Leadership and management lesson plan


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Leadership and management lesson plan

  1. 1. Leadership and Management Day One Activity Timing Pretesting Aids Required 10:00- 10:30 Introduction and overview of workshop Clear the Deck exercise Group work on differentiation between 10:30-11:00 “Team” versus “Group” Flip chart, flip chart board Instruction shown by ppt LCD, computer for ppt Count 1-4 and go to each group, and brainstorm for a while and write down on stickers and put on the flip chart under G & T headings Stickers 4 groups, two on “Teams” and two on “Groups” and presentation on it PPT presentation on Group vs Team 11:00-11:30 Exercise on Broken Squares 11:30 – 12:30 -Form 5 persons in a group- 12 groups (count numbers 1-12, and with 60 people will get 5 persons per group of 12-this group will always be the same whenever exercise of 5 persons come) According to Game sheet, ask them to make 5 squares with one observer each watching groups 5 Envelopes per 5 persons in a group- 12 groups 12 Observers’ observations Team papers Effective Facilitator Winding up by first asking observer, then participants and facilitator Ask participants to fill up Team Effective Critique papers distributed LUNCH 12:30-13:30 PPT presentation on “Effective Team 13:30-14:10 Building” and winding up of above two sessions Facilitator What did you get from this exercise? Record on (3) things they learn from Broken Square exercise Three strengths from Team Effectiveness critique Three things team needs to work on in order to improve their team effectiveness Critique
  2. 2. Activity Timing Ice breaking 14:10-14:40 Aids Required Papers on Scavenger Game Scavenger Game Explanation on concept Facilitator What is Management? 14:40-15:10 Facilitator 15:10-15:30 Papers with nine dots Managerial skills & competencies Ice breaking Join the Dots Game Papers with 12 dots Explanation on concept Papers with 16 dots TEA BREAK 15:30-15:45 Tennis court and tennis balls 15:45-16:00 Explanation on concept Group work on Lesson Plan for 16:00-17:00 Management of Teams in HSS package tour (4 groups) & presentations Facilitator General Discussions on Day 1 Participants 17:00-17:15 End of Day 1 Day Two Activity Timing Aids Required What is leadership? 09:00-09:30 Facilitator 09:30 – 11:00 Facilitator 11:30-12:00 Facilitator 12:00-12:15 Illusion photos 12:15-12:30 Color stickers, flip chart & stand Leadership Styles Exercises to Leadership understand “Silence,” “Blindfold Game” Leadership Skills Exercise What do you see? Explanation on concept Coloring Days Explanation on concept LUNCH 12:30-13:30 Activity Timing Aids Required
  3. 3. “Quick Draw” exercise 13:30 -13:45 Papers with numbers 13:45-14:15 Facilitator Explanation on concept Motivating Staff Lesson learned from 14:15-15:30 participants on motivation of staff (Triads) Presentation by triads TEA BREAK 15:30-15:45 “Fold you arm” exercise 15:45-16:00 Explanation on concept “Answers without questions” 16:00-16:30 exercise Explanation on concept Winding up END of DAY 2 16:30-17:00 Participants Observers- note down
  4. 4. WHY Management and Leadership development is needed at Health Organization? 1. Introduction The administrative framework of the ministry of health is mostly regarded as a classical pyramidal structure with four levels, community, township, State and Regional level and central level as in many other countries. At each level functions and structures should be well determined and management and leadership should be developed at all levels. As Management is quite a broad concept and embraces many functions it is regarded as the combination of processes through which an organization attempts to achieve its goals. 2. Objectives • To introduce the concepts of management and leadership 3. Expected Outcomes On completion of this unit, participants will be able to: -define the term “management” -explain management principles and functions -understand managerial competencies and leadership competencies -describe the terms “manager” and “leader” -define the styles of leadership -make clear the elements of effective leadership -apply management and leadership principles in managing township health systems 4. Management 4.1 What is Management? There are several definitions of management. For instance: • Management is getting things done • Management is a set of functions that help the organization to work cohesively and achieve its objectives. Management is about getting results. • It is an organized process that guides the utilization of various resources such as human, financial and material in order to meet a desired organizational goal taking into consideration consumers’ demands (clients’ needs), and the political and economic situation (emphasis on goal). • Management is referred to the tasks and activities involved in directing an organization or one of its units 4.2 The Management Functions Managerial work consists of 11 well-defined but interrelated activities which can be summarized as:
  5. 5. 1. Organizing: determination of formal organizational structure through which subdivisions are defined, arranged and coordinated for the whole organization 2. Policy: determination of policy is the essential starting point; identifying the main goals and what strategies should be employed to reach them 3. Planning: involves detailed listing of the actions required, the targets, and time tables. Planning of resources and programmes. 4. Standards: setting of standards in the production, storage and utilization of pharmaceuticals and equipment. Also standardization of type of health personnel that should be utilized to provide a certain level of service. 5. Administration: with several subdivisions for vertical and horizontal allocation of resources towards accomplishment of organizational goals. 6. Information: regular recording and reporting of information on the health needs of population (morbidity, mortality) and reliable information flow on human resource, logistics and functions of the programmes. 7. Budgeting: financial planning, accounting and control 8. Personnel: personnel management that includes recruitment, selection, placement, payment, designation of functions through job description, motivation and counseling, remuneration, separation and maintenance of favorable working conditions 9. Training: staff development through in-service training, and continuous personal professional development. 10. Monitoring and evaluation: keeping track of day to day activities carried out by regular supervision, review of reports and recognition of problems that may develop. Evaluation is a more thorough long term process assessing the programme’s inputs, process, outputs and outcomes. 11. Coordination: important duty of interrelating various parts of work to avoid duplication of efforts, conflict and to give attention to obvious health gaps in the health programme for modification 4.3 Branches of Management • • • • • • • • Human Resource ManagementFinancial ManagementHealth Information Management Facility Management Logistics Management Human Behavioral Management Technology Management Knowledge Management
  6. 6. 4.4 Three main roles of Manager 4.4.1. Interpersonal role Managers as figureheads who, because of their authority, are obliged to perform a number of duties.  Managers as leaders, providing guidance and motivation.  Managers as liaison officers, maintaining a web of relationships with individuals and groups.  Managers as disturbance handlers, dealing with involuntary situations and change beyond their control. 4.4.2. Informational role  Managers as monitors, continually seeking and receiving information as a basis for action.  Managers as disseminators, passing factual information to supervisors, colleagues and subordinates and transmitting value statements to guide subordinates in making decisions.  Managers as spokespeople, transmitting information into their organization’s environment. 4.4.3. Decision making role  Managers as entrepreneurs, acting as initiators of controlled change in the organization.  Managers as resource allocators, making choices about scheduling their own time, authorizing actions and allocating people and finance to projects or activities.  Managers as negotiators with other organizations or individuals. 4.5 Managerial Skills Communication skills -these include leading meetings, facilitation, negotiation, conflict resolution public speaking, effective writing, cross-cultural communication... Organising skills-which may cover planning, monitoring, problem-solving, evaluation, co-ordination, programme management, decision making, time management... Supervising skills-such as delegation, motivation, performance management, coaching and developing staff... Skills after some time can become competency where we have Managerial Competencies as follows: 4.6 Managerial Competencies 1. Self Management 2. Strategic Action 3. Global Awareness 4. Team Work 5. Planning and Administration 6. Communication Competency
  7. 7. 4.6.1 Self Management • • • • • • • Self awareness Self identification of strengths/weakness -developmental needs ….in leadership ….in motivation ….in ethics ….in many other areas Continued self assessment Integrity and ethical conduct Personal drive and resilience Balancing work and life demands 4.6.2 Strategic Action • • • • • Developing broad strategies that can be translated into clear goals and practical action plans Proactive vs Reactive Formulation of contingency plans to minimize risks Understanding the organization Taking strategic actions 4.6.3 Global Awareness • • • Staying abreast of important global trends that have significant impact on the organization Recognition of global trends on the organization's plans and growth Being sensitive to key cultural differences and understanding the consequences of cultural differences for the organization 4.6.4 Team Work • Creating a supportive environment • Trust/ Productive management conflicts • Collaboration and constant information sharing • Problem solving/ decision making (Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning) • Managing team dynamics • Ability to cultivate an active network of relationships and relate well to others 4.6.5 Planning and Administration • Information gathering, analysis & problem solving • Setting clear and challenging goals • SWOT analysis • Adequate control & clear guidance & Swift decision making • Planning and organizing projects • Time management • Budgeting and financial management
