a leader was, at best, a fringe topic and, at worst, a non-topic. In short, a teacherwas a teacher and nothing more. Reframing the teacher role as that of leader is an interestingidea, one worth exploring and expounding on. Reading books and articles on leadership andorganizational behavior topics has helped this learner/educator develop some thoughts and ideason what leadership could be in the teaching profession. It is possible for a teacher to be a strong, exceptional leader. That is why one seesdepartment heads, mentors, and principals in the school systems. Such leaders are activelyengaged in the life of the learning community, doing equal parts of giving and taking to ensureits survival and vitality. So, what does this learner/educator believe about leadership? This learner/educator believes that leaders have a strong, clear vision about the resultsand outcomes they wish to see, and they seek out the best and the brightest who are also
Final Portfolio 16committed to fulfillment of that vision. True leaders often are not the ones at the center ofattention; sometimes, they are behind the scenes. They are not afraid of sharing power withothers, nor are they afraid of giving it up, when and where appropriate. Leaders can admit thatthey do not have all the answers; they seek out experts for support and guidance on issues inwhich they are not well-versed. Finally, leaders are learners. They constantly seek outknowledge and current best practices that will improve how the organization is run. This learner/educator cannot claim to know all there is to leadership. Many of thesituations in which she was placed has either refuted her idea of what leadership is or enhancedher ability to step into a leadership role, when necessary.A Vision of Teachers and Learners This learner/educator believes that teachers and learners are partners in the educationalprocess. The teacher is not the all-knowing, all-seeing guru, while the learner sits at his or herfeet to absorb the knowledge. When this learner was administrator at a small college, shenoticed a rampant pattern of administrators doing all the work, and prospective students doingnone of it. The belief was that students who were made to fend for themselves would most likelynot enroll in school because “they needed the school’s help.” To test this belief, thisadministrator started requiring students to complete their own paperwork. They were tocomplete their own admissions and financial aid forms and consult the administrative officesonly when they were truly stuck and not because they did not want to do it. Contrary to the long-standing perception, students who did it on their own did not drop out. The opposite happened:they followed through on their commitments and started on time-every single time! When teachers and administrators stop coddling (adult students in particular), they willfind that much of their time is freed up to carry out their duties and responsibilities. Teachers
Final Portfolio 17and learners are partners, not superior and subordinate, in the learning process. Learners worktoward their goals, while teachers coach and facilitate. This arrangement allows everyone toreach their full educational potential.Vision of the Educational Environment The educational environment that this learner/educator feels is most ideal is the post-secondary or corporate environment. In these environments, the learners are more self-directedand are often in the learning environment with a specific learning objective in mind. Thislearner/educator, as strange as it may sound, feels more comfortable teaching to this group thanto the secondary school classrooms that she came from. Through trial and error, and through aprevious class, this learner discovered her teaching orientation and has a wish to go in that directin the future. This post-secondary or corporate environment will either include developmental learnersor learners who need extra help in acclimating to a college environment. If in a corporateenvironment, new hires or hires who need additional skill training in targeted areas will be afocus. Currently, this learner is actively seeking opportunities in both areas.Strategies to Achieve the Vision To achieve this vision, this learner/educator would consider only those strategies that aresuitable and appropriate. Older, more traditional strategies, may be foregone in favor of moreauthentic, real-life ones in order to reach the learners and advance the mission of the educationalenvironments in which the learner would work. Some strategies that this learner will use are mentorships, student-to-studentcollaborations, teacher-to-student learning agreements, frequent feedback, and targeted practicefor skill-building. Mentorships programs that pair new students with continuing students or new
Final Portfolio 18adult students with continuing adult students could help with adjustment problems and bevaluable resources for students who are struggling in their classes (or in corporate environment,mentoring between new hires and more established employees will help the new hire adjust tothe corporate culture). Student-to-student collaborations are excellent for both post-secondaryand corporate environments and aid in transfer of knowledge from classroom to workplace orfrom classroom to classroom (moving from one class to the next in the sequence). Teacher-to-student learning agreement (or, in the corporate environment, professional development plans)articulate specific learning goals the student (or employee) has and methods that will be used toachieve them. Frequent feedback can be verbal or written. In the corporate environment,frequent feedback is usually written-in the form of performance evaluations. Finally, authenticassessments, such as case studies and simulations will be used in the teaching environment toreinforce learning. In any case, the learner will take a greater responsibility for their learning andrely less on a teacher to do it for them. Teachers will act as coaches and facilitators, empoweringthe learner to learn for themselves and discover that they can learn-and learn well.Conclusion Initially, this learner/educator formulated a philosophy because she needed to round outthe portfolio, prepare for teaching. But when it came time to teach, the philosophy wasforgotten. It was never looked at again. Revisiting the educational philosophy was beneficial inthat it allowed this learner/educator to examine what it is about education she truly believed,why, and what changed. Looking at this philosophy made this learner/educator realize thathaphazard and random actions in teaching are not good for the teacher and the learner. It canlead to disastrous results for everyone, and the value of education erodes at each turn.
Final Portfolio 19 ReferenceSimmons, T. (2004). Philosophy of Education. Kentucky State University: Teacher Education Program.
Final Portfolio 20 Artifact 2: PALSI Results Prior to completing an education platform statement, this learner completed a PersonalAdult Learning Styles Inventory (PALSI). This inventory measured one’s “general orientationtoward adult learning, program development, learning methods, and program administration”(Knowles, Swanson, & Holt, 2005). In order to form a philosophy about teaching, this learnerhad to understand how SHE learned so that she could be effective with her own learners. Theresults of the inventory did not shock or surprise; rather, it helped her establish a direction inwhich to go with future educational endeavors. This learner would best describe herself as an experienced, self-motivated learner. Assuch, she discovered that the pedagogical style in which she was taught in her education classeswas not a good fit for her. For the future, this learner has made it a goal to seek opportunities inpost-secondary or corporate environments, which is consistent with the test results. To be clear,the test results do not drive my decision-making; they simply confirm it. The daily cognitivedissonance that came each time this learner stepped into her classroom was enough to convinceher to stop trying to teach to learners that she could not reach. Instead, the energies could betterbe applied seeking opportunities that were a better match, both professionally and personally. As with the education platform statement, the PALSI results asked the learner to identifysuitable environments and strategies for teaching and learning. This learner believes that theenvironments and strategies are consistent with the vision that she has for teaching and learning,and she plans to implement them in future endeavors.
Final Portfolio 21RUNNING HEAD: PALSI results PALSI Results: Teaching and Learning Orientation Tiffany A. Simmons Strayer University August 14, 2011
Final Portfolio 22 “Teaching/learning assumptions may be categorized as pedagogically oriented orandragogically oriented” (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005). The pedagogical model is mostfamiliar to many teachers and learners because the elementary and secondary schoolenvironment is oriented in that direction. The pedagogical model is focused on teaching contentto learners who exhibit dependent personalities, have little to no experience in the content orlearning in general, and learners are extrinsically motivated due to pressures from society,parents, peers, and teachers (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005). The andragogical modelfocuses on adult learning and assumes that adult learners are independent, have experiences thatcan be used in the educational context, and are intrinsically motivated to learn to improve theirlife situations, raise their self-esteem, or gain more personal or professional recognition(Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005). This learner recently completed a Personal AdultLearning Style Inventory (PALSI) that measures one’s “general orientation to adult learning,program development, learning methods, and program administration” (Knowles, Holton, &Swanson, 2005). Once the questions were answered, respondents were asked to graph theirresults based on how andragogic they were along a continuum of answers. A score of 30 to 60would indicate a pedagogical orientation, and a score of 120 to 150 would indicate anandragogical orientation (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson). Somewhere in the middle is a mixtureof both orientations. This learner scored a 146, which is no surprise given her past teaching andlearning experiences. This learner was a teacher in the public school system for a brief period of time beforediscovering that the pedagogical style of teaching was not compatible with her ideas and beliefsabout teaching and learning. This was the first indication that elementary and secondary schoolteaching was not appropriate for this learner. Realizing that this group of learners was not
Final Portfolio 23prepared to be the types of learners that the teacher expected was evidence enough that anotherlearning atmosphere would be a better fit. Secondly, this learner taught a classroom of remedialEnglish students at a local college in preparation for a teaching career and discovered that it wasa better fit for her personal teaching and learning philosophy than the middle and high schoolstudents that she gained eligibility to teach. That was because the college classroom consisted oflearners who were ready to learn. Malcolm Knowles explains in his theory of andragogy that“the readiness of an adult to learn is closely related to the developmental tasks of his or her role”(Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007). These students were high school graduates whowere taking their educational pursuits to the next level, parents who wanted to be examples totheir children and families of what one can do if they try hard enough and succeed, and membersof the workforce who wanted additional credentials to advance their careers. These learners’desire to improve themselves and consistently show themselves eager to learn inspired andenergized this learner/teacher. They are the group of learners that this learner wants to teach andmentor. Teaching adults is just as much a challenge as teaching children, especially for someonewho is not self-directed or intrinsically motivated and who is used to teaching in a pedagogicalstyle. Unlike child learners who need instruction and who do not have a great deal of experienceto draw upon to expand learning, adult learners do. Helping adult learners see how useful theirprevious life experiences are for learning will help them see that they can learn (Merriam,Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007). They will feel less nervous and more comfortable.However, the teacher/instructor has to be intentional and effortless in drawing out thoseexperiences; otherwise, it may not work. A teacher has to establish an environment for learningthat includes everyone, encourages a positive learning attitude, enhances meaning, and engenders
Final Portfolio 24competence in the learner. Ginsberg and Wlodkowski (2009) brought these ideas together into amotivational framework for culturally responsive teaching. The andragogical style of learningand the motivational framework for culturally responsive teaching both helped this learnerunderstand how to be a better teacher and how to clarify her learning style. It is no surprise that the andragogical style of teaching and learning appeared moreprominently. Not because of the theories that support andragogy, but because this learner hasalways exhibited qualities of self-direction in her learning. The online learning environment is aperfect fit for her in that regard. Furthermore, this learner is intrinsically motivated (whichprobably does not sit too well with family and friends who are not so intrinsically motivated) andwill learn something because she wants to learn it, whether it is popular with others or not. Tokeep learners like her motivated and further encourage self-direction, it is recommended that aninteractive instructional method is used. Using PowerPoint presentations to deliver lecturesinstead of standing at a lectern is highly suggested, along with opportunities to collaborate withclassmates. Class presentations that challenge the learner’s ability to apply the ideas andconcepts of the course, as well as using technology to deliver that knowledge, is useful. Andbeing able to use audio and video, as appropriate, will help learners like this learner demonstratea new skill and use it to enhance the coursework. After leaving the classroom, this learner no longer could articulate her teaching andlearning style. It is now that she realizes that the pedagogical style that is so dominant in theelementary and secondary schools is not one that will help her be successful. In fact, it is withthis knowledge in mind that this learner has decided not to return to that environment to teach;instead, she has decided to devote time and resources to pursuing a teaching position in the adulteducation classroom. Taking the PALSI was an eye-opener and a career-changer, for sure.
