Principles engels

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Principles engels

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNISMPRINCIPLES OF COMMUNISMPRINCIPLES OF COMMUNISMPRINCIPLES OF COMMUNISMPRINCIPLES OF COMMUNISMFREDERICK ENGLESFREDERICK ENGLESFREDERICK ENGLESFREDERICK ENGLESFREDERICK ENGLESuGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;z&uf&pf tdef*,f
  2. 2. yxrt}udrf 1991 =o8kwfv 15yxrt}udrf 1991 =o8kwfv 15yxrt}udrf 1991 =o8kwfv 15yxrt}udrf 1991 =o8kwfv 15yxrt}udrf 1991 =o8kwfv 15kwd,tjudrf 2007 atmufwkdbm 15kwd,tjudrf 2007 atmufwkdbm 15kwd,tjudrf 2007 atmufwkdbm 15kwd,tjudrf 2007 atmufwkdbm 15kwd,tjudrf 2007 atmufwkdbm 15ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[kd0gjzefhcsda7;Xmeu xkwfa0onf/ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[kd0gjzefhcsda7;Xmeu xkwfa0onf/ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[kd0gjzefhcsda7;Xmeu xkwfa0onf/ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[kd0gjzefhcsda7;Xmeu xkwfa0onf/ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[kd0gjzefhcsda7;Xmeu xkwfa0onf/PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNISMFREDERICK ENGLESuGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;z&uf&pf tdef*,f
  3. 3. 1z&uf&pf tdef*,fz&uf&pf tdef*,fz&uf&pf tdef*,fz&uf&pf tdef*,fz&uf&pf tdef*,fuGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;uGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;uGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;uGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;uGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNISMFrederick Engels.(trSm),ae@tcg e,fcsJ@t&if;&SifEdkifiH}uD;rsm;u uGefjrLepf0gESifh qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiH rsm;tm; oJ}uD;rJ}uD; wdkufcdkufaejcif;ESifh ArmjynfwGif ppftkyfpku uGefjrLepf0gESifh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDwdk@tm; t+idK;w}uD;wdkufcdkufaejcif;wdk@rSm omrefwdkufqdkifr_ r[kwfacs? TuGefjrLepf0g. &efolrsm;t=um;0,f tcsKd@aomtusKd;pD;yGm;rsm; tay:Y yËdyuQrsm;&Sdonf rSefaomfvnf; tajccHvlwef;pm;&yfwnfcsufESifh oabmw&m; tawG;tac:wdk@Yrl wxyfwnf; usonfomjzpfa=umif; Ttcsufu jyoaeayonf?ppftkyfpktygt0if Armjynf&Sd azmufjyefaom tkyfpdk;olrsm;onf rdrdwdk@taejzifh uGefjrLepf0gudkawmh rqef@usifyg? Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDudkomqef@usifjcif; jzpfygonf[k r=uc% xkwfajymavh&Sd=uayonf? wu,fu urBmhjynfolrsm;ESifh Armjynf jynfolrsm;twGif; uGefjrLepf0g. =oZm}uD;rm;jcif;a=umifhvnf;aumif;/ if;wdk@taejzifh Drdkua&pD ta&+cHKvdkjcif;a=umifhvnf;aumif;/
  4. 4. 2uGefjrLepf0gudkawmh rqef@usifyg[k ajymjcif;jzpfonf? odk@aomf vufawG@vkyf&yfudk aoaocsmcsm avhvm=unfhv#ifrl ArmjynfwGif rmhufpfvDeif0gpmayrsm;xkwfa0 jzef@csd jcif;udkvnf;aumif;/ avhvmvdkufpm;jcif;udkvnf;aumif;/if;wdk@wav#mufvHk; qef@usif=ua=umif; awG@&ayonf? e0w uqdkv#if rmhufpf0g pmayrajymESifh ypPnf;rJh acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;ta=umif;"e&Sifpma&;q&mrsm;. a&;om;csufrsm;/ EdkifiHwumrS wdk;wufonf[k qdkEdkifaompmayrsm; zuf±_jcif;udkyif {&mr&mZ0wfr_}uD; usL;vGefonfhozG,f jypfwif±_wfcsta&;,laeayonf? awG@v#ifodrf;/ a&mif;v#ifzrf; tajctaersKd;yif jzpfonf?TuJhodk@aom tajctaeatmufwGif Armjynftm; awmufyaomtem*wfqDodk@ wu,fwrf; vrf;!¸efjyEdkifonfh rmhufpf0g vDeif0gtm; umuG,f&efESifh jzef@csd&eftwGuf usm;ukwfusm;cJvHk;yef;&ef txl;yifvdktyfaeavonf?TtwGuf OD;pGmtm;jzifh rmhufpfvDeif0g pmayrsm;tm; tajccHusus eufeuf±_dif;±_dif; avhvm&efrSm rjzpfraevkyf&rnfh vkyfief;wm0efw&yf jzpfonf? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[dk0g jzef@csda&;Xmemtaejzifh jynfolrsm;ESifh &Jabmfrsm; avhvmEdkif&eftwGuf tcuftcJ trsKd;rsKd;t=um;rSyif rmhufpf0gpmayrsm;tm; rjywfxkwfa0jzef@csd&ef }udK;pm;oGm;rnf jzpfayonf?z&uf&pf tdef*,fvfa&;aom “uGefjrLepf0g.rlrsm;” pmwrf;onfody`Henf;us qdk&S,fvpf0g pmayrsm;teuf tapmqHk; xkwfa0cJhaom pmayrsm;pm&if;wGif yg0ifayonf? Tpmwrf;tm; avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh rmhufpf0g.rlrsm;udkod&SdEdkifovdk rmhufpf0gjzwfoef;cJhaom ordkif;a=umif;udkvnf; wpHkw&mjyefvnfoHk;oyfEdkifayonf? oabmw&m;tm; wdkif;wm&mY vufawG@onfom wckwnf;aom pHjzpfonfqdkonfhtav#muf rmhufpfvDeif0g. tcsKd@aom t,ltqrsm;onfyifv#if vufawG@aygif;rsm;pGmudk t}udrf}udrfjzwfoef;&if; rGrf;rHjyKjyifcJh&a=umif; owdjyKrd=uayrnf? vGefcJhaom 144 ESpfu a&;om;xkwfa0cJhaom Tpmwrf;xJrStcsKd@aomta=umif;t&mrsm;onfvnf;obm0uspGmyif vufawG@.acszsufjcif;cHcJh&onf? Oyrmtm;jzifh ar;cGef; 19 tm; ajz=um;&mY awmfvSefa&;rSmEdkifiHwEdkifiHwnf;wGif rjzpfEdkif[k qdkxm;aomfvnf; 1917 ckESpfwGif ±k&Sm;jynfYatmufwdkbmawmfvSefa&;}uD; aygufuGJ+yD; ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;u tm%m&cJhonf?TonfrSm rmhufpfESifh tdef*,fvfwdk@ vufxufwGif }udKajymIr&aom e,fcsJ@pepf. tm;tenf;qHk; uGif;qufqdkonfh tcsuftvuf ay:aygufvmjcif;a=umifh
  5. 5. 3jzpfonf?odk@aomf owdjyKoifhonfhtcsufrSm txufygtjzpftysufonf "e&Sifpepftm; qdk&S,fvpfpepfjzifh tpm;xdk;a&;/ ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; tm%m&&Sda&;qdk aom rmhufpfESifh tdef*,fvfwdk@ !¸efjycJhonfh tajccHOD;wnfcsuf vrf;a=umif;rSaoGzD oGm;jcif; r[kwf[laom tcsufyifjzpfonf?,if;odk@aom trSefw&m;rsm;tm; qkyfudkifjcif;/ zGH@+zdK;xGef;um;apjcif;yifv#if uGefjrLepf0g. tajccH&yfwnfcsufyif jzpfawmhonf? tajccH&yfwnfcsuftm; jyKjyifjcif;/ ajymif;vJjcif;udkrlum; rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# cGifhrjyKEdkifay?A[dk0gjzef@csda&;XmeArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD1991 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv
  6. 6. 4z&uf&pf tdef*,fuGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;PRINCIPLESOFCOMMUNISMFrederick Engels.ar;cGef; 1? uGefjrLepfpepf qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?ar;cGef; 1? uGefjrLepfpepf qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?ar;cGef; 1? uGefjrLepfpepf qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?ar;cGef; 1? uGefjrLepfpepf qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?ar;cGef; 1? uGefjrLepfpepf qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?tajz? uGefjrLepfpepf qdkonfrSm ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf tajctaetcsuftvufrsm;. rl0goabmw&m; jzpfygonf?ar;cGef; 2? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?ar;cGef; 2? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?ar;cGef; 2? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?ar;cGef; 2? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?ar;cGef; 2? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;´?tajz? ypPnf;rJvlwef;pm; qdkonfrSm rdrd. touf&Sifaexdkifa&;udk rnfonfht&if;tESD;22222ay:u &&Sdonfh tjrwftpGef;ay:rS r[kwfbJ rdrd.vkyftm;a&mif;csjcif;ay:rSmom vHk;0ESifhwckwnf; trSDjyKaexdkifonfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wGif;&Sd vlwef;pm;w&yf jzpfygonf? ‚wdk@. qif;&Jr_/ csrf;omr_/‚wdk@. aoa&;&Sifa&;ESifh ‚wdk@. &yfwnfr_wckvHk;onf vkyftm;awmif;qdkr_tay: wnf&Sd+yD; xdk@a=umifhvnf; vkyfief;aumif;csdef qdk;csdeftajymif;tvJrsm; txdef;tcsKyfr&S+dydKifqdkifr_. tajymif;tvJ jrefr_rsm;tay: wnfaeonf? ypPnf;rJh odk@r[kwf ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; qdkonfrSmpum;wcGef;wnf;ESifh ajym&v#if q,fhudk;&mpk. tvkyform;vlwef;pm;jzpfygonf?ar;cGef; 3? odk@jzpfv#if ypPnf;rJhrsm; t+rJ&Sdraebl;vm;´?ar;cGef; 3? odk@jzpfv#if ypPnf;rJhrsm; t+rJ&Sdraebl;vm;´?ar;cGef; 3? odk@jzpfv#if ypPnf;rJhrsm; t+rJ&Sdraebl;vm;´?ar;cGef; 3? odk@jzpfv#if ypPnf;rJhrsm; t+rJ&Sdraebl;vm;´?ar;cGef; 3? odk@jzpfv#if ypPnf;rJhrsm; t+rJ&Sdraebl;vm;´?tajz? &Sdraeygbl;? qif;&Jom;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rsm; t+rJ&Sdae+yD;tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rsm;onf trsm;tm;jzifh qif;&J=uygonf?odk@aomf txufrSmazmfjycJhonfh tajctaersm;atmufrSm tvkyform;rsm;ESifh qif;&Jom;rsm; t+rJwnf&SdcJhonf r[kwfyg? wenf;ajym&v#ifvGwfvyfwJh txdef; tcsKyfrJh +ydKifqdkifr_ t+rJ&Sdaejcif;xufydkI ypPnf;rJhrsm;t+rJ&SdraecJhyg?ar;cGef; 4? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; rnfuJhodk@ay:ayguf vmcJhygoenf;´?ar;cGef; 4? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; rnfuJhodk@ay:ayguf vmcJhygoenf;´?ar;cGef; 4? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; rnfuJhodk@ay:ayguf vmcJhygoenf;´?ar;cGef; 4? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; rnfuJhodk@ay:ayguf vmcJhygoenf;´?ar;cGef; 4? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; rnfuJhodk@ay:ayguf vmcJhygoenf;´?
