Immune-Aidthe natural, immune boosting, canine supplement                Hope Turner – 74530                    12/10/2010...
ContentsImmune-Aid ..........................................................................................................
Bibliography....................................................................................................... 26Intr...
treating and/or preventing disease or exerting an immunological ormetabolic response.Nutritional RecommendationsThe Waltha...
corticosteroids, at these times it can be helpful to boost the immunesystem with specific nutrients to prevent further ill...
that are fresh and certified fit for human consumption, as well as fruit andvegetables, herbs and other fresh ingredients ...
foods, hence this supplement is composed of raw fresh foods and frozento maintain its nutritional value.The first of these...
Virgin due to it being the least processed and therefore highest quality,high in monounsaturates, Omega 3 and Vitamin E an...
Discounted IngredientsWhilst honey is a well-known anti-biotic and anti-microbial, used as farback as ancient Egypt, there...
opposed to the much lower content (between 4 and 30%) we tend to weanthem onto.TestingThis product has been tested for ove...
Label 1ConclusionOptimal nutrition lends itself towards optimal health, a great number ofvitamins, minerals and lipids are...
Canids who are ill, stressed or immune suppressed (upon veterinaryapproval), would profit from Immune-aid, long term use o...
AppendicesAppendix 1(Kelly & Wills, 1996)
Appendix 2Raw          Vitamins in mg per 100g – where   Reason:material     available (Mervyn,1989)Apple        Carotene:...
Beta Carotene: 3Egg         Vitamin A: 140µg          A good source of all            Biotin: 25 µg             essential ...
Phosphorus: 761.7-894.2         Iron: 47.5-58         Sodium: 27.5-41.2         Potassium: 1331-1540         Chloride: 400...
Appendix 3Vitamin/Mineral   Function (Mervyn, 1989)etc.Vitamin A         Sight, skin, mucous membranes, anti-infective,   ...
Chromium     Controls blood glucose by promoting uptake by             muscles and organs             Stimulates burning o...
Cofactor in hormones                 Used in nerve impulse transmissionManganese        Growth                 Maintains h...
Riboflavin   B2 vitaminSelenium     Preservation of normal liver function             Maintains resistance to disease     ...
ReferencesAgar, S. 2001 Small Animal Nutrition, Butterworth Heinemann, London p77Billinghurst, I. 2001 The Barf Diet, Warr...
Crown 2006 The Veterinary Medicines Regulations 2006, from:http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/2407/contents/made (acc...
Evans, J. M. & White, K. 1992 The Book of the Bitch, Henston Ltd,Buckinghamshire P43-55Ewing, W. & Haresign, W. 1989 The G...
Lewis, L. D. Morris, M. L. & Hand, M. S. 1988 Guide to DietaryManagement of Small Animals, Mark Morris Associates, Topeka,...
Roche 1976 Vitamin Compendium, F. Hoffmann-La Roche & Co. Ltd,Basle, Switzerland p 7Stevens, C. E. & Hume, I. D. 1995 Comp...
BibliographyCooper, M. R. & Johnson, A. W. 1984 Poisonous Plants in Britain and theirEffects on Animals and Man, Her Majes...