Final Portfolio 25 ReferencesGinsberg, M. B. & Wlodkowski, R. J. (2009). Diversity and motivation: Culturally responsive teaching in college. (2nd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F. & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (6th ed.). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.Merriam, S. B., Baumgartner, L. M., & Caffarella, R. S. (2007). Learning in adulthood: a comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Wiley. Artifact 3: HPL Framework
Final Portfolio 26 This learner talked about teaching and learning in the context of her own teaching andlearning experiences. The How People Learn (HPL) framework offers a perspective on howlearners connect to the learning experience. Learners do not come to the learning experiencewith nothing; they have prior experiences that can be used for the learning environment.Understanding what learners already know, how they use what they know, and what they couldpotentially learn can help teachers teach effectively. Learning, as the HPL frameworkillustrates, is not a one-time event; it is ongoing. Going back to the training event with sororitymembers: this training event was the specific scenario in which this framework was tested. TheHPL framework covers four areas: knowledge-centeredness, learner-centeredness, community-centeredness, and assessment-centeredness. The knowledge-centeredness piece focuses on content. This is where teachers determinewhat will be taught, why it would be taught, and how what would be taught would be organized.Alumnae members determined what would be taught, why, and how the content would beorganized to support efficient and effective learning. This point was important to establisheffortless flow of information. It is important to note that learners notice when something is notflowing as it should, and learner/educators like myself would do well to consider doing practiceruns with the material before rolling it out. Additionally, teachers should implement interestingactivities that would enhance the content and facilitate retention. Finally, the content itself mustreflect current thought and practice because relevance is key. Learners want to be assured thatwhat they are learning is relevant. Speaking of learners, when planning for learning, the chapter had to identify who wouldtake part in the training. This is the learning-centered part of the framework. For the trainingevent, all current undergraduate chapter members were required to attend. Their experience
Final Portfolio 27level with the sorority are many and various, but the intent is to get everyone up to speed oncurrent thought and practice. Because things frequently change, it is necessary to involveeveryone in the learning process. Along with general information about sorority matters,members were given specific learning opportunities, such as increasing chapter growth andfundraising ideas, to enhance their chapter operations. For the future, however, the chapterwould do well to target only those members who have identified a need for training or thosemembers whom the chapter advisor has targeted for training. Additionally, more experiencedundergraduate members will be chosen to lead the training modules, with alumnae membersoffering guidance. This will empower undergraduate chapter members to help one another andbuild their leadership skills. Besides, it’s just a great idea! These learners do not belong to themselves in the bigger scheme of things; they operatetheir chapters within a larger community-the college or university campus on which they operateand the local communities in which they reside. The community-centered component of theframework helps the teachers, advisors, alumnae, and undergraduate chapter membersunderstand how what they learn will enhance their communities. Community-building isessential to the success of the training event, and will be essential to the success of each chapter.Within a thriving community of active, engaged individuals, the chapters will not be successful,and the training event itself will be a waste. Checking for learning, engagement, and conducting follow-up to determine if the transferof learning is happening is where assessment-centeredness comes in. Assessments done in theformative stages to check learning and clarify understanding, as well as assessments done at theclose of the training event (summative) to evaluate effectiveness of training. As was statedbefore, a confirmative evaluation plan will be included as part of a full-scope evaluation. This
Final Portfolio 28will do two things: assure that our undergraduate chapters are vital, functional entities and tooffer smoother reporting to the national body when annual reports are due.RUNNING HEAD: HPL Framework
Final Portfolio 29 Assignment 5: HPL Framework Tiffany A. Simmons Dr. Harvey EDU599: Education Capstone February 12, 2012 Educators are challenged with providing quality teaching and learning experiences fortheir learners. They want to connect the learning to the learning experience in a seamless,
Final Portfolio 30effortless way. The HPL (How People Learn) framework is important in the teaching andlearning environment because “understanding how [people] develop and learn, as well as whatthey learned during their early years and continue to learn outside of the school environment, iscritical for effective teaching” (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005). The four components ofthis framework are knowledge-centeredness, learner-centeredness, community-centeredness, andassessment-centeredness. Teachers should consider how learners learn, what they already know, and how whatthey already know can facilitate the learning process. Learning, as the HPL frameworkexplanation suggests, is not a one-time event; it is an ongoing process that happens in manycontexts and scenarios. This learner was asked to place this framework in a specific scenario todemonstrate how it would work. The scenario that this learner has chosen is a training event forundergraduate sorority members. This scenario is based on an event that really happened.Knowledge-Centeredness Knowledge-centeredness concerns itself with content-what is being taught, why it istaught, and how it will be organized for efficiency. The alumnae chapter, who is in charge of theundergraduate sorority chapters in its area, facilitates the trainings. Based on its findings, thetraining needs have been identified as follows: chapter management, which includes officertraining, financial management, and organizational efficiency; sorority image, which includesbehavior and conduct, academic progress, and a lively discussion about sorority stereotypes;event programming, which includes discussion about required programs, specific chapterprograms, and chapter calendars; and membership development, which includes timely topicsabout recruitment and retention. Why were these areas chosen? Alumnae advisors attendundergraduate chapter meetings and, based on their observations, identify areas in which
Final Portfolio 31chapters need additional help and advisement. Additionally, each chapter is surveyed after eachacademic year to identify areas of need. Both sets of information are used to determine whatcontent should be covered. Although the textbook does not cover this area very extensively, and it seems intuitiveand self-explanatory for more readers, it should not be assumed that no discussion is needed.Likewise, the alumnae chapter members should not skip over knowledge-centeredness as itpertains to the training process. Content is what makes the training event happen, and thecontent must reflect current thought and practice, and be relevant to the lives and concerns of thelearners they target for training.Learner-Centeredness For the purposes of this scenario, the learners that are being targeted for this trainingevent are the members of the undergraduate sorority chapters. Their experience levels vary fromno experience to extensive experience. These sorority members have participated on the local,regional, and national level in sorority events, and have held offices in their respective chapters.Having this knowledge is crucial for training because it fosters connection and draws them intothe learning process. Recently, the alumnae chapter recruited new members for one of the undergraduatechapters. These members had no prior sorority experience, other than membership recruitmentactivities, so it was imperative to get them up to speed. The selected content for these memberswas appropriate, since these members would be the ones sustaining the chapter after the olderundergraduate members graduated. For the other chapters in attendance, the training moduleswould target their specific chapter concerns. Of course, these chapters know the specificenvironment in which they operate; however, there are concerns that have come up as part of
Final Portfolio 32observation that training is designed to cover and remedy. More specifically, lack of growth.Membership development modules are designed to target those problems and help chapters comeup with a plan of action for this area. The alumnae chapter made every effort to connect these undergraduate chapters’ pastexperiences and knowledge to the training event, and it is hoped that the effort is successful, andchapter members can take the knowledge gained back to their chapters and build from there.Community-Centeredness Training events would not be successful-especially with numerous chapters inattendance-without community-building. Community-building is an effort to build thriving,effective learning communities that encourages active sharing and inquiry among its members.As it pertains to this training event, the goal for community-building is to build strong coalitionsamong these chapters. Fortunately, they already know each other and are social outside of thetraining event. The next step in the community-building is to encourage collaborative activitiesthat will promote their chapters and the sorority more. The addition of an open forum is the perfect opportunity to build community. Within thisformat, chapter members are encouraged and expected to share their experiences. The goal is tohelp solve problems and strengthen support systems among the chapters. Creating and fosteringcommunity improves the sorority image and strengthens event planning-and the act of seeingsorority women supporting and encouraging one another is an incentive for outsiders to seekmembership in this community, which will solve the problem of membership recruitment andretention. Building a strong, active community, then, is beneficial to the learning processbecause, through it, members can take pride in their sorority and spread that to the largercommunity.
Final Portfolio 33Assessment-Centeredness While observation and surveying are excellent assessment tools, other assessment toolsshould be utilized before, during, and after the event. While planning, the content should beassessed to be sure that it adheres to sorority rules, regulations, and policies. This is a type offormative assessment that ensures that what is taught is current and correct. While the trainingevent is going, more formative assessment should take place-for instance, facilitators shouldcheck understanding at regular intervals (like what the PowerPoint lectures in the Strayerclassroom modules do) to be sure that information presented is understood. Secondly, as part ofsummative assessments, learners should complete an assessment to identify what they havelearned, areas that they need more training in, how they will use the information gained fromtraining, and any recommendations for future training events. This learner has also considered completing a confirmative evaluation at the close of thelast training event, to be completed by the beginning of the next one. This confirmativeevaluation will identify stakeholders-the people who will either participate in the training,whether as a learner or a facilitator, and the people who expect to benefit in some way from thetraining (campus advisors, the Greek Affairs Office, for example)-resource requirements,program objectives, and specific needs of the chapters. The purpose of such an evaluation is toidentify training needs, describe the method and purpose for training, and explain what is neededto execute it successfully. If, in conducting the evaluation, it is determined that the way trainingsis currently being done is no longer effective, or that the learner profile for training shouldchange, then the changes can be made at that point. Assessments drive continuous improvement and are a proactive way of doing so. Thereshould be no reason why assessments should be a one-shot deal, when it can be so much more.
