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Shinto, Japan
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Shinto, Japan


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understanding the background of shinto and the shrines in Japan: the history and the structure.

understanding the background of shinto and the shrines in Japan: the history and the structure.

Published in: Education, Spiritual, Travel

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  • Sanctuary = housed the deities statue/ where the kami resides.
  • Prefectures - governmental bodies, larger than city, town, village chigi – belong to the powerful families
  • Transcript

    • 2. 1) Shinto ( 神道 , Shintō? ) or kami-no-michi is the indigenous spirituality of Japan and the Japanese people. It is a set of practices, to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present day Japan and its ancient past. 2) The word Shinto ("Way of the Gods") was adopted from the written Chinese ( 神道 , shén dào), combining two kanji: "shin" ( 神 ), meaning kami; and "tō" ( 道 ), or "do" meaning a philosophical path or study (originally from the Chinese word “tao”). SHINTO
    • 3. 1) Izanagi-no-Mikoto (male) and Izanami-no-Mikoto (female) were called by all the myriad gods and asked to help each other to create a new land which was to become Japan. 2) They were given a spear with which they stirred the water, and when removed water dripped from the end, an island was created in the great nothingness. 3) They lived on this island, and created a palace and within was a large pole. CREATION MYTH
    • 4. 1) Shinto teaches that everything contains a kami ( 神 , "spiritual essence", commonly translated as god or spirit). Shinto's spirits are collectively called yaoyorozu no kami ( 八百万の神 ), an expression literally meaning "eight million kami", but interpreted as meaning "myriad", although it can be translated as "many Kami". There is a phonetic variation kamu and a similar word among Ainu kamui. There is an analog "mi-koto". ‘ KAMI ’
    • 5. 1) A Shinto shrine is a structure whose main purpose is to house ("enshrine") one or more SHINTO kami . 2) A fewer number of shrines are also natural places called mori. The most common of the mori are sacred groves of trees, or mountains, or waterfalls. 3) All shrines are open to the public at some times or throughout the year. SHINTO SHRINE
    • 6. • 2nd and 3rd BC the culture had started • 5th century AD, Confucianism came to Japan, spreading throughout the masses, along with Chinese Taoism • 8th century, Shinto began to incorporate politics with the religion • Early 10th century, Japan possessed close to 3,000 shrines that were taking in offerings for the state. • By the 13th century, a wave of anti-Buddhist, also known as Watarai Shinto started to flourish • 17th century, a new form of the religion sprung forth called Fukko (Restoration) Shinto. A move away from Buddhist or Confucian concepts began where studies highlighted aspects of Japanese classics .
    • 7. • End of the 19th century, a variety of religious movements developed due to the unhappiness of the people. Some movements believed in one or some of the beliefs associated with Shinto, Buddhist and Confucian • 1192-1333, the Kamakura period was seen, where religious theories of Shinto were incorporated with those of Buddhist views. • By 1603, the Tokugawa shogunate was established in Tokyo. The connection between Shinto and Confucianism was the focus during this time • 1868-1912, the early Meiji period became prominent, dividing followers into two different groups: Shrine Shinto (Jinja) and Sect Shinto (Kyoha).
    • 8. Ko-shinto • “ Ko ” means ancient or old. • “Shin” from Chinese word, Shen, means God. • “To” from Chinese word, Tao, means The way.
    • 9. • Name given to the original Shinto tradition • “Pure Shinto” • Combination of Yayoi-jin ( Chinese continent) and Jomon-jin ( Japanese Archipelago). • Belief system in the North and South of Japanese Archipelago.
    • 10. • Has such in common with Shinto. • God is a function. • Nature and mankind are closely interlaced • But diverse interpretations of the basic.
    • 11. • Believes things, like trees, mountains, animals, stones and so on, are in inhabited by spiritual beings. • Pottery for exclusive use of ritual is a normal practice and way of expression.