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Raw food boosts the immune system

  1. 1. Immune-Aidthe natural, immune boosting, canine supplement Hope Turner – 74530 12/10/2010 Word Count: 1893
  2. 2. ContentsImmune-Aid .............................................................................................................1the natural, immune boosting, canine supplement....................................................1 Introduction...........................................................................................................3 Nutritional Recommendations.............................................................................. 4 Animal Health.......................................................................................................4 UK Legislation......................................................................................................5 Immune-Aid - Not Just Another Pill.....................................................................5 Why Raw?.............................................................................................................6 Why Frozen?.........................................................................................................6 Ingredients.............................................................................................................6 Discounted Ingredients..................................................................................... 9 Amounts............................................................................................................9 Testing.................................................................................................................10 Labelling and Advertising...................................................................................10 Conclusion.......................................................................................................... 11 Appendix 1......................................................................................................13 .........................................................................................................................13 Appendix 2......................................................................................................14 Appendix 3......................................................................................................17 References...........................................................................................................21
  3. 3. Bibliography....................................................................................................... 26IntroductionWith public awareness and concern for health and nutrition on the rise, it isperhaps not surprising that the range and market presence of petsupplements has escalated tremendously over the last decade. Ten yearsago, the main canine supplements available in pet shops were Cod LiverOil and two vitamin supplements (Pet-tabs and SA37) along with powderedformula for hand rearing puppies, wormers and flea treatments. Therewere other dietary and some few topical and medically specificsupplements on the market, but most were hard to find, and not welladvertised. Today pet owners are becoming increasingly familiar withherbal medicines and supplements, current availability ranging from jointcare (anything from kelp, through high doses of Vitamin C to Glucosamine)to veterinary approved mood calmers i.e. D.A.P (Ceva, 2010). Consideringthe plethora of herbal supplements on the market, only those of DorwestHerbs (Dorwest Herbs, 2010) and Denes (Denes, 2010), established in1948 and 1951 respectively, are licensed by the Veterinary MedicinesDirectorate. These products contain enough of some specific ingredientsas to be considered medicinal i.e. “… for treating or preventing disease inanimals” (VMD,1,2010), implying that all non VMD licensed petsupplements on the market, other than those homeopathic remedieseligible for ‘Grandfather rights’ under the Veterinary Medicines Regulations2006 (Crown, 2006), are considered to be of no benefit with regard to,
  4. 4. treating and/or preventing disease or exerting an immunological ormetabolic response.Nutritional RecommendationsThe Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition has produced a list of minimumnutrient requirements for dogs per 400 Kcal of metabolisable energy[Appendix 1] (Kelly & Wills, 1996), however this list only details, 5 of the 7major minerals, (generally required in large amounts by all animals), 6 of10 essential trace minerals, 12 vitamins, fat and protein content and 1 fattyacid. There are no recommendations for the myriad of other vitamins,minerals and amino acids currently accepted by the BSAVA (British SmallAnimal Veterinary Association), nor is there such a thing as aRecommended Daily Allowance (RDA) as with human guidelines.Animal HealthA lack or excess of one or many vitamins, minerals or essential fatty acidscan lead to “major chronic diseases” (Food and Nutrition Board, 1989), ifprolonged can be fatal (Roche, 1976) and malnourished animals are “likelyto have a compromised immune system” (Agar, 2001). The escalation ofillness in pets over the past decade [average UK veterinary visit cost in2000 £62.01 (Bruce, 2001), average cost in 2009 £254(Petwise, 2009)]implies some issue within the genetics and/or the daily lives of our pets.Immune systems can often become compromised, this can be due tomalnutrition, stress or drugs like antibiotics (Ewing & Haresign, 1989) and