Final Portfolio 34Every effort should be made to ensure that the training event is beneficial, and that learners arelearning and are engaged in the event.Conclusion The training event is a permanent part of the yearly calendar for both alumnae andundergraduate chapters. While the training itself has produced good results and has gottenpositive feedback from attendees, more can be done. The content can be adjusted to targetspecific needs of the chapters; the learner profile could be adjusted to accommodate only thosechapters or members who have identified a specific training need; the community-centerednessof the event can be adjusted to include the alumnae. They can also be cast as learners in order toreach the undergraduate members more effectively. Finally, the assessments can be more all-inclusive to include confirmative evaluations. This step often gets missed in favor of onesummative assessment. By the time the summative evaluation is completed, and problems arespotted, it is often too late to do anything about it. To that end, the training should meet theneeds of all participants through assessments, proper content development based on identifiedneeds, knowledge of learners and their needs, and community-building. When all fourcomponents of the HPL framework are functioning together, the training event will produce theresult it desires. Reference
Final Portfolio 35Darling-Hammond, L. & Bransford, (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world. San Francisco, CA: Wiley. Artifact 4: Confirmative Evaluation Report
Final Portfolio 36 Teachers have been taught to assess learning through formative and summativeevaluation. Formative evaluations capture understanding as it is being formed, either before orduring the learning event, and summative evaluation captures what is learned after the learningevent has happened. What is not captured is what learners feel they need to learn before, during,and after the event; what is important information to impart to learners; and who will benefitfrom the learning event, whether it is the learner, the teacher, or important others, who arereferred to as “stakeholders.” A confirmative evaluation is designed to capture those points. Itincludes the interests of the learners, the teachers, and other stakeholders who are vested in theoutcomes of the learning event. This learner had never heard of a confirmative evaluation, perhaps because theorganizations that this learner worked for never asked for or considered one in its planning-andmaybe because the time and expense in completing it can be too burdensome. The confirmativeevaluation includes a detailed plan to carry out an effective training event for sorority members.Because the learner recognizes that the target audience may need or want a visual representationof the confirmative evaluation, a summarized version can be accessed here. What this learner discovered through completing a confirmative evaluation are these: 1.It is time-consuming but a worthwhile endeavor; 2. One gets a fuller picture of what is neededfrom all perspectives; 3. It reduces or eliminates redundancies in planning and execution; 4. Aconfirmative evaluation targets exactly what is needed, who needs it, what resources andmaterials are available to meet the needs, and what results and outcomes are expected; and 5.Involving everyone who has a stake in the outcome is beneficial and crucial to the success of thelearning event. This learner feels that a confirmative evaluation would have been useful for atraining event she spearheaded a year ago for sorority members.
Final Portfolio 37 Each year, the alumnae chapter of this learner’s sorority conducts training for itsundergraduate chapters. Because this learner’s position included training undergraduates, it washer responsibility to ensure that training happened. Using a previous model, she put the trainingtogether. Although the training was moderately successful, it could have been much more so. Aconfirmative evaluation done beforehand could have eliminated training modules that wouldhave limited or no value, targeted the participants who needed to be present for the training, andspecified learning outcomes and objectives to be attained and how they would be monitored andmeasured. Now that this learner has this all-important tool, she plans to use it to help her chapter bemore efficient in planning training events in the future, and she also plans to use it in futurejob/career opportunities that include planning for training events for staff, as well as pass it alongto colleagues. A confirmative evaluation is a much-needed tool to ensure that learning happens.RUNNING HEAD: Final Report
Final Portfolio 38 Final Confirmative Evaluation Report: Alpha Beta Gamma Sorority Tiffany A. Simmons Strayer University August 27, 2011 Table of ContentsExecutive Summary……………………………………………………………………………..3
Final Portfolio 39Part I: Project Description Introduction……………………………………………………………………………..4 Type of Organization……………………………………………………………………4 Description of Training………………………………………………………………….5 Description of Learners………………………………………………………………….5 Instructional/Motivational Methods…………………………………………………...5-6 Next Steps………………………………………………………………………………..6Part II: Confirmative Evaluation Pre-Plan…………………………………………………….6-11Part III: Assessment Tool Introduction……………………………………………………………………………..11 Defining Survey Objectives……………………………………………………….…11-12 Sampling Group……………………………………………………………………...12-13 Writing the Questionnaire……………………………………………………………13-14 Administering the Questionnaire………………………………………………………..15 Interpretation of Results………………………………………………………………...15 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………16Part IV: Matrix to Focus Plan Data Collection……………………………………………...16-18Closing….………………………………………………………………………………………19References………………………………………………………………………………………20 Executive Summary
Final Portfolio 40Confirmative evaluations are a means to ascertain program effectiveness and current and futureneeds. Often, this step is skipped in favor of formative and summative evaluations which may ormay not offer the information needed to measure overall program health. This is whyconfirmative evaluations are needed along with formative and summative evaluations. Withinthis document is a confirmative evaluation plan that details what will be done and how. The goalis to ensure an effective, healthy program in which participants will obtain optimal learningoutcomes. Part I: Project Description
Final Portfolio 41Introduction Each year, the alumnae chapter devotes considerable time and energy into grooming itsundergraduate chapters. While the need for training and developing these young sorority sistersis needed and valuable, the questions as to what to teach and train them for and the cost-benefitof having done so weigh heavily. With that, those in charge of training have examined the issuefrom as many angles as possible and concluded that every undergraduate sorority member shouldcomplete training in sorority rules, regulations, customs, and operations as a prerequisite toexecuting activities and projects on their campuses and conducting membership drives. Thetraining assures that each member understands the rules, regulations, customs, and operations ofthe sorority and is therefore accountable for following them and communicating them whenappropriate.Type of Organization Alpha Beta Gamma is considered an incorporated non-profit organization under 501(c) 3regulations. Its management style is collaborative and democratic, with each paid, activemember receiving one vote in national, regional, and local officer elections, where applicable.The sorority employs ten full-time staff members at its national headquarters, including anexecutive director and a membership services coordinator. Alpha Beta Gamma is represented inall 50 states and over 20 foreign countries. In the state of Kentucky, Alpha Beta Gamma haseight undergraduate chapters and two alumnae chapters. The local alumnae chapter, based inLexington, KY, is responsible for the training and development of four undergraduate chapters.Description of Training
Final Portfolio 42 The annual Undergraduate Training Seminar is held each September. The undergraduatechapters rotate locations so that each chapter has the opportunity to be hostesses of the event.The training covers chapter management (officer duties/responsibilities, record-keeping, annualreporting), sorority image (appropriate attire for sorority events, acceptable behavior in thecampus environment), and membership requirements (inducting new members, monitoringcurrent membership activity). The goals and objectives of this training are the following:sorority members will manage their chapters in an orderly, professional manner at all times;sorority members will project positive images on their respective campuses at all times; andsorority members will communicate and enforce membership requirements at all times. Thesetraining modules are part of a complete curriculum on undergraduate training, and allundergraduate sorority members are required to attend.Description of learners The learners present at the training seminar are female college students who are in non-management positions; however, they may or may not currently hold an office within theirchapters. They will have 0 to 3 years of experience in the sorority and little knowledge toextensive knowledge of sorority rules, regulations, customs, and operations. The average agerange of the learners is 18 to 22 years old, with some learners preparing for graduation or willhave graduated and are looking to transfer into an alumnae chapter at a later date.Instructional and/or Motivational Methods The trainer/facilitator used the following motivational methods to influence learning inthe training sessions: she focused on creating an inclusive learning environment withicebreakers and introductions. Once the icebreakers and introductions were complete, thefacilitator explained the purpose of the training in order to create the right attitude toward
Final Portfolio 43learning. Thirdly, the facilitator, along with other alumnae chapters members in attendance,enhanced meaning by engaging the undergraduate learners, allowing them to share theirexperiences and express their concerns (Wlodkowski, 2008, p. 114). These three motivationalmethods were used to draw the learners in, determine where they were in the learning process,and what they needed in order to get to the next level in their sorority membership.Next Steps The next steps in this training would be to solicit feedback from the learners to see if alloutcomes and objectives were achieved. An online survey will be used for that purpose.Secondly, a confirmative evaluation will be conducted prior to the next training. The feedbackfrom this evaluation will assist the trainer in determine if more targeted training is needed,whether some members should be exempt from attendance, and whether some modules can beeliminated. It must be noted that previous trainings did not include evaluations as part of theprocess. To that end, evaluation will become an integral part of the training so that continuousimprovement can take place, and the undergraduates can continue to benefit from the trainings. Part II: Confirmative Evaluation Pre-Plan Alumnae sorority chapters are responsible for the overall well-being of its localundergraduate chapters. To assure that they are operating within the rules and regulations of thesorority and the universities the sorority is represented, the alumnae chapter sponsorsundergraduate training programs each year. The undergraduate trainings cover a variety oftopics, from financial management techniques to membership recruitment. New members, aswell as more seasoned members, attend this training. Alumnae chapter members lend their timeand expertise to the event to ensure that each attendee is receiving the best, most up-to-date
Final Portfolio 44information available. Confirmative evaluation is needed to keep the quality of membershiphigh and the integrity of the organization intact. The intended program duration is expected to be one year-especially for those who arenew members. The program goals and objectives are clear and well-defined, are achievable,align with business goals, and are critical to meeting organizational goals (Dessinger & Moseley,2004). The needs of the training audience have been identified and are well-defined for thetraining. The budget for this event is not very large, as many of the chapter members own someof the resources required to stage it. Alumnae chapter members are in discussions to determinehow to acquire additional funds (i.e. submitting grant proposal form to the national sorority,requesting training voucher funds from the universities where the sorority chapters arerepresented). Although the chapter budget to stage the training is not very large, the trainingaudience is. Recently, one of the undergraduate chapters inducted seven new members, andanother inducted three. Altogether, the training audience totals thirty undergraduate sororitymembers. Because many of them are new, the alumnae chapter sees this as an opportunity to notonly educate them but to re-instill a sense of pride and ownership that being a member of thesorority would entail. The alumnae chapter has committed itself to conducting a confirmativeevaluation to assure that the need for training exists or that training should be modified forparticular chapters or circumstances. Management is very interested in evaluating the programto ensure that the undergraduate chapters are receiving the best training opportunities possible. All stakeholders have been duly identified, and their concerns and needs have beenconsidered in this evaluation. The undergraduate chapter members have expressed a need tolearn more about the sorority’s rules, regulations, and customs so that they can represent thesorority better on their campuses and in their communities. They believe that this will improve
Final Portfolio 45how they market the organization. Their needs are critical to achieving organizational goals, asone of the organization’s goals is to increase membership by 10% by the end of the sorority year.This will be the benchmark by which progress will be measured, and if necessary, be carriedover to the next sorority year for further evaluation. The alumnae chapter advisors areresponsible for the governance of the undergraduate chapters, and their information needs wouldcenter on chapter management. They want to see if the information presented in the trainingprogram will improve the overall organization and management of the chapters of which they arein charge. The alumnae chapter president wants to know if the benefit of the training justifiesthe cost. The value of the training must be evident when undergraduate chapter members canoperate their chapters in a self-sufficient and sustainable way. Finally, the on-campus advisorneeds to know if there are other training needs that will improve the reputation of the chapter oncampus, as well as result in improved chapter operations. A confirmative evaluation would address the needs of all stakeholders and look for waysto provide greater value to everyone involved. It is hoped that the results of this evaluation willimprove how future training programs are designed, developed, implemented, and evaluated.The sorority is committed to developing the leadership potential of each member, and thetraining programs are one way of assuring that members receive what they need to reach theirgoals.