  7. 7. 5tajz? ypPnf;rJhrsm;onf vGefcJhonfh (q,fh&Spf) &mpkESpf kwd,&mpk0uftwGif;t*FvefwGif jzpfyGm;cJh+yD;aemuf urBmh,Ofaus;r_ jrifhrm;onfh EdkifiHrsm;tm;vHk;rSm qufvufjzpfay:cJhonfh pufr_awmfvSefa&;twGif; pwifay:aygufcJhygonf? a&aEG;aiG@pufrsm;/ csnfiifpuftrsKd;rsKd;/ puf&ufuef;rsm;ESifh tjcm;pufud&d,m ypPnf;tpHktvif xkwfvkyfwDxGifr_rsm;upufr_vufr_ awmfvSefa&;udk jzpfay:apcJhygonf? Tpufrsm;onf tvGefaps;}uD;onfh twGuf t&if;&Sif}uD;rsm;uom 0,f,lEdkifonf? ,if;wdk@u,cif xkwfvkyfr_enf;em wpHkvHk;udk ajymif;vJap+yD; tvGefnHhzsif;onfhcsnfiifbD;rsm;/ vuf&ufuef;rsm;ESifh vkyfudkifaom tvkyform;rsm;xufaps;E_ef;csKdom+yD; ydkrdkaumif;rGefonfh ukefpnfrsm;udk pufrsm;u xkwfvkyfvmEdkifonfhtwGuf ,cif tvkyform;rsm;udk armif;xkwfvdkufygonf?Tpufrsm;u pufr_vkyfief; wckvHk;udk t&if;&Sif}uD;rsm;. vufwGif;odk@ydk@aqmifay;vdkuf+yD;tvkyform;rsm;.ydkifqdkifr_tao;tzGJrsm;(ud&d,mwefqmyvm/ vuf&ufuef; tp&Sd) udk vHk;0 wefzdk;rJhoGm;apcJhygonf?xdk@a=umifh wc%twGif; t&if;&Sifrsm; vufwGif; t&m&ma&muf&SdoGm;+yD; tvkyform;rsm;vufwGif; bmr# rusef&Sdawmhacs? Tt&monftxnftvdyfpufr_vufr_vkyfief;twGif;odk@puf±Hkpepfy%mr0ifa&mufvmjcif;udk txdrf;trSwfjyK ayonf?puf,E W&m;ESifh puf±kHpepf tpysKd;0ifa&mufvmjcif;tay: wGef;tm;ay;vdkufonfESifh w+ydKifeuf Tpepfonf tjcm;aom pufr_ vkyfief;cGJrsm;tm;vHk; txl;ojzifh t0wftpm;/ yHkESdyfvkyfief;/ tdk;cGufvkyfief;ESifhowWKypPnf;vkyfief;rsm;odk@ tvsiftjref ysH@ESH@a&muf&Sd oGm;ygonf?tvkyform;wOD;csif;t=um; vkyftm;cGJa0r_ ydkIydkI rsm;jym;vm+yD;,cifu t vkyf wpHkvHk;tjynfh vkyfaqmifcJhonfh tvkyf orm;rsm;onf,cktcgrSm xdktpHkrS wpdwfwydkif;udkom vkyf&yg awmhonf? Tvkyftm;cGJa0r_onf txGufypPnf;rsm; ydkrdkv#ifjrefpGm xGuf&Sdap+yD; Tenf;jzifhaps;E_ef;ydkrdk oufomvmapygonf? wOD;csif; tvkyform;rsm;.vkyfaqmifcsufudk‚wdk@vkyfaqmifcsufuJhodk@aumif;rGef±kHr#rupufa=umifhydkrdkomvGefEdkif+yD;±kd;pif;onfhtqufrjywfxyfumxyfumvnfywfaeaompuf,EW&m;v_yf&Sm;r_odk@ av#mhcsypfvdkufygonf? TuJhodk@aomenf;jzifh
  8. 8. 6Tpuf±Hk trsm;tjym;onf &ufuef; pufrsm;/ csnfiifpufrsm; jzpfoGm;cJh=uonfhtwdkif; w±kH+yD;w±kH a&aEG;aiG@ puf±kHESifh tvkyf±Hkpepf v$rf;rdk;r_atmufodk@usa&mufoGm;ygonf?odk@aomf wcsdefwnf;rSmyif ‚wdk@onft&if;&Sif}uD;rsm;. vufwGif;odk@vnf; usqif;oGm;+yD; xdkae&mrsm;wGifvnf; tvkyform;rsm;onf vGwfvyfr_. aemufqHk; tptersm;udkyif qHk;±_H;cJh&ygonf? wjznf;jznf;ESifh ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfr_ (manufac-ture) omv#if puf±Hkpepf. v$rf;rdk;r_atmufodk@ wdk;Iwdk;I usa&mufvmjcif; r[kwfbJ t&if;&Sif}uD; rsm;onf tjrwftpGef; trsm;tjym;&+yD;vkyftm;cGJa0r_udk tus,fcsJ@Edkif onfh {&mrtvkyf±Hk}uD;rsm; ydkIydkIwnfaxmifum vufr_ynmonf uav;rsm;udkvnf; wGef;xdk; ab;z,fypfvdkufygonf? Todk@jzifh ,Ofaus;r_ wdk;wufzGH@òz;+yD; EdkifiHrsm;Y vkyftm;pdkufxkwfr_ trsKd;rsKd;tpm;pm; tm;vHk;eD;yg;tm; puf±kHrsm;wGifom jyKvkyfaqmif&GufvmcJh=u&+yD; vkyfief;cGJ tm;vHk;eD;yg;wGifvnf; vufr_ynmonfESifh ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfr_rsm;onf t}uD;pm;pufr_vufr_vkyfief;rsm;.tpm;xdk;ausmfv$m;jcif;udkcHvdkuf&ayonf?TjzpfpOfonftv,ftvwf vlwef;pm;tv$ma[mif; txl;ojzifh vufr_ynmonfuav;rsm;udk ydkrdkqdk;0g;onfh twdkif;twmtxd zsufqD;ypfvdkuf+yD;tvkyform; rsm;. tajctaeawGudk vHk;0 ajymif;vJypfvdkufum wjcm;vlwef;pm;rsm;udk wjznf;jznf;0g;+rdKjcif;jzifh jzpfwnfvmaom vlwef;pm;opfESpf&yfudk jzpfay:vm apcJhygonf? ‚wdk@rSm -1? ,Ofaus;+yD; EdkifiHrsm;tm;vHk;rS t&if;&Sif}uD; vlwef;pm;rsm;onfb0wnf+rJa&;ypPnf;rsm; xkwfvkyfa&;twGuf vdktyfonfh b0wnf+rJa&;ypPnf;rsm;ESifh ukef=urf;ypPnf;rsm;ESifh ud&d,mrsm; (pufrsm;/ tvkyf±kHrsm;) tm;vHk;udk tºuif;rhJeD;yg; ydkifqdkif+yD; jzpfygonf? Tonf "e&Sifvlwef;pm; odk@r[kwf "e&Sifrsm; jzpfygonf?2? ydkifqdkifr_ vHk;0r&Sdaom vlwef;pm;onf ‚wdk@ wnfwHha&;twGufvdktyfaomb0wnf+rJa&;ypPnf;rsm;&&efrdrdwdk@vkyftm;udk"e&Sifrsm;xHra&Smifrv$Jom a&mif;cs&ygonf? Tvlwef;pm;udk ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;odk@ r[kwf ypPnf;rJh[kac:ygonf?aaaaar;cGef; 5? "e&Sifrsm;odk@ ypPnf;rJhrsm;. TuJhodk@ vkyftm;a&mif;csr_onfr;cGef; 5? "e&Sifrsm;odk@ ypPnf;rJhrsm;. TuJhodk@ vkyftm;a&mif;csr_onfr;cGef; 5? "e&Sifrsm;odk@ ypPnf;rJhrsm;. TuJhodk@ vkyftm;a&mif;csr_onfr;cGef; 5? "e&Sifrsm;odk@ ypPnf;rJhrsm;. TuJhodk@ vkyftm;a&mif;csr_onfr;cGef; 5? "e&Sifrsm;odk@ ypPnf;rJhrsm;. TuJhodk@ vkyftm;a&mif;csr_onf
  9. 9. 7‘rnfonfh’ta=umif;tcsufatmufwGif jzpfay:ygoenf;´?‘rnfonfh’ta=umif;tcsufatmufwGif jzpfay:ygoenf;´?‘rnfonfh’ta=umif;tcsufatmufwGif jzpfay:ygoenf;´?‘rnfonfh’ta=umif;tcsufatmufwGif jzpfay:ygoenf;´?‘rnfonfh’ta=umif;tcsufatmufwGif jzpfay:ygoenf;´?tajz? vkyftm;onf tjcm;t&mrsm;uJhodk@ ukefpnfw&yfomjzpf+yD; xdk@a=umifhvnf; ‚&J@wefzdk;tm; wjcm;ukefpnfrsm;wGif toHk;jyKonfh Oyaorsm;uyif jyÏmef;ygonf? t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief; odk@r[kwf vGwfvyfpGm+ydKifqdkifr_ e,fy,fwGif u|efawmfwdk@ jrifEdkifonfhtwdkif; TESpfckonfwrsKd;wnf; jzpfvmygonf?ukefpnf.wefzdk;onfysrf;r#tm;jzifhxkwfvkyfr_ukefusp&dwfESifhnDr#a=umif;/ xdk@a=umifhvkyftm;.wefzdk;onfvnf; vkyftm; xkwfvkyfr_ ukefusp&dwfrsm;ESifh nDr#ayonf? odk@aomf xkwfvkyfr_ukefusp&dwfrsm;onf vkyfom;wa,muf tvkyfvkyf&ef usef;rmae+yD;tvkyform;vlwef;pm;aoqHk;aysmufuG,froGm;apa&;twGufvdktyfaomb0wnf+rJa&; ypPnf;ta&twGuf twdtusom yg0ifaeayonf? xdk@a=umifh tvkyform;wa,muftaejzifh ‚.vkyftm;twGuf T&nf&G,fcsufrsm;twGuf vdktyfonfxuf ydk&&Sdrnfr[kwfay? vkyftm;.wefzdk; odk@r[kwf vconf xdk@a=umifh vl@touf xdef;odrf;&eftwGufvdktyfaom tedrfhqHk; odk@r[kwf tenf;qHk;wefzdk;yif jzpfonf? odk@aomfvkyfief;onf wcgw&Hqdk;0g;+yD; wcgw&Haumif;rGefonfhtwGuf puf±kHydkif&Siftaejzifh ‚.ukefpnfrsm;twGuf wcgw&Hydk&+yD; wcgw&Havsmh&onfh enf;wl tvkyform;onf wcgw&Hydk&+yD; wcgw&H avsmh&ygonf?odk@aomfpuf±kHydkif&Sifonfta&mif;t0,faumif;csdefESifhqdk;csdefysrf;r#twdkif;‚.ukefpnfrsm;twGuf‚.xkwfvkyfr_ukefusp&dwfrsm;xuf ydkIaomfvnf; aumif;/ avsmhIaomfvnf;aumif; &&Sdjcif;r&SdouJhodk@tvkyform;onfvnf;ysrf;r#tm;jzifhTtenf;qHk;wefzdk;xufydkIaomfvnf;aumif;/avsmhI aomfvnf;aumif; r&&Sdacs? vpm. Tabm*aA w&m;onft}uD;pm; pufr_vkyfief;u xkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;cGJtm;vHk;udk ydkifqdkifvmr_twdkif;twm us,fjyef@rsm;jym;vmavav ydkrdkwif;usyfpGm v_yf&Sm;csKyfudkifav jzpfvmygonf?aaaaar;cGef; 6? pufr_awmfvSefa&; ray:aygufrDu rnfonfhtvkyform;r;cGef; 6? pufr_awmfvSefa&; ray:aygufrDu rnfonfhtvkyform;r;cGef; 6? pufr_awmfvSefa&; ray:aygufrDu rnfonfhtvkyform;r;cGef; 6? pufr_awmfvSefa&; ray:aygufrDu rnfonfhtvkyform;r;cGef; 6? pufr_awmfvSefa&; ray:aygufrDu rnfonfhtvkyform;vlwef;pm;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?vlwef;pm;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?vlwef;pm;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?vlwef;pm;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?vlwef;pm;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?tajz? vl@tzGJ@tpnf; jzpfay:wdk;wufr_. rwlnDonfh tqifhrsm;ESifhtnD tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rsm;onf tpOft+rJ rwlnDonfh tajctae ta=umif;
  10. 10. 8tcsufrsm;atmufwGif touf&SifaexdkifcJh=u&+yD; ydkifqdkifolESifh tkyfcsKyfolvlwef;pm;rsm;ESifh rwlnDonfh qufqHa&;rsm; &SdcJhygonf? a&S;oa&mtcgu tvkyform;rsm;onf acwfaemufusaom wdkif;jynfrsm;ESifhtar&duefjynfaxmifpk awmifydkif; t&yfaorsm;rSmyif jzpf+rJjzpfaeao;onfhtwdkiff; ydkifqdkifolrsm;. “aus;u|efrsm;”“aus;u|efrsm;”“aus;u|efrsm;”“aus;u|efrsm;”“aus;u|efrsm;” jzpfcJh=uygonf? tv,facwfwGif olwdk@onf [efa*&D/ ydkvefESifh ±k&Sm;wdk@wGif jzpf+rJjzpfaeao;onfhtwdkif; ajrydkif&Sif rSL;rwfrsm;. “v,fu|efrsm;”“v,fu|efrsm;”“v,fu|efrsm;”“v,fu|efrsm;”“v,fu|efrsm;” jzpfcJh=uygonf?tv,facwfESifh pufr_awmfvSefa&;a&mufvmonfhtxd+rdK@rsm;wGif"e&Sifaygufptvkyf&Sifrsm;twGufvkyfudkifaeonfhe,fvSnfhtvkyform;rsm;vnf; &SdcJhygonf? wjznf;jznf;ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfr_ jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmonfESifh twl xdktcsdefuyifpwif+yD; ydkrdk}uD;rm;onfh t&if;&Sif}uD;rsm;.tcpm; ukefxkwf tvkyform;rsm; ay:aygufvmcJhygonf?ar;cGef; 7? ypPnf;rJhrsm;onf aus;u|efrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ar;cGef; 7? ypPnf;rJhrsm;onf aus;u|efrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ar;cGef; 7? ypPnf;rJhrsm;onf aus;u|efrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ar;cGef; 7? ypPnf;rJhrsm;onf aus;u|efrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ar;cGef; 7? ypPnf;rJhrsm;onf aus;u|efrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ygoenf;´?ygoenf;´?ygoenf;´?ygoenf;´?ygoenf;´?tajz? aus;u|efonfw}udrfwnf;ESifhwoufvHk;a&mif;pm;cHvdkuf&+yD;ypPnf;rJhrsm;uawmh rdrdudk,frdrd ae@pOfESifhtr# em&Dwdkif; a&mif;csae&ygonf? u|efydkif&Sif wOD;. udk,fydkifypPnf;jzpfonfh aus;u|efwOD;onf aexdkifr_b0tb,fr#yif edrfhusapumrl u|efydkif&Sif. tusKd;pD;yGm;a=umifhrdk@ ‚.touf&Sif&yfwnfcGifhonf tmrcHcsuf&Sd+yD; jzpfygonf? ypPnf;rJhwOD;tzdk@awG@ae&onfh twdkif; "e&Sifvlwef;pm;vlwef;pm;vlwef;pm;vlwef;pm;vlwef;pm;wckvHk;. ydkifqdkifr_jzpf+yD; olwdk@u‚. vkyftm;udk vkdtyfaomtcsdefrSom 0,f,l+yD; touf&Sif&yfwnfcGifhrSm tmrcHcsufr&Sdyg? Ttouf&Sif &yfwnfcGifhrSm ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;vlwef;pm;vlwef;pm;vlwef;pm;vlwef;pm;w&yfvHk;twGufomv#if tmrcHcsuf&Sdygonf? aus;u|efrSm +ydKifqdkifr_.tjyifybufwGif&Sd+yD; ypPnf;rJhrsm;uawmh TtwGif;rSmyif&Sdum ‚.tusKd;tjypftm;vHk;udkcHpm;&ygonf?aus;u|efudk,Ofaus;aomvl@tzGJ@tpnf;0iftjzpf todtrSwfrjyKbJ t&m0wˆKwcktjzpf owfrSwfumypPnf;rJhudkawmh vlyk*~dKvfwa,muftjzpf ,Ofaus;aom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;0iftjzpf todtrSwfðyonf? TuJhodk@jzifh aus;u|efonf ypPnf;rJh xufomvGefaom touf&SifcGifh/ &yfwnfcGifh &Sdaomfvnf; ypPnf;rJhonfvlr_jzpfay:wdk;wufr_. ydkIjrifhaomtqifhrSm yg0if+yD; rdrdudk,fwdkifvnf;
  11. 11. 9aus;u|efxufjrifhwJh tqifhrS&yfwnfaeygonf? aus;u|efonf yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ qufqHa&;tm;vHk;xJrS aus;u|efpepfqufqHa&;udkom zsufodrf;vdkufygu rdrdudk,frdrd vGwfajrmufap+yD; xdkrSwqifh ypPnf;rJhtjzpfa&muf&Sd vmEdkifonf? ypPnf;rJhuawmh a,bk,syk*~vdu ydkifqdkifr_udkzsufodrf;jcif; jzifhomv#if rdrdudk,frdrd vGwfajrmufaponf?ar;cGef;8?ypPnf;rJhrsm;onfv,fu|efrsm;ESifhrnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ygoenf;´?ar;cGef;8?ypPnf;rJhrsm;onfv,fu|efrsm;ESifhrnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ygoenf;´?ar;cGef;8?ypPnf;rJhrsm;onfv,fu|efrsm;ESifhrnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ygoenf;´?ar;cGef;8?ypPnf;rJhrsm;onfv,fu|efrsm;ESifhrnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ygoenf;´?ar;cGef;8?ypPnf;rJhrsm;onfv,fu|efrsm;ESifhrnfodk@uGJjym;jcm;em;ygoenf;´?tajz? v,fu|efonf ‚.txGufypPnf; wpdwfwydkif; odk@r[kwf vkyftm;vkyfaqmifr_twGuf — tvJtvS,ftjzpf xkwfvkyfa&; ud&d,mwckjzpfonfh ajrwuGufudk ydkifqdkifcGifh odk@r[kwf toHk;jyKcGifh &Sdygonf?ypPnf;rJhonftxGufypPnf;wpdwfwydkif;&&eftwGuftvJtvS,ftjzpfwyg;oltwGufwyg;ol.xkwfvkyfa&;ud&d,mrsm;ESifhtvkyfvkyf&onf?v,fu|efu ay;qyf&+yD; ypPnf;rJhu vufcH&,lonf? v,fu|efutouf&Sif &yfwnfcGifh tmrcHcsuf&Sd+yD; ypPnf;rJhu r&Sdacs? v,fu|efu+ydKifqdkifr_.tjyifyrSjzpf+yD;ypPnf;rJhuawmhtwGif;rSjzpfygonf?v,fu|efonf +rdK@rsm;odk@xGufajy;+yD; vufr_ynmonf jzpfvmjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;odk@r[kwf rdrd.ajr&Sifudk vkyftm;ESifh txGufypPnf;tpm; aiGay;jcif;jzifhvGwfvyfaom v,fiSm;pm;ol jzpfvmjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif; odk@r[kwfyao &mZfajr&Sifudk armif;xkwf+yD; ‚udk,fwdkif ajrykdif&Sifjzpfvmjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif; twdkcsKyfajym&v#if ydkifqdkifr_vlwef;pm;twGif;okd@ESifh +ydKifqdkifr_twGif; wenf;r[kwf wenf;0if a&mufvmjcif;jzifh rdrdudk,fudk rdrdvGwfajrmufaponf? ypPnf;rJhuawmh +ydKifqdkifr_/ yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ESifh vlwef;pm;jcm;em;r_ tm;vHk;udk zsufodrf;jcif;jzifh rdrdudk,fudkrdrd vGwf ajrmufaponf?ar;cGef; 9? ypPnf;rJhonf vufr_ynmonfuav;ESifh rnfuJhodk@ar;cGef; 9? ypPnf;rJhonf vufr_ynmonfuav;ESifh rnfuJhodk@ar;cGef; 9? ypPnf;rJhonf vufr_ynmonfuav;ESifh rnfuJhodk@ar;cGef; 9? ypPnf;rJhonf vufr_ynmonfuav;ESifh rnfuJhodk@ar;cGef; 9? ypPnf;rJhonf vufr_ynmonfuav;ESifh rnfuJhodk@uGJjym;jcm; em;ygoenf;uGJjym;jcm; em;ygoenf;uGJjym;jcm; em;ygoenf;uGJjym;jcm; em;ygoenf;uGJjym;jcm; em;ygoenf;3·3·3·3·3·´?´?´?´?´?(tdef*,fu Tae&mwGif pmrsufESm0ufcef@ uGufvyfxm;cJhonf? tajztwGuf rSwfpkrsm; trSwf(3) rSm =unfhyg? aemufcH ta=umif;t&m twGuf rSwfpkrsm; trSwf(1) wGif =unfhyg? )ar;cGef; 10? ypPnf;rJhonf ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfolESifh rnfuJhodk@ar;cGef; 10? ypPnf;rJhonf ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfolESifh rnfuJhodk@ar;cGef; 10? ypPnf;rJhonf ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfolESifh rnfuJhodk@ar;cGef; 10? ypPnf;rJhonf ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfolESifh rnfuJhodk@ar;cGef; 10? ypPnf;rJhonf ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfolESifh rnfuJhodk@ uGJjym;uGJjym;uGJjym;uGJjym;uGJjym;jcm;em;ygoenf;´?jcm;em;ygoenf;´?jcm;em;ygoenf;´?jcm;em;ygoenf;´?jcm;em;ygoenf;´?