  5. 5. corticosteroids, at these times it can be helpful to boost the immunesystem with specific nutrients to prevent further illness. The ethos beingthat optimum health can be achieved through optimum nutrition.UK LegislationCurrently all legislation with regard to pet foods is derived from the EU,there are also guidelines recommended by the Pet Food ManufacturersAssociation (PFMA 1, 2010) which are voluntarily applied to 95% of Britishpet foods.If a product claims or implies a medicinal benefit, then it is a medicinalproduct, according to the Food Safety Act 1990 (Crown, 1990), however“health foods” and supplements need to be judged by the MedicinesDirectorate. In order to adhere to the Veterinary Medicines Directorate toestablish if a product is non-medicinal and therefore does not requirelicensing, their borderline ingredients list must be consulted (VMD,2,2010).Over fifty laws can be distilled in essence to: the use of ingredients certifiedfit for human consumption, (with the exemption of those toxic to theproposed animal) will exceed all current laws and recommendations.Immune-Aid - Not Just Another PillTo create a product that does not contravene current EU legislation orVMD specifications, that appeals to the average pet owner, is easy toproduce and is both nutritionally competent and palatable, the simplestpath seems to be to keep to raw, natural ingredients. As “Meats and liverare more nutritious when fed raw” (Holst, 2000), it is logical to use meats,
  6. 6. that are fresh and certified fit for human consumption, as well as fruit andvegetables, herbs and other fresh ingredients known to boost the immunesystem.Why Raw?The storage stability of vitamins and minerals are impaired by cooking(Lugwigshafen et al. 1984). Phospholipids found in the cell walls of plantand animal material and essential for the health of each living cell are alsobroken down by heat. Phospholipids are needed in great quantities by theimmune system, especially in the formation of pus in infected wounds(Pond, 2000).Why Frozen?Fatty Acids are not broken down by freezing, even up to -80°, howevermost cells and whole organisms are (Pond, 2000), in effect the freezingprocess can destroy most pathogenic bacteria in the same way ascooking, but without the deleterious effect of destroying the nutrientsrequired for the health and wellbeing of the consumer.IngredientsFresh meat and bone, fruit and vegetables, cottage cheese, live yogurt,egg, linseed oil (cold pressed), extra virgin olive oil, garlic and spirulina.Any cooking process negatively effects the vitamin and mineral content of
  7. 7. foods, hence this supplement is composed of raw fresh foods and frozento maintain its nutritional value.The first of these (meat & bone, fruit and vegetables) will be mincedtogether and closely replicates what wild canids would naturally eat, theyprovide essential vitamins, minerals and lipids and add to the overallpalatability of the product. N.B. The chicken content will be restricted towings (being an optimum muscle to bone ratio).Cottage cheese contains a mineral also found in soil and faecal matter(Billinghurst, 2001), thus preventing your dog from eating these through theneed for self medication, and reducing the risk of infection from otherpathogens/bacteria.Live yogurt contains probiotic cultures which aid digestion and replace thegood bacteria in the gut, but preventing microbial colonisation, increasingabsorption of the small intestine, and producing anti-E.coli factors inhibitingthe growth of many bacteria, especially pathogenic gram-negative types(Ewing & Haresign, 1989), and is advised to be given when on antibiotics(Lewis, Morris & Hand, 1988).The egg and oils balance out the omega 3 and 6 content helping topromote healthy skin and coat (Billinghurst, 2001). The Linseed Oil (high inOmega 3) must be cold pressed due to the deleterious effect of n-hexane’scombination with lysine (from the seed) in the chemical extraction process,this forms 2,5-dimethylpyrrole (DeCaprio, Olajos & Weber, 1982) which istoxic (DeCaprio, Kinney & LoPachin, 2009), degenerating first theperipheral and then the central nervous system. The Olive Oil is Extra
  8. 8. Virgin due to it being the least processed and therefore highest quality,high in monounsaturates, Omega 3 and Vitamin E and good for loweringcholesterol (Billinghurst, 2001).Garlic helps to boost the immune system by providing a hostileenvironment for parasites, it also helps maintain a healthy heart andcirculatory system (Billinghurst, 2001).Spirulina is natures’ super-food, a natural multi-vitamin and mineral whichprovides all the required amino acids in a form that is five times easier todigest than meat or soy protein. (Challem, 1981)Immune-aid does not contain grains, whilst useful for fibre content in manydiets, the combination of increased permeability of gastric mucosa and thereduction in pH by lactic acid given off by fermenting starches can lead toulcers, and structural/functional damage to stratified squamous, cardiacand gastric epithelium. Grains in a natural canine diet would be minimal,i.e. the stomach contents of a field mouse. Many gastrointestinal diseasescan be attributed to feeding the wrong diet (Stevens & Hume, 1995)leading to further issues with absorption and then nutrition or the lack of.Appendix 2 lists what natural products are used and why. Appendix 3provides details of the functions of the vitamins/minerals etc. derived fromthose foods listed in Appendix 2. A brief dissection of Appendix 3 showsthe many advantages of the proposed ingredients.