Final Portfolio 46 4=Very true 3=True 2=Not always true 1=UntrueName of Training Program: Undergraduate Training Program for Alpha Beta GammaTraining Program Intended Duration RatingIntended program duration is one to five or more 4yearsIntended program duration is less than one year, 1but certification or licensing requirementsmandate a confirmative evaluationIntended program duration is less than one year, 1but stakeholder requests an extensionOrganization-Specific CriteriaProgram goals and objectives are well-defined 4Program goals and objectives are achievable 4Program goals and objectives align with business 4goalsProgram goals are critical to meeting 4organizational goalsProgram goals and objectives are consistent with 4organizational or business goals and objectivesPriority needs of training audience are well- 4definedTraining program development and 1implementation budget is largeSize of training audience is large 3Training audience represents a critical business 4area or areaTraining program is very visible internally or 4externallyOrganization has the resource capability (time, 3expertise, technology, money, and so forth) tosupport a confirmative evaluationManagement is very interested in evaluating the 4training programStakeholder-Information NeedsAll stakeholders are identified 4All stakeholders provided input 4Stakeholder information needs are identified 4Stakeholder needs are critical to achieving work 4group goalsStakeholder needs are critical to achieving 4business and organization goals
Final Portfolio 47Stakeholder information needs are evaluable 4(clear, useful, and measurable).Evaluation outcomes are well defined 4Evaluation outcomes are evaluable (clear, useful, 4measurable)Stakeholders will use evaluation outcomes to 4improve performanceSupport from Existing Data (ReactivePlanning Only)Existing formative and summative evaluationdata assess current organization-specific criteriaExisting formative and summative evaluationdata meet all of the stakeholders’ informationneedsData are missing, but it is possible to assessorganization-specific criteria without the missingdataData are missing, but it is possible to meetstakeholder information needs without themissing dataMissing data are retrievableWe can collect missing data through confirmativeevaluationWe do not need to assess the organization-specific criteria not covered by the existing dataWe can adjust stakeholder needs to adjust formissing dataStakeholder Information Evaluation Outcome Confirmative EvaluationNeed QuestionLocal chapter(s) Effectiveness: sorority rules, Do chapter membersundergraduate members: Need regulations, and customs are understand sorority rules,to find out whether training understood by all members regulations, and customs inimproved understanding of and availability of additional order to communicate themsorority rules, regulations, and resources effectively?customs.Undergraduate chapter Impact: chapter organization Are chapters functioning moreadvisors: Need to find out if and management has effectively and efficiently as athe training improved chapter improved as a result of better result of the training?organization and management understandingAlumnae chapter president: Value: what was taught and Do the results justify the cost?Need to find out if the training learned resulted in greater How?justified the cost valueOn-campus advisor: Need to Impact and Value: improved How is the sorority
Final Portfolio 48find out if chapter is chapter operations, functioning on campus?complying with university relationships with universityregulations staff and fellow studentsChart template taken from:Dessinger, J. C. and Moseley, J. L. (2004). Confirmative evaluation: practical strategies for valuing continuous improvement. San Francisco, CA: Wiley. Part III: Assessment ToolIntroduction“Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number ofrespondents” (Stasko, 1997). In the case of the surveys for the Alpha Beta Gamma trainingevent, the data will come from two sets of respondents-a total of thirty-seven women altogetherwho will offer feedback on the effectiveness of the training event and any suggestions forimprovement. Although questionnaires are easy and inexpensive to administer, there are stepsthat had to be followed to assure that the questionnaires were valid and reliable, and the resultswere accurately reflected among the respondents. These steps are: defining survey objectives,identifying the sampling group, writing the questionnaire, administering the questionnaire, andinterpreting the results (Stasko, 1997). These steps are necessary to ensure a survey instrumentthat was clear and understandable to all (Stasko, 1997).Defining Survey Objectives The objectives of the questionnaire are to determine if training objectives werecommunicated clearly and met learning needs. This objective would correspond withundergraduate participants’ learning needs. Additionally, the questionnaire will gauge the levelof satisfaction with the training, suggest areas of improvement for future training sessions, and to
Final Portfolio 49diagnose further training needs for individuals and/or chapters. These objectives will enable thequestionnaire designer to receive effective feedback from participants and respond accordingly. There will also be a questionnaire for the alumnae chapter, who will determine if trainingwas effective from a cost and time standpoint. Although the undergraduate chapters should betrained in sorority business, the alumnae chapter must measure value in terms of informationtransfer-whether chapters are actively implementing what is learned-and improved chapteroperations-the chapters are operating in a sustainable and self-sufficient manner consistent withsorority rules, regulations, and standard operating procedures.The Sampling Group For the questionnaire design, there will be two groups sampled, with two different datasets to be examined. The undergraduate chapter members will be administered a survey beforethe training to determine chapter and individual learning needs, as well as any questions that theymay have about the content being presented. After the training, they will be administered apost-training survey to evaluate whether the training met their needs and any areas thatindividual members and chapters need further assistance. The objectives with both surveys areto help the undergraduates improve their learning and the alumnae target the training to specificareas to maximize the learning experience. The alumnae chapter will have a separate set of questions. They will be administered asurvey to determine what needs the undergraduate chapters need, what the alumnae chapterresources exist to meet the needs, and whether training is needed or possible at the current time.Sometimes, time constraints make it impossible to conduct a proper training; therefore, that mustbe addressed in a questionnaire in order to agree to an appropriate time to conduct the training.Finally, at the close of the training-and perhaps up to three months after-alumnae advisors will
Final Portfolio 50assess whether the skills learned in training are transferred to chapter management andoperations and whether additional training needs are evident. Both groups are being surveyed because they have distinct needs that should beaddressed. The undergraduate chapter members need to improve their understanding of rules,regulations, and operations, and the alumnae chapter members (especially advisors andpresident) need to find out if the training has transferred to improved chapter operations andmanagement and whether the benefits of training justify the cost.Writing the Questionnaire The questionnaire will include five questions for each group, specifically touching on theissues and concerns that impact them. The surveys begin with objective questions, with twosubjective questions at the end. The subjective questions are easy to measure, as the informationbeing asked for is easy to quantify. The possible answers range from 5-strongly agree to 1-strongly disagree. A response of four would indicate that the respondent agreed; a three isneutral; and a two, disagree.For the undergraduates, the following questions will be asked: • This training helped me understand sorority rules, regulations, and operations better. 5 4 3 2 1 • This training helped me find additional resources to improve chapter operations. 5 4 3 2 1 • The objectives for training were communicated clearly. 5 4 3 2 1 • My learning needs were met or exceeded with today’s training.
Final Portfolio 51 5 4 3 2 1 • Two things that I did not know before training that I know now: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ __ • Additional comments: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ __For the alumnae chapter, the following questions will be asked: • Participants were engaged in the training. 5 4 3 2 1 • Alumnae chapter members were knowledgeable about the material being presented. 5 4 3 2 1 • Alumnae chapter provided adequate resources to facilitate learning. 5 4 3 2 1 • Participants are able to transfer training to chapter operations. 5 4 3 2 1 • Additional training needs that were not addressed during training:
Final Portfolio 52 _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ __ • Comments: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ __Administering the Questionnaire The above questionnaires will be administered post-training online. This is done so thatparticipants’ responses can truly be their own. Sitting in a training room to answer surveyquestions after the fact can lead to discussion about how to answer the questions and couldpossibly skew the results. So that everyone has the opportunity to answer the questions in theway that best captures their own experience, an online survey tool is the best route to go. Allparticipants, both undergraduates and alumnae, will have seven days after the survey is availableto submit their responses. Afterward, the survey will be analyzes and results communicated toeach group.Interpretation of the Results Seven days after the survey closes for responses, the results will be communicated. Whatdoes this mean for both groups. This will mean that their responses will tell the evaluatorwhether training met the needs of both groups, if there are additional needs that training did notaddress, if there are suggestions for improvements or new training programs, or if the training
Final Portfolio 53should stop altogether. In any case, the decision about what to do about future training will reston the data and not the gut feeling of any one member or group of members.Conclusion The questionnaires are a means to help research the effectiveness of the undergraduatechapters in representing the sorority on their respective campuses. In order for the questionnaireto do what it is supposed to do, the evaluator must plan the objectives for the training that wouldsupport the questionnaire. This step must not be forgotten (Stasko, 1997). Questionnaires areeasy to implement and can capture a large sampling of participants (in this case, thirtyundergraduate and seven alumnae chapter members), but they can be ineffective if they are notfocused on what they are supposed to be focused on. For that reason, great care was taken toensure that each stakeholders’ needs and concerns were acknowledged and included in thesurvey. This way, each stakeholder can effectively respond to the survey. Part IV: Matrix to Focus and Plan Data Collection The matrix to focus and plan data collection is an important part of the confirmativeevaluation plan because it “helps the data collector stay focused on the intended evaluationoutcome and evaluation question and is also helpful for communicating with stakeholders”(Dessinger & Moseley, 2004). The plan helps everyone understand where and how everythingfits and what the intended results should look like. For the Alpha Beta Gamma sorority trainingevent, the matrix to focus and plan data collection will enable the evaluator to communicatemore clearly and confidently with the trainees and the sponsoring alumnae chapter. Together,everyone involved will understand their part in the plan and what is needed in order foreverything to work.