  8. 8. 4.6.6 Communication Competency • Informal communication • Formal communication • Negotiation (an agreement) • Free flow of information upward, downward and laterally (feedbacks) • Listening and informing others • Fostering open channels and negotiating with others 4.7 Who is the Manager? A manager is the person who has the responsibility of achieving certain outcomes having been given the authority to utilize the resources of the organization. These resources consist of human, financial, information and physical assets. Timely use of these resources is essential for effective management. In an ideal team, its members recognize the authority of the manager and support him/her in a constructive way. A manager is therefore a person who can organize people to work harmoniously together and make effective use of resources to achieve laid-down objectives, through a process that includes planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. A distinction should be made between a manager and an administrator. Administration is a subset of management. An administrator is somebody who interprets policies and directives from above for implementation, knows the rules and applies them well. The administrator and manager do not have to be different people. 5. Leadership 5.1 What is leadership? There is no universally agreeable definition of leadership, if type “leadership” on Google you can find more than 186,000,000 different pages of reference on web. Out of these, Leadership has been defined in different literature with different aspects as follows: • Leadership is the key factor differentiating the “average” from the “excellent” • Leadership is action or a process, not position • The activity of leading a group of people or organization or the ability to do this • Leadership is creating a vision • Leadership is the process of influencing and activities of a group in efforts towards goal achievement in a given situation • the process of persuasion and example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leader’s purpose, or the shared purposes of all Trust is the foundation of leadership. Leaders develop an environment of trust where the organizational members tend to establish a follower-ship with the leader. This important process has three important components/ingredients. 1) Leader 2) Followers and 3) Situation
  9. 9. These three components play very important role on the process of leadership. 5.2 Who is a leader? A leader is defined as any person who influences individuals and groups/teams within an organization, helps them in the establishment of goals, and guides them toward achievement of those goals, thereby allowing them to be effective. A “leader” is a person who manages people by creating high involvement and shared commitment that stimulates people to overcome obstacles in the way of achieving maximum results. Leaders are those persons who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority. From these definitions a person who will like to become a leader should have four essential characteristics: 1. Establishing a clear vision 2. Sharing the vision with others so that they will follow willingly 3. Providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision 4. Coordinating and balancing the conflicting interest of all members and stakeholders We have to be aware that all of us have the capacity of leadership but not all will become leaders. In health, leadership has been shown to be essential throughout the administrative framework of the MOH. Leadership is not only the function of those at top level of health system but it requires at every level of the system. This manual is on developing leadership skills at township level health system. 5.3 Quality of Leadership Many literatures say leadership must be born and cannot be made but there are abundant evidences to the alternative. Possibility of leadership in health sector at township level will definitely vary with local culture, time, place and capability of health professional through education, skills and experience. Leadership qualities include the ability to inspire others, establish trust, and promote teamwork. 5.4 Leadership Styles Typical behavior of leader towards group members can be defined as “Leadership Styles” and through many literatures leadership styles were identified as follows: 5.4.1 Autocratic leadership • • Leader has absolute power over their workers or team • Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions • Leader makes decisions and announces them to staff • Advantage All authority centering in the leader Communication seems to be one way from leader to follower Disadvantage Fast speed with which decisions can be made, for Most people tend to resent being treated this way, • instance in case of emergency- Style saves time effects on group morale