  12. 12. 10tajz? q,fhajcmuf&mpkrS q,fh&Spf&mpkxd ae&mwumvdkvdkrSm&SdaomukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfcif; vkyfom;onf ‚xkwfvkyfa&;ud&d,m/ ‚.&ufuef;pif/ rdom;pkcsnfiifbD;ESifh rdrd. tm;vyfonfhtcsdefrsm;wGifxGef,uf pdkufysKd;aom ajruGufi,fav;wckudk ydkifqdkifcJh=uygonf?ypPnf;rJhwGif Tvdk ypPnf;rsKd; bmwckrSr&Sday? ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfcif;vkyfom;onft+rJrjywfeD;yg;aus;vufaowGifaexdkif+yD;‚ESifhajr&Sifodk@r[kwf tvkyf&Sifwdk@t=um;wGif tenf;ESifhtrsm; taz}uD;pdk;onfhqufqHa&;rsKd;&Sdonf? ypPnf;rJhonf trsm;tm;jzifh òr@}uD;rsm;wGifaexdkifum ‚ESifh tvkyf&Sif. qufqHa&;onf aiGa=u;qufqHa&;oufoufomjzpfygonf?t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;uukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfolvkyfom;. tz}uD;pdk;aom ta=umif;tcsufrsm;udk qkwf+zJypfvdkuf+yD;‚ydkifqdkifvsuf &Sdao;onfh ydkifqdkifr_rsm;udkvnf; qHk;±_H;apum Tenf;jzifh‚udk,fwdkif ypPnf;rJhjzpfvmonf?ar;cGef; 11? pufr_awmfvSefa&;ESifh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; "e&SifESifhar;cGef; 11? pufr_awmfvSefa&;ESifh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; "e&SifESifhar;cGef; 11? pufr_awmfvSefa&;ESifh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; "e&SifESifhar;cGef; 11? pufr_awmfvSefa&;ESifh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; "e&SifESifhar;cGef; 11? pufr_awmfvSefa&;ESifh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; "e&SifESifhypPnf;rJhuGJjym;oGm;r_wdk@. vwfwavm tusKd;qufrsm;um;ypPnf;rJhuGJjym;oGm;r_wdk@. vwfwavm tusKd;qufrsm;um;ypPnf;rJhuGJjym;oGm;r_wdk@. vwfwavm tusKd;qufrsm;um;ypPnf;rJhuGJjym;oGm;r_wdk@. vwfwavm tusKd;qufrsm;um;ypPnf;rJhuGJjym;oGm;r_wdk@. vwfwavm tusKd;qufrsm;um;tb,fenf;´?tb,fenf;´?tb,fenf;´?tb,fenf;´?tb,fenf;´?tajz? yxr? puf,EW&m;vkyftm;u o,faqmifvmonfh pufr_ txGufypPnf;rsm;.wefzdk; ydkIydkI usqif;vmr_rsm;u urBmw0Srf;vHk;&Sd wdkif;jynftm;vHk;rS ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfcif;rsm;ESifh vl.vkyftm;tay: tajccHaompufr_vkyfief; pepfa[mif;udk vHk;0zsufqD;ypfvdkufonf? Tenf;jzifh ,cktcsdeftxd ordkif;jzpfay:wdk;wufr_ESifh tenf;ESifhtrsm; wpdrf;jyifjyifjzpfaeao;+yD; ‚wdk@. pufr_vkyfief;rsm;uvnf; ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfcif;tay: tajccHxm;onfh t±dkif;tpdkif;wydkif; EdkifiHrsm;tm;vHk;onf ‚wdk@. txD;usefwaumifºuuf jzpfaer_rS twif;tusyfqGJxkwfjcif; cHvdkuf&onf? ‚wdk@onf t*Fvdyfwdk@. aps;ydkaygaom ukefpnfrsm;udk 0,f,l=u+yD; ‚wdk@. udk,fydkifypPnf; xkwfvkyfolvkyfom;rsm;udk b0ysufapcJhonf? ESpfaxmif ESifhcsD+yD; bmr#rwdk;wufcJhaom EdkifiHrsm; Oyrm tdEdN,rSmtukeftpif awmfvSefajymif;vJypfvdkuf+yD; w±kwfjynfonfyif ,cktcgawmfvSefa&;vrf;udk av#mufvSrf;vm=u+yD jzpfonf? ,ae@ t*FvefrSmpuftopfwDxGifvdkufr_uwESpftwGif;w±kwftvkyform;oef;ESifhcsD+yD;
  13. 13. 11b0ysufapEdkifonfhtcsdefodk@ u|Ekfyfwdk@ a&muf&SdvmcJhay+yD? Tenf;jzifht}uD;pm;pufr_vufr_vkyfief;u urBmajray:&Sd jynfoltm;vHk;udk wOD;ESifhwOD; xdawG@qufpyfay;+yD; aoaps; uGufi,f tm;vHk;udk urBmhaps;}uD;wcktjzpfaygif;pyfpkay;umae&mwumrSmzGH@òz;wdk;wufonfh,Ofaus;r_vrf;a=umif;udk cif;ay;vdkufonf? Tenf; jzifh ,Ofaus;aom EdkifiHrsm;urnfonfhtjzpftysufrqdk tjcm;EdkifiH tm;vHk;odk@ *,uf±dkufcwfr_ &SdcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh t*Fvef odk@r[kwf jyifopf&Sd tvkyform;rsm;u ,cktcg rdrdudk,frdrd vGwfajrmufapvdkufygu Tonf tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;tm;vHk;&Sd awmfvSefa&;rsm;udk aygufuGJapvdrfhrnf? ,if;awmfvSefa&;rsm;u xdkao&Sd tvkyform;rsm;udk taES;ESifhtjrefqdkovdk vGwf ajrmufapayvdrfhrnf?kwd,? ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfcif;udk t}uD;pm; pufr_vufr_u tpm;xdk;cJhonfhae&mwdkif;wGifpufr_awmfvSefa&;onf"e&Sifrsm;‚.ºu,f0csrf;omr_ESifh tm%mwdk@udk tjrifhqHk;tqifhodk@ jzpfay:wdk;wuf ap+yD;‚wdk@udk wdkif;jynfwGif yxrwef;pm; vlwef;pm;tjzpfodk@ a&muf&SdoGm;apcJhygonf? tusKd; &&Sdcsufuawmh Tt&m jzpfysufcJhonfh ae&mwdkif;wGif "e&Sifonf EdkifiHa&;tm%mudk vuf0,f&,l+yD; xdktcsdefxdtkyfpdk;onfh vlwef;pm;rsm;/ rif;pdk;&mZmrsm; *D;vfvkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESifh TESpfrsKd;udk udk,fpm;jyKonfh oufOD;qHydkiftkyfcsKyfr_ukd z,f&Sm;ypfvdkufonf? "e&Sifrsm;onf ajr,mudk a&mif;cscGifh r&Sdonfh OyaESifh rSL;}uD;rwf&mrsm;.tcGifhxl; tm;vHk;udk zsufodrf;vdkufjcif; jzifh rif;pdk;&mZmrsm;ESifh rSL;}uD;rwf&mwdk@. tm%mrsm;udk acsr_ef;ypfvdkuf ygonf? *D;vfvkyfief;rsm;ESifhvufr_ynmqdkif&mtcGifhxl;rsm;udkzsufodrf;vdkufjcif;jzifhTonfu*D;vfvkyfief;&Sifrsm;.tm%mudkzsufqD;vdkufonf?‚wdk@.ae&mwGifvGwfvyfwJh+ydKifqdkifr_ odk@r[kwf rnfonfh pufr_vufr_ vkyfief;cGJrsm;wGifrqdkvlwdkif;yg0ifEdkifonfhtcGifhta&;&Sd+yD;wckwnf;aomtwm;tqD;uawmhvdktyfonfh t&if;tESD; csKd@wJhjcif;qdkaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf; tajctaewcku tpm;xdk;vdkufonf? Tenf;jzifh vGwfvyfwJ@ +ydKifqdkifr_udk azmfaqmifvdkufjcif;u ,cktcsdefrSpI vl@tzGJ@tpnf;0ifrsm;onf ‚wdk@. t&if;tESD; rwlnDr_twdkif;twm t&omv#if rwlnDr_&Sd=u+yD; t&if;tESD;
  14. 14. 12omv#if tqHk;tjzwf tm%mjzpfa=umif;ESifh xdk@a=umifh t&if;&Sifrsm;ESSifh"e&Sifrsm;onf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wGif yxrwef;pm;rsm; jzpfa=umif;udkvlod&Sif=um;a=unmvdkufjcif;jzpfayonf?t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;onfvGwfvyfpGm +ydKifqdkifr_qdkaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf; tajc tae wckwGifomzGH@òz;wdk;wufEdkifonfhtwGuf Tvkyfief; zGJ@pnf;xajrmuf a&; twGufvGwfvyfaom òyifqdkifr_udk vdktyfonf? "e&Sifonf rSL;}uD; rwf&mrsm;ESifh*D;vfvkyfief;&Sifrsm;. vl@tzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&m tm%mudk acsr_ef;+yD;aemuf‚wdk@. EdkifiHa&;tm%mudkvnf; acsr_ef;vdkufonf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; yxrwef;pm;ae&modk@ jrifhwufvm+yD;aemuf "e&Sifonf EdkifiHa&;wGifvnf; yxrwef;pm;jzpfa=umif; rdrdudk,frdrd a=unmvdkufygonf?Tonf "e&Sifwdk@. w&m;Oyaa&S@arSmufwGif wef;wlnDr#jcif;ESifhvGwfvyfonfh +ydKifqdkifr_t& w&m;0if todtrSwf jyKjcif; wdk@tay:rSDcdkonfh udk,fpm;vS,fpepf azmfaqmifjcif;jzifh jyKvkyfcJhonf? Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;wGif zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkOyat& bk&ifpepfo¿mefudk cH,lvdkufjcif;jzifh vkyfaqmifvdkufonf?TzGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkt& bk&ifpepfrsm;wGif t&if;tESD; wpHkw&m &Sdolrsm; wenf;tm;jzifh "e&Sifomv#if rJay;Edkifolrsm;jzpfum T"e&Sif rJqEN&Sifrsm;u udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk a&G;cs,f+yD; T"e&Sifudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u tcGeftaumufrsm;udk rJay;&ef jiif;qdkEdkifaom‚wdk@. tcGifhta&;udk toHk;jyK+yD; "e&Siftpdk;&udk a&G;cs,f=uonf?wwd,?pufr_vufr_awmfvSefa&;onfae&mwdkif;wGifypPnf;rJhrsm;udk "e&Sifvlwef;pm;tm; wnfaqmufay;onfh twdkif;twmtwdkif;wnfaqmufay;onf? "e&Sifrsm; ydkIydkIcsrf;omvmonfESifhtr#wlnDwJh tcsKd;tpm;twdkif; ypPnf;rJhrsm;uvnf; ta&twGuf wdk;rsm;vmonf? ypPnf;rJhrsm;tm; t&if;tESD;uom tvkyfay;Edkif+yD; t&if;tESD;onfvnf; vkyftm;udk iSm;&rf;jcif;jzifhomv#if wdk;yGm;EdkifonfhtwGufypPnf;rJhrsm;. }uD;xGm;r_onf t&if;tESD;}uD;xGm;r_ESifhtnD wom;wnf;vSrf;wufaeayonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif TjzpfpOfu pufr_vkyfief;rsm;tvGef tusKd;tjrwf&Sdatmif vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh +rdK@}uD;rsm;wGif "e&SifESifhypPnf;rJhrsm;udk twlpk±kH; ay; vdkufonf? Tenf;jzifh wae&mwae&mwae&mwae&mwae&mwnf;rSm
  15. 15. 13tvGef}uD;rm;onfh vlpkvla0;}uD;rsm; jzpfay: jcif;jzifh ypPnf;rJhrsm;tm;‚wdk@. pGrf;&nf tiftm;udk od&Sdem;vnfapvdkufygonf? ghtjyif TjzpfpOfydkrdkjzpfay:wdk;wufvm+yD;vl@vkyftm;udkz,f&Sm;onfhpuf,EW&m;rsm;udkydkIwDxGifvmv#ifu|efawmfwdk@axmufjycJhonfhtwdkif;t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;rsm;u vkyfcrsm;udk tedrfhqHk;odk@ ydkrdkESdrfhcsvdkuf+yD; Tenf;jzifhypPnf;rJhrsm;. tajctaeonf omIomI onf;rcHEdkifzG,f&m jzpfvmayonf?Tenf;jzifhypPnf;rJhrsm;onf wzufwGif rauseyfr_rsm; }uD;xGm;vmum wzufwGifvnf; tiftm;awmifhwif; }uD;rm;vm+yD; pufr_ awmfvSefa&;u ypPnf;rJh vl@tzGJ@tpnf; awmfvSefa&;vrf;udk jyifqifay;vdkufonf?ar;cGef; 12? pufr_awmfvSefa&;. a&S@tusKd;qufrsm;um; tb,far;cGef; 12? pufr_awmfvSefa&;. a&S@tusKd;qufrsm;um; tb,far;cGef; 12? pufr_awmfvSefa&;. a&S@tusKd;qufrsm;um; tb,far;cGef; 12? pufr_awmfvSefa&;. a&S@tusKd;qufrsm;um; tb,far;cGef; 12? pufr_awmfvSefa&;. a&S@tusKd;qufrsm;um; tb,fenf;´?enf;´?enf;´?enf;´?enf;´?tajz? a&aEG;aiG@tif*sifESifh tjcm;puf,E W&m;rsm;ESifh t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;utawmrowf us,fjyef@aeaom xkwfvkyfa&;enf;emrsm;udk tcsdefwdktwGif;ESifhtukeftusenf;pGmzefwD;vdkufonf?Tenf;jzifhxkwfvkyfa&;ajyjypfacsmarm jrefqefvmr_ESifhtwl t}uD;pm; pufr_vkyfief;ESifh rv$JraoG yl;wGJaeonfh vGwfvyfonfh +ydKifqdkifr_uvnf; r=umrDtwGif;rSmyiftvGeftu|HqHk;o¿mefodk@ a&muf&Sdvmonf?t&if;&Siftajrmuftjrm;pufr_vkyfief;avmuodk@ usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvm+yD; tcsdefwdktwGif;rSmyifoHk;Edkifonfxufydk+yD; xkwfvkyfvmawmhonf? tusKd;uawmh xkwfvkyfvdkufaom ypPnf;rsm;rSm a&mif;rxGufawmhbJ ukefoG,fa&;uyfqdkwmay:xGufvmawmhonf? puf±kHrsm;ydwfvdkuf&+yD; ydkif&Sifrsm;a0gvDcHumtvkyform;rsm; pm;p&mr&Sd jzpfoGm;&onf? ae&mwumrSm qif;&JkuQwGif;teufqHk; usoGm;onf? c%=umawmh ydkv#Haeaom ypPnf;rsm;a&mif;xkwfvdkuf&+yD; puf±kHrsm;jyefvnf vnfywfum vkyfcrsm;jrifhwufvm+yD; wjznf;jznf;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;rSm ,cifuxuf ydkI aumif;vmygonf?odk@aomf odyfr=umvdkufbJ ukefypPnf;trsm;tjym; jyefvnfxkwfvkyfvmjyef+yD; uyfab;topf xyfjzpfvmum ,cifvrf;a=umif;twdkif;om jyefay:vmcJhonf? T (q,fhudk;) &mpk tpydkif;rSp+yD; pufr_vkyfief; tajctaeonf }uD;yGm;aomumvESifh uyfqdkufaomumvtwGif; t+rJ