Final Portfolio 54 The first part of the matrix involves the undergraduate members. The evaluator plans tosurvey and interview members of each chapter in order to determine what they need out of thetraining event. The survey will be conducted online. Each member will be able to complete thesurvey confidentially, and the results will be viewed and analyzed by the evaluator and discussedwith the alumnae chapter. The online survey results will be exported to an Excel file and a copyforwarded to the alumnae chapter secretary to be stored in the chapter’s data files. In addition tothe survey, the evaluator or a designee will conduct interviews with select members. Theinterviews serve as an additional data source and a qualitative measure of what chapter membersreally care about and want to see happen in their chapters. These interviews will be saved to aWord file and a copy forwarded to the alumnae chapter secretary for storage. The second part of the matrix involves the alumnae chapter advisors and the GreekAffairs Office. The alumnae chapter advisors, who are appointed advisors to the undergraduatechapters, are responsible for ensuring that each chapter is adhering to rules, regulations, andpolicies. They are responsible for identifying chapter needs and reporting the status of thechapter in monthly alumnae chapter meetings. These reports will help to identify potentialtraining needs. In addition, the annual reports will also identify training needs and trouble spotsin reporting. Together with reports from the campus Greek Affairs Office, the advisor reports,the annual reports and the Greek Affairs Office reports will aid the alumnae chapter in providingthe most effective training available. So that everything goes according to plan, the matrix to focus and plan data collectionwill help the evaluator organize all the elements of data collection. Each element fits into thewhole to assure integrity of the data and adherence to the objectives of the confirmativeevaluation plan. Once this collection plan is completed, the data collection will begin.
Final Portfolio 55 Matrix to Focus and Plan Data CollectionTraining program: Alpha Beta Gamma Sorority Undergraduate TrainingIntended evaluation outcome: Improved chapter management and operationsEvaluation question: Will training on sorority operations and management improve how chaptersoperate on their respective campuses?Type of data: Quantitative and qualitative data on undergraduate chapter operations andmanagement, alumnae chapter advisor reports.Data collector: Tiffany SimmonsDate: August 2011-June 2012
Final Portfolio 56 Where will we How will we collect the How will we store the data? find the data? data (techniques and tools)?Undergraduate surveys, Online survey tools Export survey results to Excel fileUndergraduate chapters Interviews with and distribute to alumnae chapter as undergraduate members a password-protected document. Interview transcripts will be stored in a Word file and be distributed to alumnae chapter members as a password-protected document. Both documents will be stored on a flash drive by the alumnae chapter secretaryAlumnae chapter advisors Monthly advisor reports Monthly advisor reports will beAnnual reports Request copies of reports available at monthly meetings.Greek Affairs Office through advisor and Greek Copies of annual reports and Greek Affairs Office Affairs reports will be forwarded to alumnae chapter secretary for storage.Matrix to Focus and Plan Data Collection taken fromDessinger, J. C. and Moseley, J. L. (2004). Confirmative evaluation: practical strategies for valuing continuous improvement. San Francisco, CA: Wiley. Closing Confirmative evaluations are a means to assess the overall health and strength ofan organization’s programs and services. As such, they will be intricate and take time to collectinformation and implement solutions. For that reason, this step is often omitted in the interest oftime and effort required to carry it out. However, a confirmative evaluation is necessary for afull-scope evaluation that will foster improvement and garner better results. Alpha Beta Gammais committed to being the leading sorority for women on its campus, and a confirmativeevaluation is a way to help the sorority’s members meet that goal.
Final Portfolio 57 ReferencesDessinger, J. C. and Moseley, J. L. (2004). Confirmative evaluation: practical strategies for valuing continuous improvement. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Stasko, J. (1997, Winter). Questionnaire Design. Georgia Tech College of Computing. Retrieved from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/cs6751_97_winter/Topics/quest- design/Wlodkowski, R. J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: a comprehensive guide for teaching all adults (3rd ed). San Francisco, CA: Wiley.
Final Portfolio 58 Artifact 5: Instructional Plan The learners have been identified, the content and context decided upon, and the resourceand materials needed to carry out instruction have been identified and secured. The instructionalplan comes next. This plan gives a course overview and a course plan. This learner originallyused the sorority training event as a scenario, but this time, she is using a job search course as thefocus. One can easily use the course overview and the course plan for the sorority training eventand still maintain the intent of the instructional plan template. The instructional plan helps the teacher/trainer/instructor determine what will be taught,whom it will be taught to, and when and where it will be taught. All of that information is now a
Final Portfolio 59written plan, a commitment to teaching/training/instructing. This is what makes this differentthan the previous artifacts. Instead of being strictly a planning document, this artifact is asummary of what will be taught-and could be part of a pre-approval process. The instructionalplan, while a skeleton document, will help this learner stay on-task and committed to teachingthe content in an orderly way, and to assist in formulating goals and objectives that will fit theconditions and contexts of learning that the instructional plan offers.RUNNING HEAD: Instructional Plan Instructional Plan for a Multicultural Classroom Tiffany A. Simmons Strayer University
Final Portfolio 60 September 4, 2011Section I: Course Overview In today’s economy, people want a smarter, more effective way to apply for and obtainjobs. The strategies that used to work do not work anymore. Job seekers have to figure out howto stand out among the crowds of others in their predicament. Unfortunately, many job seekersdo not know how to do that. They rely upon old strategies to fit into a new scheme. To helpthem get up to date on new strategies and obtain a job, a job search class is necessary. This job search class will be offered as part of a community education course at thecommunity education center each Thursday evening, or another weeknight compatible withparticipants’ schedules and/or the community center’s schedule of events, for two hours. Eachclass is designed to groom each participant for the job market. When learners complete all the
Final Portfolio 61courses, he or she should be able to search for a job appropriate to their skills and qualifications,conduct a successful interview, and obtain employment. The learners of this course have the following characteristics: • Age range: from 18 to 50 who are searching for employment • Gender mix: all unemployed males and females who are interested in learning about good job strategies • Racial makeup and/or nationalities: Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, Asian. • Professions: administrative/clerical, building and trades, retail, manufacturing. • Prior knowledge of content: little to no prior knowledgeSection II: Course PlanCondition-Timing Motivational Purpose Motivational Strategy Learning Activity/Instructor BehaviorEstablishing To acclimate Instructor Allow learners toInclusion-beginning everyone to the acknowledges share their environment and learners’ different experiences with job establish rapport experiences and searching. among learners and backgrounds instructor Instructor explains the Introduce the course current state of the and its objectives and economy and what outcomes learners will need to succeed in it, why the course is needed, and what learners will be able to do at completion.Developing Attitude- To establish relevance Create job search Create resumes and
Final Portfolio 62beginning and middle to learners materials using cover letters using MS current technology Word; create LinkedIn accounts to Learners work post resumes and together to evaluate receive and improve material recommendations from others in their Learners work with industry; sign up for instructor and other job boards. professionals to improve interview Groups critique performances resumes and cover letters for each other and make revisions Mock interviews with instructor and select professionals to polish techniqueEnhancing Meaning- Engage and challenge Ask the question: PowerPointmiddle the learner What is a good presentation of resume and cover samples to help letter? What is a bad learners identify the one? What makes differences. them good or bad? What to do and not to Video presentation on do in job interviews. interview techniques and etiquetteEngendering To assess how Final portfolios and Learners completeCompetence-ending learners are learning self-assessments portfolios and LinkedIn profiles with recommendations. Learners self-assess throughout the course to improve learning Table taken from Wlodkowski, R. J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: acomprehensive guide for teaching all adults. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Section III: Conclusion Learners in the course will create portfolios for the job search. The intent is to establish aprofessional image and empower them to be more proactive in their search. The job search
Final Portfolio 63course is a means to help unemployed adults of all backgrounds and races to obtain gainfulemployment. Many of the learners may have been unsuccessful in their job search endeavors;many of them may have outdated resumes and cover letters. This course will help them polishup those documents, while showing them new job search techniques. Those who areunemployed will attend this course because the way they have gone about searching has not beensuccessful and want to learn new and different techniques. ReferenceWlodkowski, R. J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: a comprehensive guide for teaching all adults. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.