  10. 10. Decision is usually clear and final. Leader is in control This style can remain effective for some routine and unskilled jobs by controlling 5.4.2 Other, better options may not be considered High level absentees and turnover of staff Democratic leadership • Leader takes suggestions and wishes of all members • All members of the team are seen as important contributors to the final decision • Participation is required to encourage members’ commitment to the decision Advantage Disadvantage Increased morale and support of the team members- Staff feel involved It increases job satisfaction and also helps to develop people’s skills Decisions receive a high level of support. Chance of implementation is good. Slower decisions, diluted accountability for decisions and may not always be the best solution Participation takes time and can take more time to get final result Most popular decision may not be best option available 5.4.3 Laissez faire leadership • The French phrase means “leave it be" • Leader attempts to exercise very little control or influence over group members • Leader leaves team members to work on their own Advantage Disadvantage Gives opportunity for individual development Lack of group unity and consistency towards achieving organizational goals Can be effective when individual team members are well experiences and skilled self-starters 5.4.4. Bureaucratic leadership • Leader works “by the book” • Follows rules strictly • Leader ensures team members to follow procedures precisely Advantage Disadvantage Appropriate for specified jobs involving serious and safety risks Eg: where they have to work with machines in handling toxic substances or where large sum of money is involved-such as handling cash Can become bored
  11. 11. 5.4.5 Charismatic leadership • Charismatic leadership is when a person assumes or is given the role of leader based on his or her charisma or charm • Leader stimulates a lot of enthusiasm in his team and very energetic in driving others forward • Leader tends to believe more in himself than in his team • His influence derives mainly from his personality Advantage Disadvantage Followers love him and look only into his face The entire organization might collapse if the leader leaves Without that person, accomplishment is not possible. Can be subject to corruption as the leader knows that the people will likely follow no matter what. People who follow that leader will ensure goals are achieved out of respect for the leader. 5.4.6 Task-Oriented leadership • Focus on getting the job done • Leader tends to be quite autocratic, actively defining the work and roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize and monitor • Leader does not think much about the well-being of his team Advantage Finish job in time 5.4.7 Disadvantage Less motivated staff More turnover of staff Transactional leadership • Transaction is usually the organization paying the team members in return for their effort and fulfillment of job • Leader can punish team members if the work does not meet the pre-determined standard • Team members agree to obey their leader totally in accepting the job Advantage Disadvantage Good to practice for short term task This is more like a type of management than a true leadership style Limitations for knowledge based or creative work
  12. 12. 5.4.8 Transformational leadership • Leader has integrity, sets clear goals and clearly communicates a vision • Transformational leadership was found to influence team performance and team potency • Leader challenges each person to be all that they can be and more • Leader sets a good example and expects the best from the team, encouraging productivity and innovation • Leader encourages, supports and provides stimulating work • Inspires and focus more on team’s interests and needs Advantage Disadvantage Development of whole organization If the leader leaves it is likely a new one will step into place and the work will continue until completion. Almost none Although Transformational leadership style is often highly effective, there is no “one size fit for all way” to lead or manage that fits all situations. A person has to be a good leader considering the followings: • The skill levels and experience of his team • The work involved (routine, or new) • The organizational environment • Leader’s own preferred or natural style 5.5Leadership skills Many motivational experts like to say leaders are made, not born but there are many alternatives to argue this motto. All of us are natural leaders. Children-are curious, humble, and always hungry and thirst for knowledge with many brilliant imaginations. Then they were hearing: “No,” “Don’t,” “Can’t,” “No, don’t do this,” “You can’t do this” by parents and teachers. Traditional education system doesn’t teach students how to become leaders instead teaches how to become polite, order takers and intelligently follow rules for the cooperate world. To become a good leader we need a process of “unlearning” and have to be brave to unlock the door of inner attic where your childhood dreams lie, going inside to the heart. (Mark Twain) As TMO, you are the leader of the township health team which consists of hospital as well as public health teams. The best way to strengthen leadership ability is to intentionally exercise simple, on-thejob self-improvement strategies.