  16. 16. 14twuftus jzpfae+yD; uyfqdkufjcif;topfrSm ig;ESpfodk@r[kwf ckESpfESpfeD;yg;w}udrf rSefrSefeD;yg; usa&mufaeonf? Todk@jzifh tvkyform;rsm;twGuf t}uD;rm;qHk;aom tcuftcJtusyftwnf;rsm; taxGaxGawmfvSefa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh wnf&SdqJtajctaersm;twGuf tvGeftu|HtEW&m,frsm; pwmawG woDwwef;}uD; jzpfay:vmygonf?ar;cGef; 13? Tumvtvdkuf rSefrSefjzpfay:vmaom ukefoG,fa&; uyfab;ar;cGef; 13? Tumvtvdkuf rSefrSefjzpfay:vmaom ukefoG,fa&; uyfab;ar;cGef; 13? Tumvtvdkuf rSefrSefjzpfay:vmaom ukefoG,fa&; uyfab;ar;cGef; 13? Tumvtvdkuf rSefrSefjzpfay:vmaom ukefoG,fa&; uyfab;ar;cGef; 13? Tumvtvdkuf rSefrSefjzpfay:vmaom ukefoG,fa&; uyfab;rsm; aemufrSm bmawGvdkufvmygoenf;´?rsm; aemufrSm bmawGvdkufvmygoenf;´?rsm; aemufrSm bmawGvdkufvmygoenf;´?rsm; aemufrSm bmawGvdkufvmygoenf;´?rsm; aemufrSm bmawGvdkufvmygoenf;´?tajz? yxr? t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;onf ‚.tapmqHk;tqifhwGif vGwfvyfonfh +ydKifqdkifr_udk zefwD;cJhaomfvnf; ,cktcgwGif ‚onfvGwfvyfonfh +ydKifqdkifr_udk ausmfvGefoGm;ay+yD? t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;tzdk@ +ydKifqdkifr_ESifh a,bk,stm;jzifh yk*~vduydkif pufr_xkwfvkyfa&;tpnf;t±kH;rsm;rSm twm; tqD;tcsKyftaESmifrsm; jzpfvm+yD; ‚wdk@udkzsufqD;ypf&awmhrnf? zsufvnf; zsufqD;ypfvdrfhrnf? t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;onf ,ckvuf&Sd ‚. tajccHay:rSm qufvufvnfywf vkyfaqmifaeor# umvywfvHk; ckESpfESpf w}udrf taxGaxGtHkºur_qdkaomt&if;tESD;ay;rSomv#if xdef;odrf;xm;EdkifrSmjzpf+yD; xdktHkºur_rsm;ut}udrfwdkif;rSm vl@,Ofaus;r_ wck vHk;udk +cdrf;ajcmuf+yD; ypPnf;rJhrsm;udkqif;&JwGif;usa&mufap±kHru "e&Sif tpdwftydkif; trsm;tjym;udkvnf;zsufqD;ypfayonf? Todk@qdkv#if t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;udk,fwdkifut±_H;ay;vdkufrnfvm;? guawmh vHk;0rjzpfEdkifay? odk@r[kwf ‚taeESifhpufr_xkwfvkyfa&;udk tjyef tvSef+ydKifqdkifaewJh yk*~vdupuf±kHydkif&Sifrsm;&J@!¸ef=um;r_ qufrcHawmhbJ tm;vHk;&J@vdktyfr_udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;onfhwdusonfhpDrHudef;ESifhtnDtzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;uv_yf&Sm;vkyfaqmifaomvHk;0opfvGifaom tzGJ@tpnf;w&yfudk rv$Jra&Smif vdktyfvmaprnfvm;?kwd,? t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;ESifh ‚ujzpfapcJhonfh twm;tqD;r&Sd xkwfvkyfa&;csJ@xGifjcif;onf jzpfEdkifonfh t0ef;t0dkif;twGif;b0.vdktyfcsufrsm;tm;vHk;udk xkwfvkyfay;+yD; vl@tzGJ@tpnf;0ifwdkif;jzpfay:wdk;wufEdkifumjynfh0aomvGwfvyfjcif;ESifh‚wdk@.tiftm;rsm;/pGrf;&nfrsm;tm;vHk;udk toHk;jyKEdkifonfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taetxm; wck
  17. 17. 15udko,faqmifvmonf?xdk@a=umifh,ae@vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;Yqif;&JkuQtm;vHk;ESifh ukefoG,fa&;uyfqdkufr_ tm;vHk;wdk@udk jzpfay:aponfht}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;. t&nftcsif;rsm;uyifv#if rwlnDonfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf; atmufrSm TkuQrsm;ESifh qdk;0g;vSaom uyfab;twuf tusrsm;udk acsr_ef; Edkifaom t&mrsm;jzpf[ef &Sdayonf? xdk@a=umifh -1? Traumif;r_rsm;tm;vHk;udk ,cktcsdefrSp+yD; wnf&SdqJta=umif;tcsufrsm;ESifh qufvufudkufnDjcif; r&Sdawmhonfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf; pepfay:odk@om yHkcs&efjzpfonf? aemuf+yD;2? Traumif;r_rsm;tm;vHk;udk vHk;0z,f&Sm;+yD; vl@tzGJ@tpnf; pepfopfw&yf azmfxkwfa&;enf;emrsm;onfvnf;tqifoifh&Sdae+yD jzpf a=umif; t&Sif;vif;qHk; jyovdkufay+yD?ar;cGef; 14? vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taetxm;opfw&yfrSmar;cGef; 14? vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taetxm;opfw&yfrSmar;cGef; 14? vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taetxm;opfw&yfrSmar;cGef; 14? vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taetxm;opfw&yfrSmar;cGef; 14? vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taetxm;opfw&yfrSmb,fvdktrsKd;tpm; rsKd; jzpfrnfenf;´?b,fvdktrsKd;tpm; rsKd; jzpfrnfenf;´?b,fvdktrsKd;tpm; rsKd; jzpfrnfenf;´?b,fvdktrsKd;tpm; rsKd; jzpfrnfenf;´?b,fvdktrsKd;tpm; rsKd; jzpfrnfenf;´?tajz? t"durSm ‚onfa,bk,stm;jzifh tjyeftvSef+ydKifqdkifaeonfh yk*~vdursm;vufxJrS pufr_vkyfief;vnfywfa&;ESifh xkwfvkyfa&; vkyfief;cGJtm; vHk;udk odrf;,lvdkuf+yD; ‚.ae&mwGif xkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;cGJtm;vHk;udk vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;u tkyfcsKyf vkyfaqmifcef@cGJonfh pepfjzifhtpm;xdk; onf? guawmh wlnDaom ta=umif;tcsufrsm;twGufbHkpDrHudef;ESifh tnD vl@tzGJ@tpnf;0if tm;vHk;u yg0ifaqmif&Guf&rnfhpepfyifjzpfonf? wenf;ajymv#if ‚onf +ydKifqdkifr_udk zsufodrf;+yD;gudkaygif;pyfwGJzufjcif; jzifh tpm;xdk;onf? xdk@jyif pufr_vkyfief;tay:yk*~vdupDrHtkyfcsKyfr_u ‚. rv$Jra&Smifomaom tusKd;quftjzpfyk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk &&Sd aponf? aemuf+yD; +ydKifqdkifr_onfpufr_vkyfief;rsm;udk yk*~vduydkifqdkif olrsm; tkyfcsKyfvkyfaqmifonfhenf;pepfESifho¿mefr#omjzpfonfhtwGufa=umifhyk*~vduydkifqdkifr_onfpufr_vkyfief;tay: yk*~vdupDrH tkyfcsKyfr_eJ@ +ydKifqdkifr_wdk@ESifhuif;uGmIr&[k jzpfvmonf? xdk@a=umifh yk*~vd uydkifqdkifr_udkvnf;zsufodrf;&rSmjzpf+yD; ‚.ae&mwGif xkwfvkyfa&; ud&d ,mtm;vHk;udkbHkoHk;pGJr_ESifh bHkoabmwlnDr_t& txGufypPnf;tm;vHk;udk jzef@a0r_utpm;xdk; vma&muf&rnf? pum;wcGef;wnf;ESifhqdkv#if ypPnf; rsm;udk
  18. 18. 16trsm;ydkifqdkifr_ qdkwmyJ jzpfonf? wu,fawmh yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_zsufodrf;a&;onf pufr_ vkyfief; jzpfay:wdk;wufr_u vdktyfapaomxdkta=umif;a=umifhyif uGefjrLepfrsm;u ‚wdk@t"du awmif;qdkcsuftjyif rSefuefpGmwifjyonfh vlr_tzGJ@ tpnf; taetxm;wckvHk; ajymif;vJa&;udk yHkazmf&ef twdkqHk;ESifh txif&Sm; qHk;aom vrf;jzpfonf?ar;cGef; 15? xdk@a=umifh yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk tcsdefapmpGm zsufodrf;&ef r jzpfEdkifbl;ar;cGef; 15? xdk@a=umifh yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk tcsdefapmpGm zsufodrf;&ef r jzpfEdkifbl;ar;cGef; 15? xdk@a=umifh yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk tcsdefapmpGm zsufodrf;&ef r jzpfEdkifbl;ar;cGef; 15? xdk@a=umifh yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk tcsdefapmpGm zsufodrf;&ef r jzpfEdkifbl;ar;cGef; 15? xdk@a=umifh yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk tcsdefapmpGm zsufodrf;&ef r jzpfEdkifbl;r[kwfvm;´?r[kwfvm;´?r[kwfvm;´?r[kwfvm;´?r[kwfvm;´?tajz? rSefonf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&m taetxm; tajymif;tvJwdkif; ydkifqdkifr_qufqHa&;rsm;twGif;u awmfvSefa&;wdkif;onf ydkifqdkifr_qufqHa&;rsm;ESifh qufvuftH0ifcGifusjcif; r&Sdawmhonfh xkwfvkyfa&; tiftm;pkopfrsm;zefwD;wDxGifvmjcif;.vdktyfaomtusKd;qufjzpfonf?yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk,fwdkif Tenf;jzifh pwifay:aygufvmjcif; jzpfygonf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_onf tpOft+rJwnf&SdcJhonf r[kwfaoma=umifh jzpfonf? tv,facwf ukefqHk;cgeD;tcsdefu xkwfvkyfa&;enf;emopf wckonf xdktcsdefuwnf&Sdaeonfh yao&mZfESifh *D;vfydkifqdkifr_. vufatmufcHtjzpf rxm;&SdEdkifonfh pufr_vufr_vkyfcif;o¿meftjzpf xGufvm+yD; ydkifqdkifr_qufqHa&;a[mif;xufausmfvGef}uD;xGm;vmonfhTukefxkwfvkyfr_vkyfcif;onfyk*~vduydkifqdkifr_qdkaomydkifqdkifr_opfudk zefwD;vdkufonf? ukefxkwfvkyfr_vkyfcif;ESifh t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;jzpfay:wdk;wufr_yxrtqifhtwGuf yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_onfwckwnf;aom jzpfvmEdkifonfh ydkifqdkifr_o¿mef jzpfonf? ‚tay:tajccHonfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;pepfonfvnf; wckwnf;aom jzpfvmEdkifonfhvl@tzGJ@tpnf;pepfyifjzpfonf?tm;vHk;twGufvdktyfoavmufrxkwfvkyfEdkifbJ vl@tzGJ@tpnf; t&if;tESD; wdk;jrifha&;ESifh xkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pk qufvufwdk;wufa&;twGuf txGufypPnf;tydktv#Hrsm;usef&Sdaeor# umvywfvHk; vl@tzGJ@tpnf; xkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pkrsm;udk ydkifqdkif jc,fvS,f csKyfudkifEdkifonfh v$rf;rdk;}uD;pdk;aomvlwef;pm;ESifh qif;&Jonfh tzdESdyfcH vlwef;pm;[lI t+rJ&Sdaeygvdrfhrnf?Tvlwef;pm;rsm;rnfodk@zGJwnfyg0ifonfqdkjcif;rSmxkwfvkyfa&;jzpfay:wdk;wufr_tqifhtay:rSDwnfygvdrfhrnf?v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;ay:rSDcdkonfh
  19. 19. 17tv,facwfwGif bJa&mefrSL;rwfrsm;ESifh ajru|efrsm;udk jzpfay:aponf?tv,facwf aemufydkif; +rdK@rsm;u *D;vfvkyfief;ydkif&SifESifh e,fvSnfhtvkyform;ESifh ae@pm; tvkyform;rsm;udk azmfjy+yD;? 17 &mpkwGif ukefxkefvkyfr_vkyfcif;ydkif&Sif rsm;ESifh ,if;vkyfcif;tvkyform;rsm;&Sdum 19 &mpkrSmawmhtvkyf±kH ydkif&Sif}uD;rsm;ESifh ypPnf;rJhrsm; &Sdvmygonf? xkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pkrsm;onf ,cktcsdefxd tm;vHk;twGuf vHkavmufatmif xkwfvkyfEdkifonfhtqifhxd jzpfay: wdk;wufjcif;r&SdbJ xdkxkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pkrsm;twGuf yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_onf tcsKyftaESmiftwm;tqD; jzpfaea=umif; &Sif;vmonf? odk@aomf ,cktcgwGif t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief; jzpfay: wdk;wufr_onf yxr - t&if;tESD;udk zefwD;+yD; xkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pkrsm;rSm ,cifu r&Sdbl;onfhtqifhxd us,fjyef@wdk;yGm;vmumenf;emrsm;uvnf; tcsdefwdktwGif; tuef@towfr&Sd trsm;tjym;wdk;rsm;vm&eftvG,fwulwnf&Sdvmonfhtcg?kwd,-Txkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pkrsm; "e&Siftenf;i,f. vufxJwGifom pk+yKHa&muf&Sdae+yD;vltajrmuftjrm;uawmh ypPnf;rJhtqifhodk@ ydkIydkI av#mhusvm+yD;‚wdk@. tajctaersm;onf "e&Sifrsm;. ºu,f0csrf;omr_ wdk;rsm;vmonfh tcsKd;tpm;ESifh nDr#pGm ydkIqif;&JkuQa&mufvmum rcHr&yfEdkifjzpfvmonfhtcg/ wwd,- Twefcdk; owWd}uD;rm;+yD; tvG,fwul us,fjyef@wdk;yGm;Edkifonfhxkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pkrsm;onf,cktcsdefxdyk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ESifh "e&Sifvlwef;pm;xuf ausmfvGef}uD;xGm;vmum ‚wdk@utcsdefra&G; vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taetxm;tm; t=urf;wrf; qHk;aomqlylaESmifh,Sufr_rsm; jzpfay:apvmaomtcg - ,cktcsdefrSmom Ttcsuftvufrsm;atmufwGif yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;a&;onfjzpfvmEdkifacs &Sdvm±kHru vHk;0vdktyfr_vnf; jzpfvmayonf?ar;cGef; 16? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;a&;udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;rsm;ar;cGef; 16? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;a&;udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;rsm;ar;cGef; 16? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;a&;udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;rsm;ar;cGef; 16? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;a&;udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;rsm;ar;cGef; 16? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;a&;udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;rsm;jzifh vkyfaqmifEdkifovm;´?jzifh vkyfaqmifEdkifovm;´?jzifh vkyfaqmifEdkifovm;´?jzifh vkyfaqmifEdkifovm;´?jzifh vkyfaqmifEdkifovm;´?tajz? TuJhodk@ jzpfvmEdkifygu tvGefvdkvm;p&mjzpf+yD; Ttcsufudk qef@usifolrsm;teufuGefjrLepfrsm;onfrkcsyifaemufqHk;rSjzpfygvdrfhrnf?v#Kd@0Suf}uHpnfr_rsm;rSefor#rSmtoHk;rus±kHrutEW&m,fyif&Sdao;a=umif;uGefjrLepfrsm;uodonf? olwdk@u awmfvSefa&;rsm;rSm qEN&Sdwdkif;xvkyfwmrsKd;