  9. 9. Discounted IngredientsWhilst honey is a well-known anti-biotic and anti-microbial, used as farback as ancient Egypt, there is no guarantee that the average pet ownerwill be able to brush the animals teeth after each meal. Colloidal Silver isalso one of natures’ anti-biotics, as silver has been used for centuries(silver tankards/penny used for purifying beer, when beer was cleaner thanwater) and is now even being used on plasters, however the cost of this isprohibitive.However a mixture of honey, colloidal silver, goats milk, evening primroseoil and cod liver oil, would make an excellent post-operative convalescencesupplement. Goats milk is much more akin to dogs milk than cow or sheepmilk and is easier to digest (Holst, 2000); Evening primrose and cod liveroils contain activated omega 3 & 6, which are easier to absorb than theinactive ones used in Immune-aid. (Billinghurst, 2001)AmountsThe amounts in this product follow the guidelines as set out by the BARFDiet (Billinghurst, 2001) “60% raw meaty bones, 15% crushed vegetablematter, 10% offal, 5% fruit, the remainder as supplements to mimic faecesand soil”. Bear in mind that these quantities are not simply arbitrary butbased on research of the diet of a dogs wild counterparts, after all even themilk of a domestic dog contains 40% protein (Stevens & Hume, 1995), as
  10. 10. opposed to the much lower content (between 4 and 30%) we tend to weanthem onto.TestingThis product has been tested for over 8 years, using 60+ animals over 4generations. These animals were provided with this supplement on aregular basis as part of their standard diet. Accidental exposure to Parvo-virus in 2006 demonstrated a higher immunity in those animals who werethird and fourth generation, than other members of the pack. Puppies havebeen reared on this product from 3 weeks of age (mixed at that age withgoats milk), and post-operative animals whose prospects were bleakaccording to their vet, have been fed on it exclusively and now prosper intoold age (authors personal experience).Labelling and AdvertisingThe VMD have standards which must be adhered to with regards toadvertising (VMD,3,2010). From 1st September 2010 responsibility foraspects of food labelling has transferred from the Food Standards Agencyto DEFRA. Labels must be truthful, include a list of ingredients, displaystorage instructions and durability in accordance with the Food LabellingRegulations 1996, and must also adhere to food composition legislationand European marketing standards. (FSA, 2010).The moisture, fat, protein, ash and fibre content need to be calculated by aspecialized company such as FAPAS (http://www.fapas.com), part of theFood and Environmental Research Agency, therefore the figures given onLabel 1 below, may require correction.
  11. 11. Label 1ConclusionOptimal nutrition lends itself towards optimal health, a great number ofvitamins, minerals and lipids are utilised by the body, not just for energy,but specifically for health. A good combination of these healthy nutrients ina palatable, easy to provide package, can aid the body to heal itself, byboosting the immune system and the health of not only each organ, buteach individual cell.
  12. 12. Canids who are ill, stressed or immune suppressed (upon veterinaryapproval), would profit from Immune-aid, long term use of which canbenefit health and longevity.
  13. 13. AppendicesAppendix 1(Kelly & Wills, 1996)
  14. 14. Appendix 2Raw Vitamins in mg per 100g – where Reason:material available (Mervyn,1989)Apple Carotene: 30µg High in Vitamin C – good Vitamin E: 0.2 source of fibre Thiamine: 0.04 Riboflavin: 0.02 Nicotinic acid: 0.1 Pyridoxine: 0.03 Pantothenic acid: 0.1 Folic acid: 5µg Biotin: 0.3µg Vitamin C: 3Brocolli Vitamin E: 2.3 Complex carbohydrate, Biotin: 1 µg high in Vitamin C Magnesium: 25 Pantothenic acid: 0.3 Choline: 80 Chromium: 21Carrot High in Beta-carotene, natures anti-cancer, high in vitamin AChicken Vitamin E: 0.6 Source of protein, fats, BWings Biotin: 3 µg vitamins and minerals,(including Copper: 0.3 bone is a good source ofbone) Magnesium: 50 calcium, phosphorus, Panthothenic acid: 1.2 magnesium and protein Bone: (Evans & White, 1992) Calcium: 40 Phosphorus: 18.5Cottage Vitamin A: 385µg Contains a mineral alsoCheese Vitamin B12: 1.5 found in soil and faecal Calcium: 725 matter. Iron: 0.14 Magnesium: 5 Phosphorus: 134 Potassium: 86 Sodium: 13 Zinc: 0.38 Copper: 0.028 Selenium: 8.4 Thiamin 0.02 Riboflavin: 016 Niacin: 0.13 Folate: 12 Retinol: 11 Vitamin E: 0.01 Vitamin K: 0.1