Final Portfolio 64 Artifact 6: Designing and Developing Content, Part 1 The instructional plan offered a summary of what the teacher/trainer/instructor wants toteach/train/instruct. The content design and development is a more intricate process. Instead ofa summary, the content design and development phase includes content analyses, learningobjectives, lesson plans, and test item templates. When this learner designed and developedcontent for a simulated workshop for a college faculty, it was done in three parts perrequirements. Despite the different scenario, the fact that the content could be tailored to thetemplate makes this artifact useful. The first part was a content analysis. The content analysis asked the learner to identify atarget population for learning. Why is this important? A target population is important so thatthe teacher/trainer/instructor can tailor his or her content to the needs of that population. The
Final Portfolio 65learner organized a concept statement that would serve as a thematic thrust for the workshop;identified major concepts that supported the concept statement; compiled the big ideas thatrelated to the major concepts; created action statements that established expectations forlearning. The learner also created learning objectives that supported the content analysis. Whendesigning and developing content, this learner realized that many of the things she learned aboutlesson planning were made clearer in this section. This learner found the content analysis andlearning objectives templates helpful for future planning and will use it again for teaching andtraining events.RUNNING HEAD: DESIGNING AND DEVELOPING CONTENT Designing and Developing Curriculum or Instructional Content for Adult Learners, Part 1 Tiffany A. Simmons Strayer University May 22, 2011
Final Portfolio 66 The professors at the local community college rely solely on lectures and memorizationof facts to teach their classes. This teaching method is probably one with which they have beentaught-thus the high level of familiarity. While this method is more popular and prevalentamong this group, this is not considered current best practice. The current best practice is morelearner-centered rather than teacher-centered. The Vice President of Academic Affairs is awareof this and has tasked each candidate for Dean of Faculty Development and Training withdeveloping a lesson plan that specifically targets the application of Bloom’s Taxonomy in theclassroom environment. The lesson plan will engage and sustain the interest of the faculty and instructional staffby shifting the focus away from a lecture-style teaching format. Instead, they will be introducedto the idea of “higher-level thinking.” The assessment for the lesson will not be paper-and-
Final Portfolio 67pencil; instead, they will be required to deliver a revised syllabus with elements of the lessonwithin it. Along the way, they will design and develop these activities to demonstrate theirunderstanding of the material being covered. It is expected that they develop high-qualityactivities that support student learning and engagement, while promoting the values of thecollege. Attached are the content analysis and the learning objectives that will be used toimplement the lesson plan. The content analysis offers a view of what will be taught, and thelearning objectives will include the context, conditions, and criteria under which the content willbe taught. The purpose of each is to provide direction to the lesson and unit and to assure thateach participant is learning the same things. Each professor and instructor will have gained anunderstanding of Bloom’s taxonomy and how to implement each level-more specifically, thehigher levels-in their classrooms. The order of the lesson will be thus: an brief introduction of Bloom’s taxonomy and thesix levels that comprise it. The class will not be asked to list the six levels of the taxonomy;instead, they will learn them in groups. The first three, considered the “lower-level” thinkingskills, will be learned, along with the second three, the “higher-level” thinking skills. The goalof learning the taxonomy this way is to get professors thinking about the competency of theirstudents (and their own learning competencies) rather than communicating content (Lee, 1996).To further demonstrate competency and mastery of the material, each professor and instructorwill be asked to design an activity to be included in their course syllabus, that emphasizes thehigher-level thinking skills of their students. For example, instead of asking students todemonstrate their knowledge of important ideas and concepts, the professor could include
Final Portfolio 68simulations and case studies as part of the curriculum to help the student build competency andencourage greater engagement in the material. To facilitate the process of designing an appropriate activity, each professor andinstructor will be able to identify key verbs that signal which skill is to be used. For example,the verb design, as used in “design an activity” is indicative of synthesis, one of the three higher-ordered learning skills on the taxonomy. Encouraging the professors to actually engage ininvestigation and inquiry reinforces in their minds that it is desirable for them to learn this skillfor themselves and teach it to their students. Finally, once the activity is designed anddeveloped, they will submit it to the dean for consideration. This does two things: assure thatthe professor or instructor has mastered the material sufficiently and to protect the educationalvalue of the course. The learning objectives, unlike the content analysis, is more contextual. It describes thecontext, the conditions, and the criteria under which the objective is achieved. Unlike a goal,which is broader in scope, the objectives are specific and measurable. It is “a description of aperformance that [a professor or instructor] wants learners to be able to exhibit in order toconsider them competent” (Winegarden, 2003). The learning objectives herein contain specificand measurable conditions and criteria, and are supportive of the learning goals of the college. The ultimate goal in this course is to move the professors and instructors of thecommunity college past lecture-style classrooms. The current best practice is supportive ofcreating learner-centered educational environments, in which the learner develops strongercritical thinking skills. Perhaps the best way to help students in this regard is to model it forthem (Lee, 1996), and Bloom’s taxonomy enables professors and instructors to do just that. It is
Final Portfolio 69hoped that the professors and instructors receive the information needed to make changes in theway they teach and the way their students learn.
Final Portfolio 70 Attachment C Content Analysis of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive ObjectivesTarget Population: Professors/Instructors in a Post-Secondary/Adult Education Environment Topic Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives Organizing The professors and instructors taking part in the lesson will learnConcept Statement to move past lecture and memorization of facts and provide opportunities to develop learners’ critical thinking skills. Major Concepts Bloom’s taxonomy Analysis Knowledge Synthesis Comprehension Evaluation Application Major Ideas (What do I want my students to learn about each major concept? Related to the For example: “Bloom’s Taxonomy consists of six levels of Concept cognitive ability.”) • Bloom’s taxonomy explains the levels of learning that occurs with learners (Writing Objectives, 2011). • Knowledge, comprehension, and application are considered “lower-level” thinking skills. This is also where the majority of the curriculum falls under. The knowledge level deals with memorization of facts (Writing Objectives, 2011). • Analysis, synthesis, and evaluation are considered “higher- level” thinking skills, in that the focus is not on rote memorization of facts. Instead, the focus is on student inquiry and investigation. • The goal is to gear instruction toward the higher-ordered thinking skills. • Planning with the higher-ordered thinking skills in mind. • Integrating higher-ordered thinking skills into the coursework to maximize student engagement.Action Statements (What I want my students to learn expressed as an action statement—an action verb and a direct object. For example, “List the six levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.”) • Explain Bloom’s taxonomy • Distinguish between lower-level and higher-level thinking skills in the taxonomy • Identify key verbs and activities that signal higher-level thinking is required. • Design an activity that emphasizes higher-level skills • Revise course syllabus to include activities
Final Portfolio 71 Attachment D Learning ObjectivesTo Apply Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives
Final Portfolio 72 Conditions Actions Statements Performance Criterion(Conditions are the part of (An action verb and a (The performance criterion defines athe learning objective that direct object, i.e. “draw measurable and observable standarddescribe the givens, or a diagram.” A part of that the learner must meet to reachlimitations, under which the learning objective acceptable performance. The criterionthe student will which describes the may be stated as time requirements,demonstrate mastery of the actions that the student degree of accuracy, or allowableaction statement.) is expected to perform.) number of errors. In other words, how well must the student perform the action statement?)Example:Without notes or List the six levels of in ascending order and without error.references, Bloom’s Taxonomy Based on your Distinguish between with 100% accuracyunderstanding of Bloom’s lower-level skills andtaxonomy, higher-level skillsAfter viewing the Identify three key verbs with 100% accuracypresentation “Writing for each level (higher-Instructional Objectives: level only)Beginning with the End inMind”,After discussion on higher- Design an activity that using the correct key verbslevel thinking skills and emphasizes higher-key verbs, ordered thinking skillsAfter designing the Compose a proposal for to be submitted to dean before the endactivity, the activity to be of the semester. included in the course syllabus References
Final Portfolio 73Lee, Virginia (1996). Creating a Blueprint for the Constructivist Classroom. National Teaching and Learning Forum. Retrieved May 22, 2011, from http://www.ntlf.com/html/pi/9905/blue_1.htm.Winegarden, B. J. (2003). Writing Instructional Objectives. Retrieved May 19, 2011, from http://meded.ucsd.edu/faculty/writing_instructional_objectives.pdf.Writing Learning Objectives (2011). Retrieved May 19, 2011, from http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/fd/writingobjectives.pdf. Artifact 7: Designing and Developing Content, Part 2
Final Portfolio 74 The first part of the content design and development was a content analysis and learningobjective formulation. This was helpful for focusing the content area and making curriculardecisions. When planning for learning, this learner learned that analyzing the content andcreating learning objectives helps one to establish intention and stay on-task. An effectivecontent analysis and a clear set of learning objectives enable the teacher/trainer/instructor tocreate a sound lesson plan. The second part of the designing and developing content piece is thelesson plan. The lesson plan is an extension of the content analysis and the learning objectives, but italso identifies the materials, resources, and activities that will facilitate the learning of thecontent and the fulfillment of the learning objectives. Creating a suitable learning environment,implementing and managing instruction, and knowing the content are all important standards thatindicate the effectiveness of the plan and signal that the teacher/trainer/instructor is committed tothe success of the learners and the learning event. The lesson plan template, unlike that whichthis learner used in the past, is easier to follow and less cluttered and time-consuming. Thislearner plans to use the template for every learning/training event of which she will be part andwill encourage colleagues to do the same. This aids in efficiency of instruction and frees up timeto actually teach the material.RUNNING HEAD: DESIGNING AND DEVELOPING CURRICULUM
Final Portfolio 75 Designing and Developing Curriculum or Instructional Content for Adult Learners, Part 2 Tiffany A. Simmons Strayer University May 29, 2011 The faculty at the local college has been asked to attend a workshop on Bloom’staxonomy. They may have heard of it before when undergoing teacher certification requirements
Final Portfolio 76or they may have read about it in their instructor textbooks. Unfortunately, many of them maynot understand fully how to apply the taxonomy to their own classroom environments-thus, theoverreliance on lecturing and teaching for memorization. This course is designed to steer themaway from this sort of teaching and toward teaching that emphasizes “higher-level thinking.” The course itself emphasized higher-level thinking, as the facilitator will not expectparticipants to listen to a lecture and memorize certain pieces of information. Instead, thefacilitator will ask the faculty to complete a project-a re-design of their course syllabi to includean activity that is geared toward higher-level thinking skills. The challenge is getting the facultyto recognize that they are actually teaching the same way they have been taught or have beentaught to teach. The current thought in education no longer supports that teaching style; instead,the focus is shifted toward the learner and not the teacher-and certainly not the content. Withthat, faculty must be prepared to transform their learning environments from that of a teacher-centered classroom to that of a learner-centered classroom, and the first step to doing that is toteach them how to apply Bloom’s taxonomy to their instructional practices. Previously, a content analysis and learning objectives were submitted to prepare for theplanning and implementation of the lesson. Within the body of this submission, the learningobjectives with associated learning activities and the lesson plan are included. These documentsare more specific about what will go on in the learning environment and what the faculty areexpected to do to demonstrate their learning. In this class, learners will discuss the taxonomyand give their thoughts on what it could mean for their own instruction and what level they teachto at the current moment. This could be potentially powerful information, if used the right way,as it could inform what the professors and instructors perceive their possibilities to be.Afterward, the professors and instructors will view a slideshow that offers helpful hints on
Final Portfolio 77writing effective learning objectives and developing appropriate activities. The main focus willbe on key verbs, the action words that signal what level of thinking and learning the learner willengage in. Using these key verbs, the professors and instructors will then design a learningactivity (complete with learning objectives with the appropriate key verbs) that engages theirclassroom of learners and uses the higher-level thinking skills. The final draft of this activity isdue in to the dean’s office before the semester ends. The dean not only wants to be assured thatthe participants are learning, but also wants to see something in writing that commits theprofessors and teachers to using their learning. In selecting an appropriate learning environment for the participants, it was decided that aconference room equipped with smart technology (the overhead projector, Internet hook-ups forlaptop computers) would be most appropriate. That way, if multiple technologies (thePowerPoint slide, online video, an overhead projector) were needed, the environment had theequipment and means to support the technology. With regard to seating arrangements, thetables were positioned so that each participant could see the projector and the presentation, andhave space and opportunity to interact with other participants, where appropriate. Special carewas also taken to ensure that there was plenty of light and adequate temperature controls so thatparticipants could be comfortable as they learned. The learning environment must be conduciveto learning so that each participant could give his or her maximum attention to the materialsbeing presented. The Vice President of Academic Affairs and the new dean are committed to providing anenvironment conducive to learning. Part of that commitment is ensuring that its faculty isproperly trained and up-to-date on current educational thought in order to deliver a qualityexperience for the learner. This class (or workshop) is designed to accomplish the latter
Final Portfolio 78objective, and in an indirect way, reinforce the former. As classroom environments change, andeducational theories evolve, the college must be prepared to meet the challenges and seek outinnovative ways to educate the faculty, as well as the learner. Attachment E Learning Objectives with Associate Learning Activities To Apply Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives
Final Portfolio 79 Learning Objectives Teaching Strategies Media and Materials Student ActivitiesBased on your Discuss lower-level Transparency “Where am I teaching?”understanding of and higher-level skills graphic organizer.Bloom’s taxonomy, by showing a sample Graphic organizerdistinguish between pyramid of Bloom’s This organizer will ask thelower- and higher- level taxonomy with the professor or instructor:skills with 100% complete order listed what level am I teachingaccuracy my students? Why? How Ask professors and can I teach them at a instructors which set higher level? What do I of skills are currently need to know to get them being used in their there? own classrooms and what needs to be done Have them share their to use more of the perspectives and introduce higher-level skills the presentation on “Writing Instructional Objectives” and explain why it is important to their learning.After viewing the Present “Writing Laptop computer and/ Identify the key verbs aspresentation “Writing Instructional or television that is presented in theInstructional Objectives: Objectives: Beginning technology- presentation, focusing onBeginning with the End with the End in Mind.” compatible to present the higher-level skills inin Mind,” identify three slide show the taxonomy.key verbs for each level(higher-level only) with Graphic organizer “Teaching at a higher100% accuracy level” graphic organizer. This organizer will ask: “what key verbs should I use to signal that I am teaching at a high level? What can I expect out of my students when I use these verbs? Discuss expectations when teaching at the higher levels. What would be the difference between what is currently being taught and what could be taught if the focus is shifted from the lower-level skills to the higher-level ones?