  13. 13. For instance, when dealing with emergency operation you have doctors, nurses and some other people to help, what would you do after the successful operation to express gratitude to the team’s work? Ten easy steps to developing your leadership skills by Sharif Khan 1. Humility: A leader has to start with humility, be humble, and willing to serve others. Naturally nobody wants to follow someone who is arrogant. Always be curious, hungry and thirst for knowledge, always trying to better yourself, always improving and growing. When you are humble and genuine in your interest in people because you want to learn from them, then people will sense you are genuinely interested in them and listening to them. Then they will naturally be interested in you and listen to what you have to say. 2. SWOT Yourself: Every of us know what SWOT is: This is a useful key to gain access to self-knowledge, self remembering, and self-honoring. Start by listing all your strengths including your accomplishments. Then write down your weaknesses and what needs to be improved. Make sure to include any doubts, anxieties, fears and worries that you may have. Try to list the opportunities you see available to you for using your strengths. Finally write down the threats or obstacles that are currently blocking you or that you think you will encounter along the way to achieving your dreams. 3. Follow Your Bliss Always take time to do what you love doing regardless of how busy you are. Being alive and vital person vitalizes others. When you are pursuing your passions, people around you cannot help but feel impassioned by your presence. This will make you a charismatic leader. Whatever it is that you enjoy doing, be it writing, acting, painting, drawing, photography, sports, reading, dancing, networking or working on entrepreneurial ventures, set aside time every week, ideally two or three hours a day, to pursue these activities. Believe me, you’ll find the time. If you were to video tape yourself for a day, you would be shocked to see how much time goes to waste! 4. Dream big If you want to be larger than life, you need a dream that is larger than life. Small dreams won’t serve you or anyone else. It takes the same amount of time to dream small than it does to dream big. So be Big and be Bold! Write down your One Biggest Dream the one that excites you the most. Remember, don’t be small and realistic, but be bold and unrealistic! Go for Gold, the Nobel, the Oscar, the highest you can possibly achieve in your field. After you’ve written down your dream, list every single reason why you CAN achieve your dream instead of worrying about why you can’t. 5. Vision Without a vision we perish. If you can’t see yourself winning that award and feel the tears of triumph streaming down your face, it’s unlikely you will be able to lead yourself or others to victory. Visualize what it would be like accomplishing your dream. See it, smell it, taste it, hear it, feel it in your gut. 6. Perseverance
  14. 14. Victory belongs to those who want it the most and stay in it the longest. Now that you have a dream, make sure you take consistent action every day. I recommend doing at least 5 things every day that will move you closer to your dream. 7. Honor your word Every time you break your word, you lose power. Successful leaders keep their word and their promises. You can accumulate all the toys and riches in the world, but you only have one reputation in life. Your word is gold. Honor it. 8. Get a Mentor Find yourself a mentor. Preferably there is someone who has already achieved a high degree of success in your field. Don’t be afraid to ask. You’ve got nothing to lose. You can even find suitable mentor through a website by filling your profile. Also take time to study autobiographies of great leaders that you admire. Learn everything you can from their lives and model some of their successful behaviors. 9. Be Yourself Use your relationships with mentors and great leaders as models but do not copy or imitate them like a parrot. Everyone has vastly different leadership styles. Be yourself, your best self, always competing against yourself and bettering yourself, and you will become a first rate YOU instead of a second rate of somebody else. 10. Give Finally be a giver. Leaders are givers. By giving, you activate a universal law as sound as gravity: “life gives to the giver, and takes from the taker.” The more you give the more you get. If you want more love, respect, support, and compassion give love, give respect, give support and give compassion. As a leader, the only way to get what you want is by helping enough people get what they want first. Sir Winston Churchill once said: “We make a living by what we get, we make a life by what we give.” 5.6.Leadership Competencies Competency Master yourself See the big picture Create a shared vision Clarify purpose & priorities Communicate effectively Motivate committed teams Negotiate conflict Lead change Application Reflect on yourself and be aware of your impact on others, manage your emotions effectively, use your strengths, and work on your shortcomings. Look beyond a narrow focus to take into account conditions outside your immediate areas of work. Work with others to envision a better future and use this vision to focus all your efforts. Know your own values and what is most important to accomplish. Hold conversations focused on outcomes; balance advocacy with inquiry; and clarify assumptions, beliefs, and feelings within yourself and others. Create the clarity, trust, and recognition necessary to lead to high performance that can be sustained over time. Reach agreements from which both sides can benefit. Enable your work group to own challenges, enlist stakeholders, and
  15. 15. navigate through unstable conditions. Adapted from: Management Sciences for Health. 2005. Managers who lead: A handbook for improving health services. Boston. Effective leadership Strong and effective leadership creates a high degree of involvement and shared commitment that stimulates people to overcome obstacles to achieve maximum results. Critical success factors of effective leadership are: • Ability and commitment to motivate people • Excellent interpersonal skills • Ability to learn on the job • Hard work and working smarter • Linking strategic planning to implementation • Facilitating teamwork • Facilitating organizational development. An effective leader will: Take initiative: This is exercised whenever effort is concentrated on a specific activity, to start something that was not going on before, to stop something that was occurring, or shift the direction and character of effort. DHMTs need to take individual and collective initiatives, especially during the current changes as a result of the reforms. Enquire: This permits a leader to gain access to facts and data from people or other information sources. The quality of information may depend on a leader’s thoroughness, keenness and commitment. A leader who is keen to learn as much as possible about work activities is more likely to gain quality information than one who ignores the need for enquiry. This is particularly important for DHMTs in view of the requirements of evidence-based planning and the call for health systems research. Advocate: This means to take position in support of a cause, e.g. creating awareness on cost sharing. A leader has convincing abilities and is prepared to take a stand. Face and handle conflict: A leader should be ready to face conflict and resolve it with the mutual understanding of those involved, creating respect by doing so. Failure to do so leads to disrespect, hostility and antagonism. Make decisions: This involves choosing or selecting between two or more courses of action. It may involve choosing an intervention or how best available resources can be effectively used. Township Health Management Team require adequate decision-making skills for planning, especially in the aspect of resource allocation. Critique: Good leaders are able to give constructive critique and feedback. DHMTs need to use the “Critique Approach” when conducting supervision, counselling and guidance of their subordinates. Transparency: A good leader is open, avoiding doubt through effective communication and information.