  20. 20. 18t&rf;uma&mvkyfwmrsKd; r[kwfbJ ygwDtoD;oD;ESifh vlwef;pm;rsm;tm;vHk;. pdwfqENESifh !¸ef=um;csufrsm;ESifh vHk;0rywfoufaom tajctae. vdktyfonfh tusKd;quftjzpfom ae&mwumESifh tcsdefwdkif;rSmjzpfay:vmEdkifa=umif;udkaumif;aumif;}uD; od=uygonf? odk@aomf olwdk@u,Ofaus;wdk; wuf+yD; EdkifiHtm;vHk;eD;yg;&Sd ypPnf;rJhrsm;. jzpfay: wdk;wufr_onf t=urf; zufzdESdyfjcif;cH&+yD; Tenf;jzifhuGefjrLepfrsm;.twdkuftcHrsm;onf‚wdk@tpGrf;&Sdor#jzifhawmfvSefa&;qDodk@ydk@aqmifaea=umif; udkvnf; awG@jrif=uygonf? odk@jzifh tzdESdyfcHypPnf;rJhrsm;rSm tqHk;wae@wGifawmf vSefa&;qDodk@ wGef;ydk@jcif;cH&onfhtcsdef u|efawmfwdk@ uGefjrLepfrsm;onfypPnf;rJhrsm;.ta&;awmfyHkudk,cktcgrSmu|efawmfwdk@pum;vHk;rsm;ESifh umuG,faeouJhodk@ xdktcsdefwGif tvkyfjzifh umuG,foGm;=urnf?ar;cGef; 17? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;&mrSm wcsufwnf;ESifh jzpfEdkifar;cGef; 17? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;&mrSm wcsufwnf;ESifh jzpfEdkifar;cGef; 17? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;&mrSm wcsufwnf;ESifh jzpfEdkifar;cGef; 17? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;&mrSm wcsufwnf;ESifh jzpfEdkifar;cGef; 17? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;&mrSm wcsufwnf;ESifh jzpfEdkifygovm;´?ygovm;´?ygovm;´?ygovm;´?ygovm;´?tajz? rjzpfEdkifay? wnf&SdqJ xkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pkrsm;tm; trsm;ydkifvl@ tzGJ@tpnf; zefwD;wnfaxmif&eftwGuf vdktyfaomtqifhodk@ wcsufwnf;ESifh rwdk;csJ@EdkifouJhodk@yif jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh jzpfEdkifacsta=umif;tm;vHk;ESifh csOf;uyfeD;pyfvmonfh ypPnf;rJhawmfvSefa&;onf vdktyfonfhxkwfvkyfa&;ypPnf;rsm;udkvHkavmufaomta&twGufxdzefwD;+yD;rS omv#if wnf&SdqJ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk ajymif;vJapEdkif+yD; yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udktqifh&Sd&Sd zsufodrf; Edkifygvdrfhrnf?aaaaar;cGef; 18? TawmfvSefa&;. a&S@vrf;a=umif; rnfodk@&Sdygoenf;´?r;cGef; 18? TawmfvSefa&;. a&S@vrf;a=umif; rnfodk@&Sdygoenf;´?r;cGef; 18? TawmfvSefa&;. a&S@vrf;a=umif; rnfodk@&Sdygoenf;´?r;cGef; 18? TawmfvSefa&;. a&S@vrf;a=umif; rnfodk@&Sdygoenf;´?r;cGef; 18? TawmfvSefa&;. a&S@vrf;a=umif; rnfodk@&Sdygoenf;´?tajz? t"dutm;jzifh TawmfvSefa&;u Drdkua&pDzGJ@pnf;yHkDrdkua&pDzGJ@pnf;yHkDrdkua&pDzGJ@pnf;yHkDrdkua&pDzGJ@pnf;yHkDrdkua&pDzGJ@pnf;yHkw&yfffffudk wnf axmifrSm jzpf+yD; Tenf;jzifh ypPnf;rJhrsm;. EdkifiHa&;tkyfcsKyfr_udk wdkuf±kduf aomfvnf;aumif;/ oG,f0dkufIaomfvnf;aumif; xlaxmifygvdrfhrnf? wdkuf±kduftaejzifh ypPnf;rJhrsm;u vlxkxJrSm trsm;pkjzpfaeonfh t*FvefwGifjzpfonf? oG,f0dkufIqdk&v#if trsm;pkvlxk}uD;xJrSm ypPnf;rJhrsm;omru,cktcg ypPnf;rJhrsm;tjzpf usqif;vm+yD; ‚wdk@.EdkifiHa&; tusKd;pD;yGm;tm;ypPnf;rJhrsm;tay:ydkIydkIrSDcdkvm&+yD;xdk@a=umifhypPnf;rJhrsm;.awmif;qdkcsufrsm;ESifhrdrdwdk@udk,frdrdwdk@qDav#mfoifhawmfvmEdkifonfhv,form;av;rsm;ESifh "e&Sifaygufprsm;yg yg0ifaom jyifopfESifh *smreDwdk@wGif
  21. 21. 19jzpfonf? TtwGuf kwd,wdkufyGJ vdktyfaumif;vdktyfEdkifaomfvnf;tusKd;jzpfxGef;r_uawmh ypPnf;rJhrsm;. atmifyGJomv#if jzpfayvdrfhrnf?ypPnf;rJhrsm;tzdk@ Drdkua&pDqdkonftm; yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udkwdkufzsufonfhae&mrSmESifh ypPnf;rJhrsm;. aexdkifr_b0udk tmrcHonfhae&mrsm;rSm toHk;ðyaomenf;emrsm;tjzpf wdkuf±kduftoHk;rðyEdkifv#ifrnfonfhwefzdk;r# r&Sdacs? wnf&SdqJqufqHa&;rsm;. vdktyfaom tusKd;qufrsm;tjzpfay:xGufvmaomt"duajcvSrf;rsm;rSmatmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf?1? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk taumuftcGefrsm; wdk;wufaumuf,ljcif;/ tarGcHtcGef}uD;av;pGm aumufcHjcif;/ nDtudkarmifESrrsm;rSwqifhqif;oufaom (nD/ wl pojzifh) tarGcHpm;cGifh y,fzsufjcif;/ zdtm;ay;acs;,ljcif; pojzifhwdk@jzifh uef@owfjcif;?2? ajrydkif&Sifrsm;/ puf±kHydkif&Sifrsm;/ oabmFESifh rD;&xm; vkyfief;&Sif}uD;rsm;xHrS ‚wdk@ydkif ypPnf;rsm;udk EdkifiHawmfpufr_ vkyfief;rsm;ESifh+ydKifqdkifjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ tmrcHpmcsKyfrsm;o¿mefjzifh avsmfa=u;rsm; ay;jcif;jzifh vnf;aumif;/ wjznf;jznf; odrf;,ljcif;?3? jynfolvlxktrsm;pk}uD;udk qef@usifonfh jynfajy;rsm;ESifholykefrsm;. ypPnf;rsm;udk odrf;,ljcif;?4? trsm;ydkifajrrsm;/ tvkyf±kHESifh puf±kHrsm;wGif ypPnf;rJhrsm;udktvkyfcef@tyfjcif;ESifh tvkyform;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; xlaxmifjcif;jzifhvkyfom;rsm;t=um; +ydKifqdkifr_udk tqHk;owfapjcif;/ tvkyf±kHydkif&Sifrsm;udk ‚tcsdeftxd qufvuf&Sdaeao;ygu EdkifiHawmfu axmufyHhxm;onfh vpmE_ef;jrifhtwdkif; ay;aqmifap&rnf?5? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ vHk;0zsufodrf;+yD;onfhtcsdeftxd vl@tzGJ@tpnf;0if tm;vHk;tm; tvkyfvkyf&ef wlnDaom wm0ef0wW&m;&Sdjcif;/pufr_wyfzGJ@rsm; txl;ojzifh v,f,mtwGuf zGJ@pnf;jcif;?6? EdkifiHawmft&if;tESD;jzifh EdkifiHawmfb%frsm;rSwqifh twdk;E_ef;ESifh aiGa=u;xkwfvkyfjzef@jzL;r_pepfudk EdkifiHawmfvufxJwGif pkpnf;jcif;ESifh yk*~vdub%frsm;ESifh b%folaÏ;tm;vHk;udk zdESdyfjcif;?7? EdkifiHawmfydkif puf±kHrsm;/ tvkyf±kHrsm;/ rD&xm;ESifh oabFm
  22. 22. 20ta&twGufudk wdk;jr‡ifhjcif;/ xGef,ufpdkufysKd;&ef v,fajropfrsm;azmfjcif;ESifh xGef,ufpdkufysKd;+yD; v,fajrrsm;udk wdk;wufaumif;rGefapjcif;-tm;vHk;onf EdkifiHawmf. pDrHcef@cGJr_atmufu vkyftm;pGrf;tm;pkESifht&if;tESD; }uD;xGm;r_ESifh nDr#onfh tcsKd;tpm;twdkif; jzpf&rnf?8? EdkifiHawmf. ukefusp&dwfjzifh EdkifiHawmf. tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wGif uav;oli,ftm;vHk; rdcif&ifcGifrS xGufcGmEdkifonfh tcsdefrSp+yD; ynmoif=um;cGifh/ ynmoif=um;jcif;ESifh xkwfvkyfa&; twlwuG vkyfaqmifjcif;?9? EdkifiHawmfydkifajrrsm;ESifh eef;awmf}uD;rsm;udk pufr_vkyfief;ESifhv,f,mvkyfief;wdk@rSm yg0ifvkyfaqmifaeonfh EdkifiHawmfom; toif;tpk rsm;twGuf trsm;ydkifaetdrfrsm;tjzpf wnfaqmufay;+yD; ‚wdk@.aexdkifr_b0twGif; +rdK@ESifhaus;vuftajctae ta=umif;tcsufrsm;udkaygif;pyfay;jcif;/ wzufwGifvnf; wOD;OD;. wzufowfusr_ESifh tm;enf;csufrsm;udk z,f&Sm;ay;&rnf?10?+rdK@ae&yfuGufrsm;&Sdusef;rma&;ESifhrudkufnDaomjzpfuwwfqef;caemfceJ@wnfaqmufxm;onfhtaqmuftODrsm;udk +zdKzsufypfjcif;?11? tdrfaxmifb0rsm;rS arG;zGm;vmonfh uav;rsm;tm;wlnDonfh tarGqufcHEdkifcGifh &Sdapjcif;?12? o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;tm;vHk;udk EdkifiHawmf. vufxJwGifpkpnf;xm;&Sdjcif;?trSefyif TtpDtpOfrsm;tm;vHk;udk wcsDwnf; taumiftxnf azmfvkyfaqmif&ef rjzpfEdkifacs? odk@aomfvnf; wck.aemufwGifaemufwck t+rJygvmayvdrfhrnf? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_tay: yxrqHk;aomtjywftowf wdkufyGJpwifqifE$JvdkufonfESifh w+ydKifeuf ypPnf;rJhrsm;tzdk@a&S@odk@wdk;&ef t&if;tESD;tm;vHk;/ pdkufysKd;a&;tm;vHk;/ pufr_vkyfief;tm;vHk;/o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;tm;vHk;/ukefoG,fa&;tm;wdk@udk EdkifiHawmfvufxJwGifydk+yD;pkpnf;,l&ef zdtm;ay;jcif;cH&a=umif; udk,fhudk,fudk awG@vm& ayvdrfhrnf? txufrSm azmfjycJhaom ajcvSrf;rsm; tm;vHk;onf T&nfrSef;csufodk@ !¸efjy aeonf? aemuf+yD; ypPnf;rJhrsm;. vkyftm;jzifh wdkif;jynf.xkwfvkyfa&; tiftm;pkrsm; jzpfay: wdk;yGm;vmonfh tcsKd;tpm;ESifh tnD
  23. 23. 21tr# ‚wdk@onf taumiftxnfazmfvmum ‚wdk@. pkpnf;onfhtusKd;tmedoifrsm;vnf; wdk;wufjzpfay:vmygvdrfhrnf? tqHk;wae@t&if;tESD;tm;vHk;/ xkwfvkyfa&; tm;vHk;/ zvS,fr_tm;vHk; EdkifiHawmf.vufwGif; pk+yHKa&muf&Sd oGm;onfhtcg yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_onf tvdktavsmuf aysmufuG,foGm;um tojymqdk onfrSmvnf; ydkv#Hae/ xkwfvkyf a&;rsm;vnf; tvGefwdk;wufvm+yD; vlrsm;vnf; tvGefajymif;vJukefrnf? odk@jzifh qufqHa&;a[mif;. aemufqHk; o¿mefrsm;vnf; cGmypfvkdufovkd uGmxGufoGm;ayvdrfhrnf?ar;cGef; 19? TawmfvSefa&;onf wdkif;jynfwjynfxJwGif jzpfEdkifacs&Sd ygovm;´?ar;cGef; 19? TawmfvSefa&;onf wdkif;jynfwjynfxJwGif jzpfEdkifacs&Sd ygovm;´?ar;cGef; 19? TawmfvSefa&;onf wdkif;jynfwjynfxJwGif jzpfEdkifacs&Sd ygovm;´?ar;cGef; 19? TawmfvSefa&;onf wdkif;jynfwjynfxJwGif jzpfEdkifacs&Sd ygovm;´?ar;cGef; 19? TawmfvSefa&;onf wdkif;jynfwjynfxJwGif jzpfEdkifacs&Sd ygovm;´?tajz? rjzpfEdkifay? urBmhaps;uGufudk zefwD;jcif;jzifh t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;uurBm ay:&Sd jynfolvlxkrsm; txl;ojzifh ,Ofaus;wdk;wuf+yD;olrsm;udktvGefeD;uyfpGm qufpyfay;cJhonf? eD;uyfvdkufor#rSm wOD;tjzpftysufu aemufwOD;tay: *,ufr±kdufbJ raeavmufatmifyifjzpfonf? ‚tjyif/ ‚u ,Ofaus;wdk;wuf+yD; EdkifiHtm;vHk;wGif "e&SifESifhypPnf;rJhwdk@onf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. tqHk;tjzwf vlwef;pm;ESpf&yftjzpfa&muf&Sdvm+yD; ‚wdk@t=um; wdkufyGJonf ,ae@t"duwdkufyGJtqifhodk@a&muf&Sdap&ef vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wdk;wuf jzpfay:r_udk wGJzuf!‡dE_dif;ay;vdkufygonf? xdk@a=umifh uGefjrLepfawmfvSefa&;onf EdkifiH wckwnf;.jyemr[kwfawmhacs? ,Ofaus;wdk;wuf+yD; wdkif;jynfrsm; tm;vHk;wGiftenf;qHk;ajym&v#if t*Fvef/ tar&duef/ jyifopfESifh *smr%/Dwdk@wGifw+ydKifwnf; jzpfay:ayvdrfhrnf? wdkif;jynfwjynf odk@r[kwf tjcm; wjynfwGif&Sdonfh ydkIjzpf ay:wdk;wufaeonfh pufr_vkyfief; ydkrdkrsm;jym;onfh"eOpPmrsm; ydkrdkxl;jcm;onfh xkwfvkyfa&; tiftm;pk tpkta0;rsm;ESifhtnD Twdkif;jynf wjynfcsif;onf ydkrdkvsifjrefpGmaomfvnf;aumif;/ ydkIaES;pGmaomfvnf;aumif; jzpfay:wdk;wufvdrfhrnf?xdk@a=umifh *smr%DwGif taES;qHk;jzpf+yD;/ tcuftcJ trsm;qHk; &ifqdkif&rnfjzpf+yD; t*FvefwGif tjrefqHk;ESifh tvG,fqHk;jzpfvdrfhrnf? ‚onfurBmhtjcm;EdkifiHrsm;udk tiftm;}uD;rm;aom =oZm*,ufrsm;±dkufap+yD;,ae@txd ‚wdk@.jzpf ay:wdk;yGm;r_ vrf;a=umif;tm; tajccHrSpI jyKjyifajymif;vJ+yD; t&Sdefwdk;jr‡ifhay;vdrfhrnf? ,if;onf wurBmvHk;qdkif&m