  15. 15. Beta Carotene: 3Egg Vitamin A: 140µg A good source of all Biotin: 25 µg essential minerals, and a Calcium: 60 moderate source of all Panthothenic acid: 1.8 vitamins excluding C. Vitamin B12: 2 (Mervyn,1989) Chromium: 183Garlic Garlic is well known for its ability to maintain a healthy heart and circulation, but it also provides an environment that is hostile to parasitesLinseed A rich source of Omega 3Oil (ColdpressedLiver Vitamin A: 20 Source of protein, fat, fat Thiamine: 1.0 soluble vitamins and B Riboflavin: 9.57 vitamins (Evans & White, Pyridoxine: 2.31 1992) High in Iodine. Nicotinic acid: 44.9 Panthothenic acid: 24.1 Folic acid: 1.09 Vitamin B12: 0.363 Biotin: 0.109 Vitamin C: 75.9 Vitamin E: 1.39 Carotene: 5.08 Choline: 2170 Chromium: 55 Cobalt: 15 Copper: 6Olive Oil Vitamin E: 4.6 High in Omega 3 Copper: 1.6Bell High Beta-carotene,Pepper natures anti-cancerSpirulina Carotene: 250 A Super-food Vitamin B12: 0.2 Vitamin E: 19 Thiamine: 5.5 Riboflavin: 4 Nicotinic acid: 11.8 Pyridoxine: 0.3 Pantothenic acid: 1.1 Inositol: 35 Folic acid: 0.05 Biotin: 0.04 Calcium: 104.5-131.5 Magnesium: 141-191.5
  16. 16. Phosphorus: 761.7-894.2 Iron: 47.5-58 Sodium: 27.5-41.2 Potassium: 1331-1540 Chloride: 400-440 Manganese: 1.8-2.5 Zinc: 2.7-3.9 Traces of: bismuth, chromium, cobalt & seleniumYogurt Aids digestion and(Live) replaces the good bacteria in the gut
  17. 17. Appendix 3Vitamin/Mineral Function (Mervyn, 1989)etc.Vitamin A Sight, skin, mucous membranes, anti-infective, protein synthesis, bones, anti-anaemia, growthVitamin B1 Acts as a coenzyme in converting glucose into energy in muscles and nervesVitamin B2 Acts as coenzymes FMN & FDN in converting protein, fats & sugars into energy. Needed to repair and maintain body tissue and mucous membranes Acts in conversion of tryptyphane to nicotinic acid .Vitamin B6 Acts as the coenzyme form Pyridoxal-5-phosphate in amino acid metabolism and in all other functions. Needed for formation of brain substances and nerve impulses Used in blood formation, energy production, and nerve impulse transmission Is an anti-depressant and anti-allergyVitamin B12 Needed for synthesis of DNA and the basis of body cells Maintains a healthy myelin sheath (nerve insulator) Detoxifies cyanide in food and tobacco smokeBeta-Carotene Reduces risk of heart disease and cancer. Known to reduce cancer.Biotin Used as a coenzyme in: Energy production Maintaining healthy skin, hair, sweat glands, nerves, bone marrow & sex glandsBismuth Antacid, protects mucous membranesVitamin C High doses may reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer.Calcium Builds and maintains healthy bones and teeth Controls excitability of nerves and muscles Controls conduction of nerve impulses Controls contraction of heart and other muscles Assists in process of blood clotting Controls blood cholesterol levels Assists in absorption of B12Chloride Aids digestion Works with sodium and potassium to aid hydrationCholine Fat-stabilizing Precursor of betaine, needed in metabolism and acetylcholine, a nerve substance As a component of lecithin
  18. 18. Chromium Controls blood glucose by promoting uptake by muscles and organs Stimulates burning of glucose for energy Controls blood cholesterol levels Stimulates protein synthesis Stimulates production of essential nerve substances Increases resistance to infection Suppresses hunger symptomsCobalt Synthesis of DNA Production of red blood cells Synthesis of methionine, choline & creatineCopper Hair & Skin pigmentation Skin healing Protects against toxic agents Concerned with nerve impulses in the brain Formation of blood and healthy bones Helps develop resistance to infectionVitamin E Antioxidant Reduces oxygen needs of muscles Anti-blood clotting agent Blood vessel dilator Maintains healthy blood vessels Protects polyunsaturated oils Protects amino acids Protects vitamin A Prevents thrombosis Prevents atherosclerosis Increases ‘safe’ cholesterol Acts with selenium Promotes ability of white blood cells to resist infectionFolic Acid Decreases plasma concentration of homocystein, a risk for heart disease.Inositol Reduces blood cholesterol Restores healthy hair Anti-anxiety agentIodine Necessary for a healthy metabolismIron In haemoglobin acts as oxygen carrier in red blood cells In myoglobin acts as oxygen reservoir in muscles In body cells acts in oxygen transfer in cytochromes Protects against peroxide poison Used in developing resistance to infectionMagnesium Cofactor in energy production and cell replication, also for vitamins B1 and B6. Stabilizes body cell structure Used in growth, repair and maintenance of body cells.
