Evaluasi Kinerja
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Evaluasi Kinerja

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    Evaluasi Kinerja Evaluasi Kinerja Presentation Transcript

    • PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL (Pengukuran Kinerja)
    • Pengertian Kinerja
      • “ pengertian kinerja (prestasi kerja) adalah hasil kerja secara kualitas dan kuantitas yang dicapai oleh seorang pegawai dalam melaksanakan tugasnya sesuai dengan tanggung jawab yang diberikan kepadanya .” (Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara 2000:67).
    • Pengertian Kinerja
      • Kinerja merujuk kepada tingkat keberhasilan dalam melaksanakan tugas serta kemampuan untuk mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan. Kinerja dinyatakan baik dan sukses jika tujuan yang diinginkan dapat tercapai dengan baik (Donnelly, Gibson and Ivancevich: 1994).
    • Penilaian Kinerja
      • ““ Penilaian kinerja adalah suatu proses yang dilakukan dalam rangka menilai pegawai sedangkan kinerja pegawai diartikan sebagai suatu lingkungan dimana karyawan memenuhi atau mencapai persyaratan kerja yang ditentukan .” (Milkovich dan Bodreau )
    • What is Performance Appraisal
      • is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated
      • An evaluation of how well an employee performs his or her job compared to a set of predetermined standards.
      • is a systematic review of a person’s work and achievements over a recent period, usually leading to plans for the future.
    • What is Performance Appraisal
      • In personnel psychology, this term is used for the evaluation of the performance of an employee or a group measuring their contributions to the goals of the organization by reference to traits, behavior and results
      • Any system of determining how well an individual employee has performed during a period of time, frequently used as a basis for determining merit increases.
      • The evaluation of an individual's work performance in order to arrive at objective personnel decisions.
    • A process by which organization evaluate individual job performance “ The appraisal of each employee’s performance should be based on actual performance of the critical elements identified through job analysis”
      • Dessler menyatakan alasan mengapa organisasi perlu menilai kinerja :
      • Penilaian kinerja memberikan informasi tentang dilakukannya promosi dan penetapan gaji.
      • Penilaian memberikan suatu peluang bagi pimpinan dan bawahan untuk meninjau perilaku yang berhubungan dengan kerja bawahan.
      • Penilaian berperan terhadap proses perencanaan karir yang terdapat di dalam organisasi, karena penilaian itu memberikan suatu peluang yang baik untuk meninjau perencanaan karir seseorang dilihat dari kekuatan dan kelemahan yang diperlihatkannya. (1997:2)
      •  
    • Manfaat & Kegunaan Penilaiaian Kinerja
      • Membantu tiap karyawan untuk semakin banyak mengerti tentang peranannya dan mengetahui secara jelas fungsi-fungsinya.
      • Merupakan instrumen dalam membantu tiap karyawan mengerti kekuatan-kekuatan dan kelemahan-kelemahannya sendiri dalam kaitan dengan peran dan fungsi-fungsinya di dalam perusahaan
      • Membantu mengenali kebutuhan-kebutuhan akan pengembangan setiap karyawan berkenaan dengan peran dan fungsinya.
      • Menambah kebersamaan antara masing-masing karyawan dengan pejabat penyelia sehingga tiap karyawan senang bekerja dengan penyelianya dan sekaligus menyumbangkan sebanyak-banyaknya kepada organisasi.
      • Merupakan mekanisme komunikasi yang semakin bertambah antara karyawan dan penyelianya sehingga tiap karyawan dapat mengetahui harapan-harapan majikan dan tiap majikan juga dapat mengetahui kesulitan-kesulitan para bawahan serta berusaha mengatasinya dan dengan demikian mereka bersama-sama menyelesaikan tugasnya.
    • Manfaat & Kegunaan Penilaiaian Kinerja
      • Merupakan instrumen untuk memberikan peluang bagi karyawan untuk mawas diri dan menetapkan sasaran pribadi sehingga terjadilah pengembangan yang direncanakan dan dimonitor sendiri.
      • Memegang peranan dalam membantu setiap karyawan menyerap kebudayaan, norma-norma dan nilai-nilai organisasi sehingga suatu identitas dan keterikatan di dalam organisasi dapat dikembangkan di dalam perusahaan.