  24. 24. 22awmfvSefa&;jzpf+yD; xdk@a=umifhyif urBmhtwdkif;twmaqmifayvdrfhrnf?ar;cGef; 20? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ aemufqHk;zsufodrf;jcif;. tusKd;qufar;cGef; 20? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ aemufqHk;zsufodrf;jcif;. tusKd;qufar;cGef; 20? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ aemufqHk;zsufodrf;jcif;. tusKd;qufar;cGef; 20? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ aemufqHk;zsufodrf;jcif;. tusKd;qufar;cGef; 20? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ aemufqHk;zsufodrf;jcif;. tusKd;qufrsm;um; tb,fenf;´?rsm;um; tb,fenf;´?rsm;um; tb,fenf;´?rsm;um; tb,fenf;´?rsm;um; tb,fenf;´?tajz? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;onf yk*~vdu t&if;&Sifrsm;vufxJrS xkwfvkyfa&; tiftm;pk rsm;tm;vHk;ESifh ukefoG,fr_vkyfief;tm;vHk; xdk@tjyif aiGa=u;vJvS,fr_ESifhukefypPnf;jzef@a0r_rsm;udkodrf;,lvdkuf+yD;vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;.vkdtyfcsufrsm;ESifh &Edkifonfh t&if;tjrpfrsm;tay: tajccHaom pDrHudef;ESifhtnDpDrHcef@cGJ vdrfhrnf? Tenf;jzifh ta&;t}uD;qHk;uawmh t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;. vkyf&yfa=umifh ,cktcg yl;wGJygvmonfh raumif;aom tusKd;qufrsm; zsufodrf;jcif;cH&ayvdrfhrnf? pD;yGm;a&;uyfrsm;vnf; &Sdawmhrnfr[kwfacs? vuf&Sd vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; xkwfvkyfa&;ydkv#Hr_jzpfumxdk@a=umifh kuQrsm; . t"duta=umif;&if; jzpfaeaom us,fjyef@wdk;yGm;vmonfh xkwfvkyfa&;rSm xdktcsdefwGif rvHkravmufjzpfum ydkrdkwdk;csJ@&efydkrdkvdktyfvmvdrfhrnf? xkwfvkyfa&;ydkv#Hr_onf kuQqif;&Jrsm;udk jzpfay:aprnfhtpm; tm;vHk;. vdktyfr_udk auseyfEdkifap&eftwGuf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. tjccHvdktyfcsufrsm;xuf ausmfvGefoGm;ayrnf? vdktyfcsuftopfrsm;ESifh wcsdefwnf; ,if;wdk@udk jynfh0jznfhqnf;Edkifrnfh enf;emrsm;udk zefwD;vdrfhrnf? ‚onf wdk;wufr_ topf. ta=umif;tcsufESifhv_H@aqmf csufjzpfvmrSmjzpf+yD; Twdk;wufr_udk a&S;,cifuvdk vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taetxm;tm; ±_yfaxG;r_jzpfapjcif;rsKd; r&SdbJESifh &&Sdvdrfhrnf?yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ zdtm;atmufrS vGwfajrmufvmonfh t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;onf ukefxkwfvkyfcif;tqifhESifh vuf&Sdtqifhwdk@. uGm;jcm;r_rsKd;uGm;jcm;aom vuf&Sdtqifhxuf us,fjyef@onxuff us,fjyef@ wdk;yGm;r_jzpfvmvdrfhrnf? Tpufr_vkyfief; jzpfay:wdk;wufr_u vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGuf tm;vHk;. vdktyfcsufrsm;udk auseyfapEdkifonfh txGufypPnf;tajrmuftjrm;tvHktavmuf &&SdapEdkifygvdrfhrnf? yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_ESifhajr,mtm; tuGufvdkufpdwfydkif;xm;r_. %fudkcHpm;&onfh pdkufysKd;a&;wGifvnf; tvm;wljzpfvmygvdrfhrnf? Tae&mwGif wnf&Sdaeonfhwdk;wufr_rsm;ESifh ody`Henf;us tpDtpOfrsm;udk vufawG@taumiftxnfazmf+yD;vHk;0opfvGifonfhDa&jrifhw&yfjzpfay:apumvHkavmufaom
  25. 25. 23txGufypPnf;tajrmuftjrm;udkvl@tzGJ@tpnf;uoHk;pGJ&efay;tyfvdrfhrnf?Tenf;jzifh ukefypPnf; tajrmuftrsm; xkwfvkyfum vl@tzGJ@tpnf;taeESifh tzGJ@tpnf;0if tm;vHk;. vdktyfcsufrsm;tm;vHk;udk &&SdauseyfapEdkifygvdrfhrnf? vl@tzGJ@ tpnf;twGif; tjyeftvSef&efapmifaeaomvlwef;pm;rsm;tjzpf uGJjym;aer_onfvnf; Tenf;jzifh rvdktyfbJjzpfvmvdrfhrnf?trSefyifTonfrvdktyf±kHr#ruvlr_tzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&mtaetxm;topfESifhvnf; roifhav#mf rqDav#mfawmhacs? vkyftm;cGJa0r_u vlwef;pm;rsm; jzpfwnf vmr_udk ay:aygufapcJh+yD; ,cktcsdefxdodem;vnfvmcJh=uonfh vkyftm;cGJa0r_rSm vHk;0aysmufuG,f oGm;ayvdrfhrnf?pufr_vkyfief;ESifhv,f,mvkyfief;xkwfvkyfa&;wdk@udku|efawmfwdk@azmfjycJhwJh tqifhxd a&muf&Sdap&eftwGuf puf,EW&m;ESifh "mwkypPnf;ud&d,mrsm;ESifhom vHk avmufEdkifjcif;r&SdbJ Tud&d,mrsm;udk v_yf&Sm;aeaponfh vlrsm;. pGrf;&nfonfvnf; tvm;wlpGm jzpfay:wdk;wufvmayrnf? aemufqHk; &mpkESpf (q,fh&Spf&mpk) . v,form;rsm;ESifhukefxkwfvkyfr_ vkyfcif;vkyfom;rsm;rSm t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;twGif;twif;wGef;ydk@jcif; cH&onfhtcg ‚wdk@. aexdkifr_b0wckvHk; ajymif;oGm;+yD; uGJjym;jcm;em;onfh vlrsm; jzpfoGm;ouJhodk@ xdkenf;vnf;aumif;yJxkwfvkyfa&;udkvl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;utrsm;ydkifcsKyfudkifaqmif&Gufr_jzifhjzpfay:vmonfh xkwfvkyfa&; jzpfay:wdk;wufr_ topfonf vHk;0uGJjym;jcm;em;onfh vlom;trsKd;tpm;rsm;udk vdkvnf;vdktyf jzpfvnf;jzpfxGef;vmapvdrfhrnf?,cktcsdefumvrSmvdkvlwOD;wa,muf[mxkwfvkyfa&;XmecGJwck vufatmufcHjzpfae&jcif;/ ‚&J@tcsKyftaESmifcH/ aoG;pkyfcHae&+yD;jcif;/ rdrdpGrf; &nfrsm;xJrS tjcm;t&mrsm;pGef@v$wfum wckwckwckwckwckudkomjzpfay: wdk;wuf apEdkifjcif;/ vkyfief;cGJwckwckwckwckwckodk@r[kwfxkwfvkyfa&;wckvHk;.vkyfief;cGJwck. tcGJwckudkom od&Sdem;vnfjcif; jzpfaev#if xkwfvkyfa&;udk trsm;ydkifcsKyf udkifaqmif&GufEdkifr_ rjyKEdkifay? vuf&Sdpufr_vkyfief;rSmyifv#if TuJhodk@aom vlrsKd;rsm;onf ydkIydkI toHk;rwnfhjzpfvma=umif; awG@vmae&onf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;taejzifhcsKyfudkifaqmif&Gufaom pDrHudef;&Sdonfh trsm;ydkifpufr_vkyfief;onfvlom;rsm;udkbufrsm;pGmYt&nftcsif;&Sd+yD;xkwfvkyfa&;pepfwckvHk;udk
  26. 26. 24=unfh=uyfEdkifonfh pGrf;&nf&Sdolrsm;tjzpf awmif;qdkayonf?v,form;uwa,muf/ zdeyfcsKyform;u aemufwa,muf/ puf±kHvkyfom;uwwd,wa,muf/ pawmhaps;upm;olu pwkwˆwa,muf pojzifhcGJypfvdkufonfh vkyftm;cGJa0r_onf puf,E W&m;. +zdKzsufjcif;cHvdkuf&+yD;jzpfum vHk;0aysmufuG,foGm;ygvdrfhrnf? vli,frsm;udk ynma&;uxkwf vkyfa&;pepfwckvHk;ESifh u|rf;usifr_tvsiftjref &SdapEdkifrnfjzpf+yD;vl@tzGJ@ tpnf;. vdktyfr_udk wkH@jyefaomtm;jzifhvnf; aumif;/ rdrdqENt&vnf;aumif;/ xkwfvkyfa&;XmecGJwckrS wckodk@qufwdkuf ul;ajymif;oGm;Edkifvdrfhrnf?xdk@a=umifh‚onf,ae@vkyftm;cGJa0r_uvlwdkif;tay:wHqdyf±kdufESdyfxm;onfhwzufoufvuQ%mrSolwdk@tm;vGwfajrmufapayvdrfhrnf? uGefjrLepftajccHay:Y zGJ@pnf;xm;onfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;onfTenf;jzifh‚.tzGJ@0ifrsm;udk‚wdk@.bufpHkawmfaomt&nftaoG;rsm;udk bufpHktoHk;csEdkif&ef tcGifhta&;rsm;udk ay;tyfvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfTodk@jzpfay:vmyguvlwef;pm;rsm;rv$J{uefaysmufuG,foGm;vdrfhrnf?uGefjrLepftajccHay: zGJ@pnf;xm;onfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;onf wzufwGifvlwef;pm;rsm; wnf&Sdaer_ESifh o[Zmw rjzpfEdkifbJ/ wzufwGifvnf;‚vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk wnfaqmufjcif;uyifv#if vlwef;pm; uGJjym;r_ukdzsufodrf;onfhenf;emrsm; ay;tyfayvdrfhrnf?‚rS&&Sdonfh tcsufwcsufuawmh +rdK@ESifhawmt=um; uGJjym;r_onfvnf; tvm;wl aysmufuG,foGm;vdrfhrnf qdkjcif;yif jzpfonf?pdkufysKd;a&;ESifh pufr_vkyfief;vnfywfa&;udk rwlnDwJh vlwef;pm;ESpf&yfuvkyfonfhtpm; vlwpkwnf;uom vkyfaqmifr_onf ±kyf0wˆKta=umif;oufoufjzpfygu uGefjrLepftzGJ@tpnf;twGuf vdktyfaom ta=umif;tcsufw&yfjzpfonf? +rdK@}uD;rsm;u pufr_vlOD;a& jynfhusyfxlxyfvmjcif;ESifhtwl v,fajrrsm;rS pdkufysKd;onfhvlOD;a& jyef@usJaer_onfv,f,m pdkufysKd;a&;ESifh pufr_vkyfief; ESpfckpvHk;. rzGH@+zdK;aomtqifhESifhvdkufavsmnDaxGaom ta=umif;tcsufw&yfjzpf+yD; a&S@jzpfay:wdk;wufr_tm;vHk;twGuf twm;tqD; w&yfjzpfa=umif; jrifomod&Sd+yD;jzpfonf?xkwfvkyfa&; tiftm;pkrsm;udk pDrHudef;uspkaygif; tpGrf;ukeftoHk;+yKa&; &nf&G,fcsufjzifh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;0iftm;vHk;. taxGaxG
  27. 27. 25yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_/ xkwfvkyfa&;u tm;vHk;.vdktyfr_udk jynfh0 auseyfapEdkifonfh tqifhtxd us,fjyef@wdk;yGm;vmr_/ vlwOD;wa,muf. vdktyfr_udk tepfemtqHk;±_H;cHrSom tjcm;olwOD;. vdktyfr_udk jynfhpHkapEdkifonfh tajctaetqHk;owfoGm;r_/ vlwef;pm;rsm;ESifh ‚wdk@. yËdyuQrsm; vHk;0ausjyKef;oGm;r_/ vuf&Sdvkyftm;cGJa0r_udk y,fzsufjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ pufr_vkyfief; ynma&;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udkwvSnfhpD ajymif;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ wurBmvHk;u xkwfvkyfonfh aysmf&Gifr_ tzHkzHkudk wurBmvHk;cGJa0cHpm;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ +rdK@ESifhawmudkyl;aygif; ay;vdkufjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;0if tm;vHk;wdk@&J@pGrf;&nfowWdrsm;udk tjynfht0jzpfay: wdk;wufr_- Tt&mrsm;onfyk*~vdu ydkifqdkifr_udk zsufodrf;jcif;jzifh &&Sdvmonfh t"du tusKd;qufrsm; jzpfayonf?ar;cGef; 21? uGefjrLepfpepf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;u tdrfaxmifpktay: rnfuJh odk@aomr;cGef; 21? uGefjrLepfpepf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;u tdrfaxmifpktay: rnfuJh odk@aomr;cGef; 21? uGefjrLepfpepf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;u tdrfaxmifpktay: rnfuJh odk@aomr;cGef; 21? uGefjrLepfpepf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;u tdrfaxmifpktay: rnfuJh odk@aomr;cGef; 21? uGefjrLepfpepf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;u tdrfaxmifpktay: rnfuJh odk@aom=oZm*,uf ±dkufcwfEdkifoenf;´?=oZm*,uf ±dkufcwfEdkifoenf;´?=oZm*,uf ±dkufcwfEdkifoenf;´?=oZm*,uf ±dkufcwfEdkifoenf;´?=oZm*,uf ±dkufcwfEdkifoenf;´?tajz? ‚u a,musfm;ESifh rdef;rqufqHa&;udpPtm; oufqdkifolESpfOD;ESifhomoufqdkifonfh udk,fa&;udkwm jyemoufoufr#om jzpfap+yD; TtxJwGif vl@tzGJ@tpnf;u =um;0ifjcif; rjzpfap&ay? ‚u yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk zsufodrf;ypf+yD;/ uav;rsm;udk trsm;ydkiftajccHay:wGifynmay;xm; onfh twGuf Tvkyfief;udk vkyfaqmifEdkifjcif;jzpfumTenf;jzifh ,ae@txd wnf&Sdaeonfh xdrf;jrm;jcif;. tajccHESpfck-yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_rS tusKd;tjzpf ay:vmonfh ZeD;u cifyGef;tay:rSDcdk&r_ESifhuav;rsm;u rdbtay: rSDcdk&r_udk z,f&Sm;ypfayvdrfhrnf? TonfrSmudk,fusifhw&m;pum; tifrwef ajymcsifonfh evAdef;wHk;rsm; atmf[pfavh&Sdonfh uGefjrLepfrsm;. “trsKd;orD;rs;udk bHkydkifqdkifr_” qdkaom±_wfcsoHudk ay;vdkufwJh tajzw&yf yifjzpfonf? trsKd;orD;rsm;tm;bHkydkifqdkifr_rSm "e&SiftzGJ@tpnf;ESifhom vHk;0oufqdkifonfh tajctaew&yfjzpf+yD; Ttcsufudk ,ae@jynfhwefqm vkyfief;wGif tjynfht0awG@&SdEdkifygonf?odk@aomfjynfhwefqm vkyfief;onfyk*~vduydkifqdkifr_tay:tajccH+yD; ‚ESifhtwl usqHk;&onf? xdk@a=umifh uGefjrLepfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;onftrsKd;orD;bHkydkifqdkifr_udk rðyvkyfonfhtjyif wu,frSm ‚udk