Final Portfolio 80After discussion on The instructors will be Pen and paper. Activity design: professorshigher-level thinking asked to design their and instructors will designskills and key verbs, own classroom activity their own activity thatdesign an activity that that uses higher- emphasizes higher-orderedemphasizes higher- ordered thinking skills. thinking skills. They mustordered thinking skills have used any of the keyusing correct key verbs verbs that denote use of one or more of the skills. This activity will form the basic structure of a proposal to be submitted to the dean.After designing the With the activity that Proposal form. This This activity will takeactivity, compose a they have designed, should be completed place outside the learningproposal for the activity each professor or and submitted in environment. Eachto be included in the instructor may review electronic form. This professor or instructor willcourse syllabus to be and revise what they will be available on complete the proposal formsubmitted to the dean have done and submit the college’s intranet with their activity by thebefore the end of the the final proposal in under the instructor’s end of the semester forsemester. the time frame portal. evaluation by the dean. specified. Attachment F Lesson Plan Cover Page Title of the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives
Final Portfolio 81Lesson:Target Professors/Instructors in a Post-Secondary/Adult Education EnvironmentPopulation:Length of 4 hoursInstruction:Textbooks and “Writing Instructional Objectives: Beginning with the End in Mind”ReferencesMaterials Pen, paper, graphic organizersNeeded:Media Needed: PowerPoint 2007 or compatible version, laptop computer or technology-ready televisionEquipment andToolsLearning Professors and instructors will integrate the principles of Bloom’s taxonomy inOutcomes: their classroom instruction.Evaluation Activity design, submission of final product to department dean, online surveyMethodologies: to assess course effectiveness.Approved by:Date: Lesson Plan for Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives INSTRUCTIONAL INSTRUCTOR ACTIVITIES STUDENT ACTIVITIES
Final Portfolio 82 CONTENT (Instructional methods and strategies, questions to prompt students, instructional materials, and media)Based on your The facilitator will discuss Professors and instructors willunderstanding of Bloom’s lower-level and higher-level be asked to complete thetaxonomy, distinguish thinking skills by showing a graphic organizer (suppliedbetween lower-level and sample pyramid of Bloom’s with workshop materials),higher-level thinking skills taxonomy on an overhead entitled “Where am Iwith 100 % accuracy. transparency. The complete teaching?” order will be listed on the Professors and instructors use transparency. The question will ten minutes to complete the be asked “which skills are graphic organizer and, currently being used in your afterward, will volunteer to classrooms? What needs to be share responses. The purpose done so that the higher-level of this activity is to bridge the skills are being used more gap between what they want often?” their learners to learn and what the learners are actually learning. This activity is designed to help professors and instructors see what they can do to improve the learning in their classrooms.After viewing the Before the presentation, the Another graphic organizer,presentation “Writing facilitator will render a brief entitled “Teaching at a higherInstructional Objectives: overview of the presentation level,” will focus on the keyBeginning with the End in and the purpose, so that the verbs and how to incorporateMind,” identify three key relevance of the material can be them into instruction. Theverbs for each level (higher- established immediately. following questions will belevel only) with 100% Show the presentation, using a listed: What key verbs should Iaccuracy. laptop computer or a use to signal that I am teaching technology-ready television. at a higher level? What can I Post-presentation, ask question: expect out of my students when what main points were covered I use these verbs? in the slide presentation? How can professors and instructors write better instructional objectives, targeting the higher- level thinking skills? What were the key verbs that were highlighted in the presentation? How can professors and instructors use them to improve the quality of their instruction?
Final Portfolio 83After discussion on higher- The facilitator will sum up what Professors and instructors willlevel thinking skills and key was discussed and learned, and need a pen or pencil and paperverbs, design an activity ask professors to think of an to complete this activity. Theythat emphasizes higher- activity that is relevant to their will design an activity that islevel thinking skills using course(s) and requires higher- appropriate for higher-levelthe correct key verbs. level thinking skills. Each thinking skills. This activity professor or instructor will should be done collaboratively, design an activity (complete as input from other professors with learning objectives) that and instructors lends balance utilizes higher-ordered thinking and perspective to planning. skills, using the appropriate verbs.After designing the activity, The facilitator will advise each Proposal forms will becompose a proposal for the professor and instructor to available on the college’sactivity to be included in continue work on the activity intranet, under the instructor’sthe course syllabus to be outside the classroom portal. The activity that wassubmitted to the dean before environment. A final proposal initially begun in the classthe end of the semester. for the activity will be due to should be finalized on the form. the dean by the end of the semester. References
Final Portfolio 84 Winegarden, B. J. (2003). Writing Instructional Objectives. Retrieved May 19, 2011, from http://meded.ucsd.edu/faculty/writing_instructional_objectives.pdf.Writing Learning Objectives (2011). Retrieved May 19, 2011, from http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/fd/writingobjectives.pdf. Artifact 8: Designing and Developing Content, Part 3
Final Portfolio 85 The first part of the content design and development was a content analysis and learningobjective formulation and a lesson plan to execute the content and support the learningobjectives. The third and final piece in the designing and developing content series is theassessment phase. Teachers/trainers/instructors want to know if learners are learning, andassessments are an effective way to know for sure. To this learner, having an assessment plan isjust as, if not more, important as having a lesson plan, a content analysis, and a learningobjective. Assessments help determine if the lesson plan is being adhered to, if the content isbeing taught the way it should be, and if the learning objectives have been met. In this learner’s experience, a lesson plan did not include a lot of details aboutassessment, other than the type of assessment that would accompany instruction. Thisassessment template had this learner thinking about various assessment opportunities besides therun-of-the-mill testing at the end to see if important concepts were retained. She wanted to knowif what was being taught would be implemented in a meaningful way by the learners and howassessments could identify further training needs and aid in planning for the next learning event.Again, this particular learning event dealt with college faculty, but it can be used for otherlearning events-even the sorority training event previously mentioned. This learner also wondersif the assessment template could help her confirm with program participants if what is beinglearned is “sticking” and if there are other learning needs. The usefulness of assessmentsshould not be overlooked or underestimated.RUNNING HEAD: DESIGNING AND DEVELOPING CONTENT
Final Portfolio 86 Designing and Developing Curriculum or Instructional Content for Adult Learners, Part 3 Tiffany A. Simmons Strayer University June 5, 2011 Learning objectives are linked to student mastery of the material because theireffectiveness is dependent upon whether students can demonstrate their understanding. If
Final Portfolio 87learning objectives describe “what a learner will be able to do when they complete a unit ofinstruction” (Dick & Carey, 2009), then an assessment will confirm or “deny” that the student isable to do what the objectives state. The assessment serves as feedback to the student and theinstructor because it indicates how well the learner accomplished the objectives and determineswhat instructional strategies worked and did not work (Dick & Carey, 2009). To complete theinstructional chain for the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives, the instructor of thecourse designed and implemented assessment procedures as a record to show that learning tookplace, and the objectives for learning were implemented and met by the students. Theinstructor provided four learning objectives, the activities that supported the objectives, andassessments that supported the learning objectives and the activities that followed. Each of the four learning objectives had three test items to aid students’ understanding ofwhat was covered. The first objective was thus: Based on your understanding of Bloom’staxonomy, distinguish between lower-level and higher-level skills with 100% accuracy. Thestudents will be tested on the following: what is Bloom’s taxonomy? What are the lower-leveland higher-level skills? Explain the difference between the lower-level skills and higher-levelskills. These test items are designed to assess the students’ knowledge of the taxonomy, theirability to identify the lower- and higher-level skills, and to distinguish between the lower- andhigher-level skills. These three test items aid the students in completing the first objective with100% accuracy. The second learning objective requires students to view a presentation on the taxonomyand identify three key verbs for the higher-level skills only with 100% accuracy. Not only willthe second objective help students further understand the difference between what is being taughtin their classrooms and what the current educational thought is, but it will get them thinking
Final Portfolio 88about ways and means to raise the level of instruction in their classrooms. The students will beasked to give an example of three key verbs in each of the higher-level skills on the taxonomy,write a learning objective that uses each verb, and explain how this objective will help theirlearners use higher-level thinking skills. The idea is to move them past the familiarlecture/memorization theme that runs in their classrooms (or at least see that this is going on) anddevise a way to include their learners in the learning process. The second objective will lead tothe third objective, a discussion on the higher-level skills and the key verbs that are used witheach. The third objective will have the learners designing their own learning objectives andlearning activities in support of the higher-level skills in the taxonomy. The students will thinkabout what activities would be appropriate for the classroom and their area of instruction, and atthe same time, are supportive of the higher-level skills on the taxonomy. The students willcompose a learning objective that is relevant to the activity and uses the key verbs that werediscussed in the presentation. Finally, the students will explain what skills their learners willachieve with the activity. This initial foray into the activity design will lead to a revision in thesyllabus. In the final objective, students will be asked to implement their activity of choice intotheir course syllabus. Each student will compose a proposal for the activity on the proposal form available inthe instructor portal on the college’s intranet system. On this proposal, they will describe theactivity, how it supports the course’s learning objectives, how it supports the educationalmission of the college, and, finally, how will the activity be assessed? The finished proposal willbe submitted to the dean by the end of the semester.