      • Membantu mempersiapkan karyawan untuk memegang pekerjaan pada jenjang lebih tinggi dengan cara terus menerus memperkuat perkembangan perilaku dan kualitas yang dubutuhkan bagi posisi-posisi yang tingkatannya lebih tinggi di dalam organisasi.
      • Merupakan instrumen dalam menciptakan sebuah iklim yang positif dan sehat di dalam organisasi, untuk mendorong dan berusaha sekuat tenaga dalam berbuat sesuatu.
      • Membantu dalam berbagai keputusan kepegawaian dengan memberikan data tentang tiap karyawan secara berkala. (Rao,1996:94)
    • Langkah-Langkah Penilaian Kinerja
      • Langkah-langkah yang sebaiknya dipertimbangkan
      • dalam menyusun sistem penilaian kinerja adalah :
      • Penentuan tujuan penilaian
      • Menentukan metode penilaian kinerja
      • Menentukan faktor penilaian
      • Menentukan bobot faktor penilaian
      • Menentukan prosedur dan administrasi penilaian
    • Each of these components must be considered when analyzing performance issues! “ STAIR” S pecific, T imely, A ccurate, I dentify impact to team or Dep’t R elevant, based upon observable behavior, compare actual behavior to expected behavior
    •  Performance of responsibilities of the job.  Behavior in the workplace.  Professional Development.  Organizational support and encouragement of good performance.  Correct poor performance and/or behavior and reestablish expectations of employer and employee. Uses of Performance Appraisal
    • Performance appraisal Key elements of PA system Employee performance Performance measures Performance-related standards Feedback Employee records HR decisions
    • SKILL ABILITIES EFFORTS BEHAVIOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL (Standard vs Accomplishment) (+)/(-) IMPROVEMENT RECOQNITION (+) (-) PA process
    • Appraisal Methods Past Oriented Appraisal, Employees can get feedback that my lead to renewed efforts at improved performance  Rating Scales  Checklists  Forced Choice Method  Critical Incident method  Accomplishment Records Future Oriented Appraisal, Focus on future performance by evaluating an employee’s potential or setting future performance goals  Self Appraisals  Management by Objectives  Psychological Appraisals  Assessment Centers
    •  Rating Scales, requires the rater to provide a subjective evaluation of an individual’s performance along a scale from low to high.  Checklists, requires the rater to select words or statements that describe the employee’s performance and characteristics.
    •  Forced Choice Method, requires the rater to choose the most descriptive statement in each pair of statements about the employee being rated.  Critical Incident method, requires the rater to record statements that describe extremely good or bad behavior related to the job performance. Recorded incidents include a brief explanation of what happened.  Accomplishment Records, these are employee-produced listings of accomplishments such as publications, speeches, leadership roles, and other professionally related activities
    •  Self Appraisals, give the employees an authority to appraise themselves. It can be a useful evaluation technique if the goal of evaluation is to further self-development.  Management by Objectives, consists of goals that are objectively measurable and mutually agreed on by the employee and manager.  Psychological Appraisals, psychologists are used for evaluations of the individual employee’s future potential.  Assessment Centers, are a form of standardized employee appraisal that relies on multiple types of evaluation and multiple raters
    • Rater biases  Halo effect (to  )  Error of central tendency  Leniency and strictness bias  Cross cultural biases  Stereotyping (to    )  The recency events effect
    • Reducing rater bias  Training  Biases and their causes should be explained  The role of PA in employee decisions should be explained to stress the need for impartiality and objectivity  Raters should apply subjective measures as a part of their training  Feedback Raters should get feedback about their previous rating  Careful selection of PA techniques
    • HR department performance Feedback PA HR management Provide an accurate picture of past and/or future employee performance Through an evaluation interview to get realistic view ‘ Quality control check’ of HR function Based on the job-related criteria
      • The Evaluation Interview
        • The tell-and-sell method
          • Communicates to employees their performance as accurately and directly as possible with little return feedback, but can lead to defensiveness
        • The tell-and-listen interview
          • Communicates to employees their strengths and weaknesses, but also allows for return feedback
            • This creates an environment that is less defensive and stressful to the employee
      • The Evaluation Interview (continued):
        • The problem-solving interview
          • Playing the role of helper more so than judge, the manager creates an environment through which the employee can discover his or her own developmental needs
        • The mixed-model interview
          • Allows for the problem solving interview in the beginning, where the subordinate leads off, and finishes with the tell-and-sell or tell-and-listen approaches if the subordinate has missed some important areas of his or her performance