  28. 28. 26zsufodrf;ypfygonf?ar;cGef; 22? uGefjrLepfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;u wnf&SdqJtrsKd;om;rsm;ty:ar;cGef; 22? uGefjrLepfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;u wnf&SdqJtrsKd;om;rsm;ty:ar;cGef; 22? uGefjrLepfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;u wnf&SdqJtrsKd;om;rsm;ty:ar;cGef; 22? uGefjrLepfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;u wnf&SdqJtrsKd;om;rsm;ty:ar;cGef; 22? uGefjrLepfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;u wnf&SdqJtrsKd;om;rsm;ty:rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;ygoenf;´?rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;ygoenf;´?rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;ygoenf;´?rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;ygoenf;´?rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;ygoenf;´?tajz? rajymif;vJyg4?ar;cGef; 23? wnf&SdqJ bmoma&;rsm;tay: rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;ar;cGef; 23? wnf&SdqJ bmoma&;rsm;tay: rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;ar;cGef; 23? wnf&SdqJ bmoma&;rsm;tay: rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;ar;cGef; 23? wnf&SdqJ bmoma&;rsm;tay: rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;ar;cGef; 23? wnf&SdqJ bmoma&;rsm;tay: rnfuJhodk@ oabmxm;oenf;´?oenf;´?oenf;´?oenf;´?oenf;´?tajz? rajymif;vJyg5?ar;cGef; 24? uGefjrLepfrsm;onf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;oenf;?´ar;cGef; 24? uGefjrLepfrsm;onf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;oenf;?´ar;cGef; 24? uGefjrLepfrsm;onf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;oenf;?´ar;cGef; 24? uGefjrLepfrsm;onf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;oenf;?´ar;cGef; 24? uGefjrLepfrsm;onf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;ESifh rnfodk@uGJjym;oenf;?´tajz? qdk&S,fvpfqdkolrsm;wGif oHk;rsKd;oHk;pm;&Sdonf?yxr trsKd;tpm;uawmh t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;/ urBmhukefoG,fr_·u zsufqD;jcif;cH&+yD;jzpfum ,cktxdvnf; ae@pOfESifhtr#zsufqD;jcif;cHae&onfh yao&mZfESifh tz}uD;pdk;wJh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wdk@.aemufvdkufrsm; yg0ifonf? TtrsKd;tpm;u wnf&SdqJ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;.raumif;r_rsm;udk=unfh+yD; yao&mZfESifh tz}uD;pdk;onfhtzGJ@tpnf;rSmTvdkraumif;r_rsKd;r&SdonfhtwGuf‚wkd@ukdjyefvnfwnfaxmif&rnf[kokH;oyfonf? w&m;aomenf;jzifh jzpfap/ rw&m;aomenf;jzifh jzpfap/‚wkd@. tqkdjyKcsuftm;vkH;onf Tae&mtqkH;okd@ n¸efjyaeygonf?‚wkd@. ygwDtusKd;twGuftm;oGefcGefpdkufvkyf[ef&Sdr_ESifhypPnf;rJhrsm;.qif;&JkuQrsm;tay: rdausmif;rsuf&nfus&r_rsm; tm;vHk;twGuf Tazmufjyefonazmufjyefonazmufjyefonazmufjyefonazmufjyefonfh qdk&S,fvpftrsKd;tpm;udk b,fvdkyJjzpfjzpf uGefjrLepfrsm;u atmufyg ta=umif;rsm;a=umifh wufºupGm qef@usifayvdrfhrnf?1? ‚onf vHk;0rjzpfEdkifonfh udpPwcktwGuf óu;yrf;jcif;?2? ‚onf rif;pdk;&mZmrsm;/ *D;vfvkyfief;&Sifrsm;/ ukefxkwfvkyfr_ vkyfcif;&Sifrsm;ESifh ‚wdk@. ta¹ct&Htoif;tyif;rsm;jzpfonfhoufOD; qHydkif odk@r[kwf yao&mZfbk&ifrsm;/ t&m&Sdrif;rsm;/ ppfom;rsm;ESifh bkef;}uD;rsm;&J@ tkyfcsKyfr_udk xlaxmif&ef&nfrSef;onf? ,if;vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wGif ,ae@vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. raumif;qdk;0g;rsm; r&Sdwm aocsmaomfvnf; tzd ESdyfcH tvkyform;rsm;tm; uGefjrLepf tzGJ@tpnf;rSwqifhvGwfajrmufa&; tvm;tvmudkyif urf;vSrf;jcif;rjyKbJ raumif;r_trsm;tjym;udkom tenf;qHk; o,faqmifvmrnf jzpfonf?
  29. 29. 273?ypPnf;rJhrsm;uawmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;/uGefjrLepfrsm;jzpfvmonftcgwGif Tazmufjyefaom qdk&S,fvpfrsm;onf ypPnf;rJhrsm;udkqef@usifonfh "e&Sifrsm;ESifh ±kwfw&ufcsufcsif; yl;aygif;vdkuf=u+yD; ‚wdk@. wu,fhta&miftaoG;udk azmfjyvdkuf=uawmhonf?kwd,trsKd;tpm;uawmh ,ae@vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. aemufvdkufrsm;jzpf=u+yD;? Tvl@tzGJ@tpnf;u rv$Jra&Smifom ay:xGef;vmaponfhraumif;r_rsm;a=umifh ‚wdk@. tem*wfudk a=umuf&GH@=uolrsm; jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh ‚wdk@ jzpfapcsifonfrSm wnf&SdqJvl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk‚wdk@. arG;&mygraumif;r_rsm; z,f&Sm;+yD; xdef;odrf;xm;a&;jzpfonf?T&nfrSef;csuftwGuf wcsKd@u vlr_0efxrf;enf;em oufoufrsm;ukdwifjy+yD; wcsKd@uawmh [dwf}uD;[ef}uD;ESifh jyefvnfðyjyifa&; pDrHudef;rsm;wifvmonf? ‚wdk@onf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;&efqdkaom[efaqmifr_atmufwGif wu,fawmh wnf&SdqJvl@tzGJ@tpnf; taetxm;. tajccHudk xdef;odrf;&ef xdk@a=umifh ‚.b0udk xdef;odrf;xm;&ef &nf&G,f&if;jzpfonf? T"e&Sifqdk&S,fvp"e&Sifqdk&S,fvp"e&Sifqdk&S,fvp"e&Sifqdk&S,fvp"e&Sifqdk&S,fvpfrsm;onf uGefjrLepfrsm;. &efolrsm;twGuf tvkyfvkyfay;+yD; uGefjrLepfrsm;u wGef;vSef+zdKcs&if &nfrSef;xm;onfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk umuG,faeonfhtwGuf‚wdk@udk uGefjrLepfwdk@u rav#mhwrf; rqkwfwrf; wdkufcdkuf&ygrnf?aemufqHk;? wwd,trsKd;tpm;wGif Drdku&ufwpf qdk&S,fvpfrsm; yg0if+yD; ‚wdk@onf ar;cGef;rl&if;usrf;wGif (Tae&mY uGufvyfusefaeygonf? txufuar;cGef; 18 twGuftajz ESm (16) =unfhyg?æt,fDwm)wGifazmfjycJhonfhtwdkif;uGefjrLepfrsm;wifjyaomenf;emrsm;xJrStcsKd@udk vdkvm;=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; uGefjrLepfpepfodk@ ul;ajymif;r_ tpdwftydkif;tjzpf r[kwfbJ ‚wdk@taeESifh ,ae@ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;&J@ kuQESifh raumif;r_rsm;udk zsufodrf;&ef vHkavmufonfh enf;emrsm;tjzpf ,Hk=unfaeaoma=umifh jzpfonf? TDrdku&uDrdku&uDrdku&uDrdku&uDrdku&ufffffwwwwwpfpfpfpfpf qdk&S,qdk&S,qdk&S,qdk&S,qdk&S,fffffvpfrsmvpfrsmvpfrsmvpfrsmvpfrsm;onf rdrdwdk@vlwef;pm; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf ta=umif;tcsufrsm;udk aoaocsmcsm &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; rod&Sdao;onfh ypPnf;rJhrsm;aomfvnf;aumif;/"e&Sifaygufpudk,fpm;vS,frsm;aomfvnf;aumif;jzpf=uonf?
  30. 30. 28"e&Sifaygufpvlwef;pm;onf Drdkua&pDatmifyGJrwdkifrDESifh ‚atmifyGJu jzpfay:vmaponfh qdk&S,fvpfvkyfief; aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;rwdkifrD ypPnf;rJhrsm;ESifh tusKd;pD;yGm;wlnDr_ trsm;tjym;&Sdonf? v_yf&Sm;r_umvrsm;twGif;wGif uGefjrLepfrsm;onf TDrdku&ufwpf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;ESifh em;vnfr_&atmif,lum Tqdk&S,fvpfrsm;taejzifh tkyfpdk;ol"e&Sifrsm;tm; tvkyftau|;jyK+yD; uGefjrLepfrsm;udk wdkufcdkufjcif;rðyv#ifavmavmq,f tcsdefwGif a,bk,stm;jzifh‚wdk@ESifh wlnDonfhrlrsm;udkwwfEdkifor# vdkufemvkyfaqmif&rnf? TuJhodk@ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_onf ‚wdk@ESifh uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrsm;tay: raqG;aEG;[krqdkvdka=umif; xif&Sm;onf?ar;cGef; 25?ar;cGef; 25?ar;cGef; 25?ar;cGef; 25?ar;cGef; 25? uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh u|efawmwkdacwf wjcm;EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh u|efawmwkdacwf wjcm;EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh u|efawmwkdacwf wjcm;EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh u|efawmwkdacwf wjcm;EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh u|efawmwkdacwf wjcm;EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;rnfuJhodk@aom qufqHa&;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?rnfuJhodk@aom qufqHa&;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?rnfuJhodk@aom qufqHa&;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?rnfuJhodk@aom qufqHa&;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?rnfuJhodk@aom qufqHa&;rsm; &Sdygoenf;´?tajz? TqufqHa&;onf EdkifiHcsif;rwlonfhtavsmuf uGJjym;jcm;em;ygonf?"e&Sifrsm; tkyfcsKyfaeonfh t*Fvef/ jyifopfESifh bJvf*sD,Hwdk@wGif ,ckavmavmq,ftcsdefY uGefjrLepfrsm;tzdk@ Drdkua&pDygwD trsKd;rsKd;wdk@ESifh wlnDonfh tusKd;pD;yGm;rsm; &SdqJjzpfonf? ,cktcg ‚wdk@ckcHumuG,faeaomqdk&S,fvpfenf;emrsm;taejzifh uGefjrLepfrsm;. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifhydkrdkeD;uyfqufpyfvmavavqdkvdkonfrSm‚wdk@taejzifhypPnf;rJhrsm;.tusKd;pD;yGm;udk ydkI&Sif;vif;wduspGm udk,fpm;ðy+yD; ypPnf;rJhrsm;tay: ydkIrSDcdkvmavav TtusKd;pD;yGm;rSm ydkI}uD;rm;vmavav jzpfayvdrfhrnf?Oyrmtm;jzifh t*FvefrSm tvkyform;vlwef;pm; tzGJ@tpnf;0ifrsm;yg0ifaomcsm;wpf6rsm;onfDrdku&ufwpf"e&Sifaygufpodk@r[kwf&ufDu,fqdkolrsm;xuf uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh tqHk;tpr&Sd ydkrkdeD;pyfonf?Drdkua&pDzGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk wnfaxmifxm;onfh tar&tar&tar&tar&tar&dddddueueueueuefffffEdkifiHwGif uGefjrLepfrsm;taejzifh TzGJ@pnf;yHk Oyaudk "e&Sifrsm;tm;wdkufcdkufa&;twGuf vSnfhajymif;rnfhygwDESifh tusKd;wlaygif;&rnfjzpfumypPnf;rJhrsm;. tusKd;twGuf toHk;ðyayvdrfhrnf? TonfrSm trsKd;om;ajr,mjyKjyifa&;orm;rsm;ESifh jzpfonf?qGpfZmvefrS &ufDu,frsm;onf tvGef±_yfaxG;onfh ygwDw&yf jzpfaomfvnf; ‚wdk@rSm ,cktcsdefxd uGefjrLepfrsm;u yl;aygif;
  31. 31. 29Edkifonfh wOD;wnf;aomolrsm; jzpfae+yD; T&ufDu,frsm;xJwGifAkd;òr@om;rsm; (Vaudois)(1070 ckESpfrsm;u jyifopfjynfawmifydkif;wGifwnfaxmif+yD;? 1500 ckESpfrsm;wGif jyefvnfðyjyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;twGif;yg0ifvmonfh c&pf,mef*dk%f;?)ESifh *sDeDAmòr@om;rsm; (Genivese)(qGpfZvefjynf *sDeDAmòr@wGif aexdkif=uolrsm;? bmomjyefol) onftwdk;wufqHk; a&S@wef;ta&mufqHk;olrsm; jzpfonf?aemufqHk;taejzifh *smr%DwGifrl "e&SifESifh oufOD;qHydkif bk&ifpepfwdk@ tqHk;tjzwfwdkufyGJrSm t&Sdefaumif;qJjzpfonf? uGefjrLepfrsm;tzdk@ ‚wdk@ESifh "e&Sifrsm;t=um; tqHk;tjzwfwdkufyGJudk "e&Sifrsm;tm%mr&rD rqifE$JEdkifonfhtwGuf "e&Sifrsm;udk jrefjrefòzcsEdkif&efjrefEdkifor#jrefpGm tm%m&atmif ulnDjcif;onf uGefjrLepfrsm;tzdk@tusKd;&Sdonf? xdk@a=umifh uGefjrLepfrsm;onf tpdk;&rsm;udk qef@usif+yD;"e&Sifvpfb&,fygwDrsm;udk axmufcH&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; "e&Sifrsm;.vdrfvnfvSnfhzsm;r_rsm;udk owd&Sd&rnfjzpfum "e&SifatmifyGJuypPnf;rJhrsm;twGuf o,f,lvmrnfqdkaom qGJaqmifjzm;a,mif;csufuwdrsm;udk em;a,mifroGm;&efjzpfonf? "e&SifatmifyGJrS uGefjrLepfrsm;&&SdEdkifonfh wckwnf;aom tusKd;aus;Zl;rSm -(1) uGefjrLepfrsm;. rlrsm;udkumuG,f/ aqG;aEG;!‡dE_dif;/ 0gjzef@csdEdkif+yD; Tenf;jzifh ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;udk uspfuspfvpfvpf odyfodyf onf;onf; wdkufyGJ0ifEdkifaom pnf;±kH;r_&Sdonfh vlwef;pm;w&yftjzpf pkpnf;ay; Edkifaom tajctaersm;udkwGef;aqmfay;rnfhtcGifhta&;trsKd;rsKd;rsm;?(2) oufOD;qHydkif tpdk;&rsm; usqHk;oGm;onfhae@rSp+yD; "e&SifESifhypPnf;rJhrsm;. wdkufyGJpwifonfh rv$J{uefjzpf&yfwdk@ jzpfonf? xdkae@rSpIuGefjrLepfygwD. ay:vpDonf ,ck"e&Sifrsm; tm%m&aeonfh EdkifiHrsm;&Sd‚wdk@ygwD. ay:vpDESifh twlwlyif jzpfygvdrfhrnf? ?1847 ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGifa&;om;onf?*smrefbmomrS t*FvdyfbmomjyefqdkcsufoD;jcm;pmapmiftjzpf 1914 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0onf?