  19. 19. Cofactor in hormones Used in nerve impulse transmissionManganese Growth Maintains healthy nervous system Cofactor for enzymes for energy production and health of joints Cofactor for female sex hormones Cofactor for nucleic acid synthesis Production of thyroxine Cofactor for Vitamins B, C & E Synthesis of structural proteins of body cells Development and maintenance of health bones Stimulates glycogen storage in liverNicotinic acid Acts as coenzymes NAD & NADP in cell respiration Produces energy from sugars, fats & protein Maintains healthy skin, nerves, brain, tongue, digestive systemOmega 3 Helps correct blood pressure, boosts the immune response, ant-inflammatory, aids joints, good for skin and hair, aids growth of lean muscle, helps to burn off fat and prevents food craving.Omega 6Panthothenic Acts as a coenzyme in:acid Production of energy Production of anti-stress hormones Controlling fat metabolism Formation of antibodies Maintaining healthy nerves Detoxifying drugsPara- Part of Folic Acid:aminobenzoic synthesis of body proteinacid Red blood cell production Skin cancer preventative Anti-grey hair factorPhosphorus Structural components of bones and teeth Used in the production of energy including via burning sugar Cofactor for many enzymes Activator for vitamin B complex Aids in absorption of diet Maintains alkalinity of blood Component of RNA and DNAPotassium Maintains normal water balance Essential activator in enzymes, particularly within energy production Stabilizes internal cell structure Assists in protein synthesis Used in nerve impulse transmissionPyridoxine B6 vitamin
  20. 20. Riboflavin B2 vitaminSelenium Preservation of normal liver function Maintains resistance to disease Protects against toxic minerals & substances Promotes male sexual reproductive capacity Maintains healthy eyes, sight, hair, & skin Acts as an anti-inflammatory Maintains healthy heart Anti-oxidant Reduces the risk of cancer, and decreases death from many cancers.Sodium Maintains water balance Used in nerve impulse transmission Smooths the response of all muscle contractions including the heart Helps to preserve body pH balance Constituent of ATP Transports nutrients, amino acids and glucose into cellsThiamine Vitamin B1Zinc Growth Insulin activity Releases vitamin A from the liver Maintains healthy liver function Used in the metabolism of pituitary, adrenals, ovaries and testes Development of skeleton, nervous system and brain in a growing foetus
  21. 21. ReferencesAgar, S. 2001 Small Animal Nutrition, Butterworth Heinemann, London p77Billinghurst, I. 2001 The Barf Diet, Warrigal Publishing, New South Wales,Australia p17, 29-46Bruce, K., 2001, Dog Owners Voice Concern Over High Vet Fees, K9Online, K9 Media Solutions Ltd, Notts, from:http://www.pressbox.co.uk/detailed/International/Dog_Owners_Voice_Concern_Over_High_Vet_Fees_1064.html (accessed 07/04/2010)CEVA, 2010 D.A.P – the Secret to Happy Dogs, from: http://www.dap-pheromone.com/ (accessed 16/10/2010)Challem, J. J. 1981 Spirulina: Green Gold of the Future, Keats PublishingInc. Connecticut p. 8Crown 1990 Food Safety Act 1990, from:http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1990/16/contents (accessed12/10/2010)