Final Portfolio 89 The Vice President of Academic Affairs has given the new dean the awesome task oftraining the faculty on new educational approaches. Although old habits are difficult to break,and the resistance level of the faculty will be high, the new dean remains optimistic. The newdean is confident that the level of instruction will help to overcome the resistance, create newhabits, and meet with the approval of the VP. With that, the dean looks forward to implementingthe instructional plan and is excited about what will be learned and how it will change theclimate for learning at the college.
Final Portfolio 90 Attachment G Learning Objective and Test Item Template Learning Objectives Test Items Test Item Test ItemBased on your A blank pyramid of On the same paper, On a separate piece ofunderstanding of the taxonomy. students will identify paper, students willBloom’s taxonomy, Students will be asked the lower- and higher- explain the differencedistinguish between to complete the level skills on the between the higher-lower- and higher- taxonomy in order taxonomy. and lower-level skillslevel skills with 100% and explain whichaccuracy level is being used in their classrooms.After viewing the On an electronic On a sample lesson How will this learningpresentation “Writing assessment to be plan, students will objective help learnersInstructional administered after the write a learning use higher-levelObjectives: Beginning presentation, students objective that skills? This should bewith the End in will correctly identify corresponds with one explained as part ofMind,” identify three the key verbs, as of the key verbs and the sample lessonkey verbs for each noted in the one of the higher- plan, as this questionlevel (higher-level presentation, for the level skills. will be listed on it.only) with 100% higher-level skills.accuracyAfter discussion on What activities would Compose a learning What skills will yourhigher-level thinking be appropriate for objective, using the learners achieve withskills and key verbs, higher-level skills? key verbs, that is this activity?design an activity that This activity will be appropriate for theemphasizes higher- recorded on a graphic higher-level skills.ordered thinking skills organizer supplied in This will also be onusing correct key their materials. the graphic organizer.verbsAfter designing the What activity have How does this activity How will you assessactivity, compose a you chosen for support your learning this activity? Shouldproposal for the inclusion in your objectives? How does be on the proposalactivity to be included course syllabus? this activity support form.in the course syllabus Students will record the institutionalto be submitted to the this on the proposal mission? This willdean before the end of form that they have to also be recorded onthe semester. submit to the dean. the proposal form.
Final Portfolio 91 ReferencesDick, W., Carey, L., and Carey, J. O. (2009). The Systematic Design of Instruction (7th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Final Portfolio 92 Artifact 9: Training Announcement The confirmative evaluation has confirmed that a training need exists; the instructionalplan offers a preliminary view of what will taught, to whom it will be taught, and the attitudesand competencies these learners will exhibit; the design and development of content will extendthe instructional plan to include specific activities, materials, and resources needed to executeinstruction. The final piece of the learning/training event planning is the announcement. The training announcement will include the target audience, the agenda, the location andtime of the event, information about registration, and any other information that is relevant to thetraining (e.g., what to bring, meal accommodations). The training announcement should only bedistributed to those who have been identified to be in need of training and should be delivered inplenty of time so as to get an adequate response and allow them to adjust their schedules toattend. Failure to do so most likely will result in fewer responses than expected and a lowturnout. This could also lead to wasted time and money. This learner did not use a PowerPoint slide to announce a training event; she used emailto do so instead. Whatever an organization chooses to use for communication, it must be timely,informative, and relevant.
Final Portfolio 93 Artifact 10: Academic Advisor Job Proposal At a recent place of employment, I submitted a proposal for an academic advisor-complete with a job specification and job description. The reason for this proposal? Theinstitution was growing, and there needed to be a support system for the learner. Learners cometo their learning environments with a myriad of challenges, and they need help in meeting thosechallenges. The academic advisor, who would be a student advocate, would be the person orpeople (if more than one was needed) responsible for monitoring a student’s progress andreporting to the various funding sources on a regular basis. This document was presented to theCEO of the company for consideration and was warmly received, but the budget was not bigenough to fund the position. This learner included the academic advisor proposal in this portfolio to reiterate her beliefthat people can learn-and learn well-and to support the other statements made in her educationplatform statement. In colleges and universities, learners have a different set of challenges toovercome, and the teacher cannot be expected to shoulder all of the burden. An academicadvisor, who would be trained to guide the student through his or her academic career, wouldprovide the necessary supports to keep the institution focused on reaching its goals while thestudent reaches his or her goals. With a willing and capable academic advisor, the learner can dojust that.
Final Portfolio 94 Rationale for the Position of Academic Advisor At CTE, we talk about success…what it could mean to our students and how they canhave it. However, there is nothing in place here that facilitates that process. For students whohave never been to college before, it’s difficult to make the transition to college student. Forstudents who have been to college before, they have to adjust to a new culture. The commonthread among all CTE’s students is the fact that many of them have significant barriers toemployment-whether they be financial, emotional, physical…you name it, CTE has it. So that students receive the help they need to succeed and move past their barriers, CTEmust employ a person who is capable of reaching the students at their point of need and helpingthem. The academic advisor/student advocate is the perfect person to help students learn toadjust to college life. Many of the duties that an academic advisor is charged with doing is whatCTE absolutely needs: advising students, assisting instructors in identifying learning barriers,monitoring student progress, keeping students accountable to their funding sources…anythingthat promotes student progress. CTE does want to graduate its students, no? CTE wants to catchproblems early so that it can continue to promote student success, no? An academic advisor,responsible for the success and progress of all students, can do that. Without an academic advisor/student advocate (whichever term CTE wants to use to referto this position), CTE will not be able to help the student achieve success. Without such aperson, students will not have the tools to succeed. Every college and university-even ourcompetitors-has an academic advisor of sorts to help students succeed in whatever field they aretraining in, so that they can “come to learn….leave to earn.” CTE owes its students that much.
Final Portfolio 95Job Name: Academic AdvisorJob Specs: A person in this position must exhibit a desire to help students learn and to assistinstructors in identifying possible learning barriers. A person in this position must also workwith other staff to maximize the student experience.Job Description: -Offer advisory services to students on a regular basis. -Assist instructors in identifying learning barriers and making appropriate referrals. -Monitoring student progress toward graduation. -Provide additional academic services, such as tutoring and reviews. -Assist students in setting academic goals. -Provide academic counseling for students. -Maintain “case notes” on students and confer with instructors, as needed, to promote student progress. -For Voc. Rehab students, work with counselors to ensure that student is following plan. -For K-TAP students, confer with case manager as it pertains to academic issues. -For financial aid students, enforce 150% rule and work actively with those on academic probation. -All students: perform academic audits, coordinate externships, and assist with graduation meetings. -Coordinate instructor/course evaluations. -Work closely with registrar to coordinate student transfers or rollovers. -When needed, implement IEPs for students.
Final Portfolio 96 Artifact 11: Ambassador Certificate Ambassadors are chosen for their productivity, attendance, quality, and attitude, andcompetition for a spot is very high. This learner was one of the few selected to be in the programfor the busy season. Ambassadors are responsible for training new hires and assessing theirprogress. At the close of the program, the ambassadors were rewarded for their hard work with acertificate of appreciation and several other gifts. Why was this artifact included? This learnerhopes to use the portfolio to obtain a position in her desired field, and she felt it would be a goodselling point. This learner was an active participant in the ambassador program, training over 30 newhires and facilitating training modules for the group of hires assigned to her work group. Shewas hand-picked by her supervisor and the learning department to facilitate training modules foranother supervisor’s group of new hires. The supervisor’s endorsement of this learner’scapabilities is another reason to include the certificate as part of this learner’s portfolio.
Final Portfolio 97 Portfolio Scope This learner submitted ten artifacts that best reflected her professional goals and personallearning and development. The items selected reflected four areas: personal development,program assessment, content design and development, and marketing of training. The last partseems uninteresting and pedestrian to the casual reader, but the marketing piece makes itpossible for the training and development staff and faculty to perform their roles. The focus on the different areas provided the opportunity for this learner to become moreself-aware and more aware of learners and learning, create relevant assessment materials toidentify learner profiles and learning opportunities, design and develop relevant content, anddevise a marketing strategy to attract potential learners to the learning opportunity. Each artifactis reflected upon to capture this learner’s observations about the artifact, as well as the learningevents that shape it. The goal was to demonstrate this learner’s growth as an educationprofessional and define what next steps professionally she wanted to take in order to realize thepotential this portfolio showed. It is hoped that the artifact selection accomplished those goals.
Final Portfolio 98 ConclusionThe completion of this portfolio project was, at times, a challenge and, at other times, an eye-opener. This learner used the project as an opportunity to reflect on what she has learned andhow she plans to go forward. The artifacts selected demonstrated the growth needed toovercome the sometimes-painful moments of her previous teaching experience and focus onfuture possibilities. This portfolio has inspired this learner to investigate those futurepossibilities, such as workshops and conferences for networking and building expertise, andcertifications to support and demonstrate expertise and competence. This portfolio is a step inthe direction of new goals and ambitions,and it is hoped that the intended audience receives it inthe spirit in which it was given.