  32. 32. 30rSwfpkrsm;rSwfpkrsm;rSwfpkrsm;rSwfpkrsm;rSwfpkrsm;1? 1847 ckESpfwGif tdef*,fu uGefjrLepfvd*ftzGJ@twGuf vrf;pOfrl=urf;2 &yfudk tar;tajzo¿mefESifh a&;cJhonf? wckudk ZGefvrSma&;+yD; aemufwckudkatmufwdkbmvrSma&;onf? uGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;uGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;uGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;uGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm;uGefjrLepf0g. rlrsm; qdkonfh kwd,pmwrf;udk1914 ckESpfrSm yxrqHk;t}udrf yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhygonf? tapmydkif;a&;onfh ,Hk=unfcsufESifh ywfoufonfh uGefjrLepfrs;. 0efcHcsufrl=urf;uGefjrLepfrs;. 0efcHcsufrl=urf;uGefjrLepfrs;. 0efcHcsufrl=urf;uGefjrLepfrs;. 0efcHcsufrl=urf;uGefjrLepfrs;. 0efcHcsufrl=urf; pmwrf;udkawmh 1968ckESpfusrS awG@&Sd&ygonf? ‚udk 1969 ckESpf [rfbm*frSm yxrOD;qHk;t}udrf yHkESdyfxkwfa0+yD; uGefjrLepfvd*ftzGJ@. yxruGef*&ufESifh ywfoufonfh pmwrf;av;apmifESifhtwl “uGefjrLepfvd*f tzGJ@wnfaxmifonfh pmwrf;rsm;” qdkaom pmtkyfi,frSm xnfhoGif;xm;onf?uGefjrLepfvd*ftzGJ@wnfaxmifonfh uGef*&ufjzpfaom w&m;r#wr_vd*ftzGJ@. 1847 ZGefv uGef*&ufrSm “,Hk=unfcsufESifh ywfoufonfh 0efcHcsuf”rl=urf;udk a&;qJGxkwfa0+yD; tzGJ@.tpkrsm; aqG;aEG;&efwifoGif;zdk@ qHk;jzwfcJhygonf?,ckrS ay:xGuf vmonfh pmwrf;onf Trl=urf;jzpf&ef tawmfaocsmygonf?pmwrf; ESpfckudk E_dif;,SOf=unfhjcif;jzifh “““““uGefjrLepf0guGefjrLepf0guGefjrLepf0guGefjrLepf0guGefjrLepf0g.rlrsm;”.rlrsm;”.rlrsm;”.rlrsm;”.rlrsm;” onf tapmydkif;a&;onfh pmwrf;udk jykjyif˜jyifqifxm;jcif;om jzpfygonf? “uGefjrLepf0g.rlrsm;”“uGefjrLepf0g.rlrsm;”“uGefjrLepf0g.rlrsm;”“uGefjrLepf0g.rlrsm;”“uGefjrLepf0g.rlrsm;”wGif tdef*,fu ar;cGef;oHk;ckudk rajzbJxm;cJh+yD; ESpfae&mrSmawmh “rajymif;vJyg”qdkonfhrSwfcsuf xnfhxm;um oltapmydkif;u a&;xm;aom pmwrf;xJutajzrsm;udk &nf!¸ef;xm;jcif;jzpfonf?uGefjrLepfvd*ftzGJ@/ yJ&pft0ef;t0dkif;&Sd acgif;aqmifr_tzGJ@. !¸ef=um;csuft& tdef*,fu vkyfief;pOfrl=urf; topfwcka&;qGJcJhonf? 1847 atmufwdkbm 22 &uf aumfrwDtpnf;ta0;wGif tdef*,fu “tppftrSefqdk&S,fvpf” rdkppf[ufpf(Moses Hess) a&;qGJonfh vkyfief;pOfrl=urf;udk jyif;xefpGma0zefcJhonf?xdk@aemuf ,if;rl=urf;udk aumfrwDu y,fcsvdkuf+yD; !¸ef=um;csufudk qHk;jzwfvdkufjcif; jzpfonf?“uGefjrLepf0g.rlrsm;”udky%mrrl=urf;tjzpfqufvufoabmxm;vsuftdef*,furmhufpfqDa&;wJh1847ck/ Ekd0ifbm23-24ae@pGJygpmwGiftar;tajz yHkpHa[mif;}uD;udk jzKwfcsvdkuf+yD; a=unmpmwrf;yHkpHESifh vkyfief;pOfw&yf a&;qGJoifha=umif; ol@tjrifudk a&;om;xm;onf? uGefjrLepf vd*ftzGJ@. kwd,t}udrfuGef*&uf(1847Edk0ifbm29-DZifbm8)wGifrmhufpfESifhtdef*,fwdk@onfuGefjrLepf0g.tajccHody`Henf;usrlrsm;udkumuG,f+yD;uGefjrLepfygwD. a=unmpmwrf;yHkpHESifh
  33. 33. 31vkyfief;pOfa&;qGJ&ef wm0efay;jcif;cH&onf? a=unmpmwrf;udk a&;om;&mrSmrmhufpf0gudk wnf axmifolrsm;onf “uGefjrLepf0g.rlrsm;” wGif zGifhqdkxm;onfhw&m;rsm;udk toHk;ðycJh=uonf?2? aemufydkif;umvrsm;wGif a&;om;onfh ‚wdk@. usrf;rsm;wGifrmhufpfESifh tdef*,fonf “vkyftm;a&mif;csr_” “vkyftm;wefzdk;” ESifh vkyftm;tc(rmhufpf yxrqHk;oHk;cJhonf?) qdkonfh ae&mrsm;wGif ydkrdkwdusonfh t,ltqrsm;jzpfonfh “vkyftm;pGrf;tm; a&mif;csr_” “vkyftm;pGrf;tm; wefzdk;” ESifh “vkyftm;pGrf;tm;tc” qdkonfwdk@udk tpm;xdk;cJhonf?3? “,Hk=unfcsufESifh ywfoufonfh uGefjrLepfrsm;. 0efcHcsuf” rl=urf;wGif Tar;cGef; (eHywf 12) twGuf tajzrSm “vufr_ynmonfuav; qdkolrsm;onf ypPnf;rJhrsm;ESifh rwluGJjym;pGm vGefcJhwJh&mpkESpf (q,fh&Spf&mpk) u ae&mwumeD;yg;rSm &SdcJh+yD; ,cktcsdefwGifvnf; [dkem;onfem;rSm awG@jrif&qJjzpfaeovdktvGefqHk; ,m,Domv#if,m,Domv#if,m,Domv#if,m,Domv#if,m,Domv#if ypPnf;rJh jzpfygonf? ol. &nfrSef;csufrSm rdrdudk,fwdkift&if;tESD;&vm+yD; TonfESifhwjcm;tvkyform;rsm;udkaoG;pkyf&efjzpfonf?*D;vfvkyfief;rsm;wnf&SdaepOfodk@r[kwf*D;vfvkyfief;wdk@.csKyfxdef;r_rSvGwfajrmufr_onftwwfynm vkyfief;rsm; twGif;odk@ tvkyf±HkyHkpH enf;emrsm;udk o,faqmifrvmrDESifh jyif;xefonfh +ydKifqdkifr_ ra&mufvmrD umvrsm;wGif olonf T&nfrSef;csufudk r=umc% &&SdEdkifygonf? odk@aomf tvkyf±kHpepfu twwfynmvkyfief;twGif; 0ifvm+yD; +ydKifqdkifr_tjynfht0 ay:xGef;vmonfESifh w+ydKifeuf TtjrifrSmarS;rSdefaysmufuG,foGm;+yD;vufr_twwfynmonfuav;rsm;onfydkIydkIypPnf;rJhjzpfvm=uonf? xdk@a=umifh vufr_twwfynmonfuav;rsm;onf "e&Sifodk@r[kwf a,bk,stm;jzifh tv,ftvwf vlwef;pm;wGif; a&muf&SdoGm;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ odk@r[kwf +ydKifqdkifr_a=umifh ypPnf;rJhjzpfoGm;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/(Ttjzpfu ydkrsm;ygonf?) rdrdwdk@udk,f rdrdwdk@ vGwfajrmufapygonf? Tae&mwGifolonf ypPnf;rJhrsm;.v_yf&Sm;r_ (qdkvdkonfrSm) tenf;ESifhtrsm; tod&SdonfhuGefjrLepfv_yf&Sm;r_xJ yg0ifvmjcif;jzifh rdrdwdk@udk,frdrdwdk@ vGwfajrmuf apEdkifygvdrfhrnf?4?tdef*,f.rSwfcsuf“rajymif;vJyg”onfZGefv rl=urf;trSwf21rSTar;cGef;udkajzqdkonfhtajzudk &nf!¸efa=umif; &Sif;ae+yD; ‚wGif atmufygtwdkif;
  34. 34. 32azmfjyxm;onf?“vlrsKd;toD;oD;wdk@onf bHkrl0grsm;ESifhtnD ‚wdk@ tcsif;csif; yl;aygif;wGJzufvm=u+yD; xkdyl;aygif;r_rsm;a=umifh wOD;ESifhwOD; rv$J ra&Smifom yl;aygif;a&maESmoGm;um rdrdwdk@udk,frdrdwdk@ zsufodrf;rnfjzpfonf? e,fajr trsKd;rsKd;ESifh vlwef;pm;uGmjcm;csufrsm;rSm ‚wdk@. tajccHjzpfaom yk*~vdu ydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;vdkufonfhtcgwGif aysmufuG,foGm;apouJhodk@ aysmufuG,foGm; vdrfhrnf?5? xdk@twl Tonfvnf; ZGefvr_=urf; ar;cGef; 22 rStajzudk &nf!¸ef;onf? ‚wGif “,cktcsdeftxd bmoma&;tm;vHk;onf vlwOD;wa,muf odk@r[kwfvlwpk.ordkif;a&;&mjzpfay:wdk;wufr_.tqifhrsm;azmfjycsufjzpfonf?odk@aomfuGefjrLepf0gqdkonfrSm wnf&SdqJ bmoma&;tm;vHk;udk tydkjzpfap+yD;/ ‚wdk@udkaysmuf uG,foGm;aponfhordkif;a&;&mjzpfay:wdk;wufr_tqifhw&yfjzpfonf?6? csm;wpfrsm;rSm 1830 ckESpfrsm;ESifh 1850 ckESpf tv,ft=um; jzpfay:cJhaom +Adwdo#tvkyform;rsm;. EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif yg0ifcJholrsm;jzpfonf? ‚wdk@. aºu;a=umfoHrSm jynfol@csmwmudk vdkufem&efjzpf+yD; vlwdkif;rJqENay;cGifhESifh tvkyform;rsm;tm;vHk; rJay;cGifh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tmrcHonfhta=umif;tcsufwpHkvHk;awmif;qdk=uonf?vDeifucsm;wpfv_yf&Sm;r_udk“urBmay:rSm yxrqHk; us,fjyef@wJh vlxkvuQ%m trSefaqmifwJh EdkifiHa&;t& pnf;vHk;wJhypPnf;rJh awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_” [k zGifhqdkcJhygonf? (usrf;aygif;csKyf t*Fvdyfbmom/twGJ 29/ ESm 309) +Adwdo# pufr_vkyfief;eJ@ ukefoG,fa&;vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_ tiftm;awmifh wif;vmr_ESifh +Adwdo#"e&Sifrsm;u ‚wdk@. txl;tjrwftpGef;rsm;xJrSaeItvkyform;vlwef;pm;txufv$m(“vkyfom;rif;pdk;&mZmrsm;”)rsm;udkvmbfxdk;r_wdk@a=umifh csmwmv_yf&Sm;r_ usqif;oGm;&onf? Ttcsuf ESpf&yfpvHk;u txufrSm azmfjyxm;cJhonfhtwdkif; Ttv$mtwGif;Y tacsmiform; wdrf;!Gwfr_rsm;udkydkrdktiftm; awmifhwif;vmap+yD; txl;ojzifh or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;u csm;wpfv_yf&Sm;r_udkaxmufcH&efjiif;y,fvdkufjcif;jzifhydkqdk;oGm;&ygonf? ?w±kwfjynf/ yDuif;EkdifiHjcm;bmom yHkESdyfxkwfa0a&;Xmeu1977 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0cJhaom t*Fvdyfbmomrltm; jyefqkdxm;jcif;jzpfonf?ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[kd0gjzef@csda&;Xmeu xkwfa0onf?1991 ck/ =o*kwfv 15 &uf?

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