    • 12. • Some practitioner have been undertaken ascetic discipline. • This practice as well as purification rites of misogi. • Other purification methods: – pouring water on oneself – breathing power practice – Magic chanting practice
    • 13. • Shinto shrines are: – simple stones – stone circles – Wooden small housing – Altar • Nature’s spirit worshiped in: – forests – Rivers – Mountains. • Stone representation of Shishi are traditional guardian.
    • 15. 13. Honden 12. Tamagaki 11. Haiden 10. Komainu 9. Sessha / massha 8. Ema 7. Shamusho 6. Kagura-den 5. Tōrō 4. Chōzuya or temizuya 3. Sandō 2. Stone stairs 1. Torii 13 12 119 8 10 7 5 6 4 3 2 1
    • 16. Famous Shrines  Ise Shrines  Izumo Taisha  Fushimi Inari Taisha  Usa Shrines  Kasuga Taisha
    • 17. Ise Shrines • Most representative & historically significant shrine in Japan • Located at Mie prefecture • Specifically to the emperor • Architectural style of the Ise shrine is known as Shinmei-zukuri • Its traditional and mythological foundation date goes back to 4 BC, but historians was founded around the 3rd to 5th century.
    • 18. Ise Shrines Shinmei-zukuri
    • 19. Izumo Taisha • Too old until no document about its birth survives, & the year of foundation is unknown • Located at Shimane prefecture • A style of architecture, taisha-zukuri, takes its name from the main hall of Izumo-taisha
    • 20. Izumo Taisha Taisha-zukuri
    • 21. Fushimi Inari Taisha • Head shrine of the largest shrine network • > 32 000 sub-shrines • Located at Fushimi-ku, Kyoto • Sit at the base of a mountain • Inari Okami worship started -Japanese kami of fertility, rice, agriculture, foxes & industry • Have many torii
    • 22. Fushimi Inari Taisha
    • 23. Torii
    • 24. Style Predating the Arrival of Buddhism
    • 25. Predating? • Shinto = protectors of Buddhism. • Shrines = precincts of Buddhist temple. • 4 STYLES : – Primitive shrine layout with no honden – Shinmei-zukuri – Sumiyoshi-zukuri – Taisha-zukuri
    • 26. Primitive Shrine Layout with NO Honden • Honden = main sanctuary of a shrine. • Why no Honden? – Mountain itself = Honden • Example : – Omiwa shrines, Nara
    • 27. HAIDEN HONDE N
    • 28. • Ancient style • Especially for the main sanctuary – Honden • Characterised by gabled roof structure + straight lines. • Most widely used in Mie prefecture. SHINMEI-ZUKURI
    • 29. Simple gable type,covered with thatch,board and batten. Slope of roof is 45⁰ or less Pillars were sunk directly into the ground. Ridge pole receive full support from free standing pillar No upward curve at the eaves Chigi ( horn-like cross piece) extending above the roof at both ends, toward the heavens. Bargeboard extend beyond the ridge line to form forked finials – chigi. Raised floor Entry on the non-gable side
    • 30. SUMIYOSHI-ZUKURI Entrance under one of the gable Simple roof, doesn’t curve upwards on the eaves. Chigi Surrounded by fence- mizugaki No verandah, short stairway leads to the door Divided into 2 sections : front (gejin), back (naijin)
    • 31. TAISHA-ZUKURI Entrance on the gabled end Chigi Wooden billets (katsuogi) placed atop and right angle to a roof ridge. Cypress bark- covered roof Single central pillar,largest Divided into 4 quarters, like a rice field, suggested dependent on ovation to the gods for plentiful harvest.
    • 32. Other styles Meishō The most common meishō is the location where the shrine stands, which is located in the city of Ise, Mie
    • 33. Hachiman-zukuri • Hachiman-zukuri is a style used at Hachiman shrines in which two parallel structures with gabled roofs are interconnected on the non-gabled side, forming one building which, when seen from the side, gives the impression of two
    • 34. Irimoya-zukuri • Irimoya-zukuri, (hip and gable roof style) is a honden style having a hip-and-gable structure, that is, a gabled roof with one or two hips
    • 35. Primitive shrine layout with no honden • This style is rare, but historically important. It is also unique in that the honden, normally the very center of a shrine, is missing. It is believed shrines of this type are reminiscent of what shrines were like in prehistorical times
    • 36. Misedana-zukuri • Misedana-zukuri (showcase style) owes its name to the fact that, unlike the other shrine styles, it doesn't feature a stairway at the entrance, and the veranda is completely flat