  22. 22. Crown 2006 The Veterinary Medicines Regulations 2006, from:http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/2407/contents/made (accessed12/10/2010)DeCaprio, A. P. Olajos, E. J. & Weber, P. 1982 Convalent Binding ofneurotoxic n-hexane metabolite: Conversion of Primary Amines toSubstitued Pyrrole Adducts by 2,5-hexanedione, Toxicology and AppliedPharmacology, Volume 65, Issue 30, P 440-450 Elsevier Inc, AmsterdamDeCaprio, A.P. Kinney, E.A . & LoPachin, R.M. 2009 ComparativeCovalent Protein Binding of 2,5-hexanedione and 3-acetyle-2,5-hexanedione in the rat, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental HealthPart A, 72(14):861-9 Taylor & Francis, LondonDenes, 2010, Herbal Medicines, from:http://www.denes.co.uk/health/licensed_herbal_medicines.php (accessed10/10/2010)Dorwest Herbs 2010 Veterinary Medicine from:http://www.dorwest.com/Catalogue/Veterinary-Medicine (accessed10/10/2010)
  23. 23. Evans, J. M. & White, K. 1992 The Book of the Bitch, Henston Ltd,Buckinghamshire P43-55Ewing, W. & Haresign, W. 1989 The Guide to Probiotics in the UnitedKingdom, Chalcombe Publications, Bucks P1-5Food and Nutrition Board 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances,National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p1-9FSA (Food Standards Agency) 2010 Understanding Labelling Rules from:http://www.food.gov.uk/foodlabelling/ull/ (accessed 19/10/2010)Frankling, E. 1987 Practical Dog Breeding and Genetics, Polpular Dogs,London p81-84Holst, P.A. 2000 Canine Reproduction – the Breeders Guide, Alpine,Colorado p113-118 169-176Kelly, N. & Wills, J. 1996 Manual of Companion Animal Nutrition andFeeding, BSAVA, Gloucester p254
  24. 24. Lewis, L. D. Morris, M. L. & Hand, M. S. 1988 Guide to DietaryManagement of Small Animals, Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Kansasp6Lugwigshafen, N. A. Bonn, G. B. Elmshorn, D. D. Hess.Oldend, W. K.Cuxhaven, K. K. Grenzach, H. L. 1984 Vitamins in Animal Nutrition, AWT,Bonn p42Mervyn, L. 1989 Thorsons Complete Guide to Vitamins and Minerals,Thorsons, Wellingborough p1- 334Petwise, 2009, Why Insure your Pet?, Petwise Health Insurance, from:http://www.petwise-insurance.co.uk/pages/whyinsure.asp (accessed07/04/2010)Pond, C. M. 2000 The Fats of Life, Cambridge University Press,Cambridge p5-26PFMA 1 2010 Pet Food Legislation from:http://www.pfma.org.uk/legislation/pet-food-legislation.htm (accessed10/10/2010)
  25. 25. Roche 1976 Vitamin Compendium, F. Hoffmann-La Roche & Co. Ltd,Basle, Switzerland p 7Stevens, C. E. & Hume, I. D. 1995 Comparative Physiology of theVertebrate Digestive System, Cambridge University Press, Cambridgep183, 224-228VMD 1 2010 Non-Medicinal Products from:http://www.vmd.gov.uk/Industry/Non-Med/non-med.htm (accessed12/10/2010)VMD 2 2010 List of Medicinal and Borderline Ingredients from:http://www.vmd.gov.uk/Industry/Non-Med/med%20and%20border.htm(accessed 12/10/2010)VMD 3 2010 Advertising – Frequently Asked Questions from:http://www.vmd.gov.uk/AdvertisingFAQ.pdf (accessed 12/10/2010)
  26. 26. BibliographyCooper, M. R. & Johnson, A. W. 1984 Poisonous Plants in Britain and theirEffects on Animals and Man, Her Majesties Stationary Office, Londonde Baïracli Levy, J. 1992 The Complete Herbal Handbook for the Dog andCat, Faber and Faber, LondonDryden, G. 2008 Animal Nutrition Science, CABI, OxfordMartin, A. N. 2003 Food Pets Die For, Newsage Press, OregonMcDonald, P. Edwards, R. A. Greenhalgh, J. F. D. Morgan, C. A. 2002Animal Nutrition, Pearson Education Ltd, HarlowO’Driscoll, C. 2005 Shock to the System Abbeywood Publishing, London

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