  16. 16. In short, a good leader is characterized by decisiveness, integrity, enthusiasm, imagination, willingness to work hard, analytical ability, understanding of others, ability to spot opportunities, ability to meet unpleasant situations, ability to adapt quickly to change, and finally, willingness to take risk. Management or leadership? Although there appears to be an overlap between management and leadership, it is possible to differentiate between traditional management styles that are still found in so many organizations and the forward looking, change-oriented leadership styles that are required to achieve actual reforms. Traditional Management Leadership Focus on stability, avoiding risk Emphasis on growth & change/acceptable risk Peacemaker, avoidance of conflict CHANGE Peacemaker, conflict risked as inevitable to growth Emphasis on skills Emphasis on attitudes Win-loose power orientation All can win through expansion Administers Innovates Traditional Management Leadership Extrinsic motivation (stick or carrot) Intrinsic motivation (the extra mile) Today Day after tomorrow Short-term task FOCUS Longer-term process You serve me I serve you Hierarchical Partnership Low involvement Empathy Traditional Management Leadership Externalizes responsibilities, tendency to “wait and see” Assumes responsibility to change Them (tendency to blame, premise of incompetence in others) SELF Me and them (trust in innate desire to excel/ learn) Linear thinking, intellect dominates Systems thinking, balance between intellect and passion Positional power emphasized Competence emphasized As an individual confidential exercise, judge yourself against the above list of traditional management / leadership qualities; write down how you rate yourself. Then make a list of the health center level
  17. 17. If it is to improve the performance at the health center level in township health system as the health center and all its forms and functions is the backbone of the health services and health development in the country. Motivation: There are over 140 definitions of the term motivation that have been used in various capacities. Motivation is important because it explains why employees behave as they do. Work Motivation can be defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence in the face of obstacles. Definition: Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Motivation is the force that makes us do things: the result of our individual needs being satisfied (or met) so that we have the inspiration, energy and will to complete tasks at or above standards. • A Stimulus to Action • Drawing force for activity towards goal • Reason behind a movement for change in action, state or position Sources of Motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation; Intrinsically Motivation: is behavior that is performed for its own sake; the source of motivation is actually performing the behavior. a. Employees who are intrinsically motivated often remark that their work gives them a sense of accomplishment and achievement or that they feel they are doing something worthwhile. b. Motives are intrinsic when an independent third party cannot easily verify them. Extrinsic Motivation: is behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. a. The behavior is not performed for its own sake but rather for its consequences. b. This form of motivation may be linked to operant conditioning. c. Motives are extrinsic when they can easily be verified by an independent third party.
  18. 18. Mcgregor’s Theory Theory X Theory Y 1 People are naturally lazy, they prefer doing nothing People are naturally active; they set goals and enjoy striving 2 People work mostly for money and status rewards People seek many satisfactions in work, pride in achievement, enjoyment of process, sense of contribution, pleasure in association and stimulation of new challenges 3 The main focus keeping people productive in their work is fear of being demoted or fired! The main force keeping people productive in their work is desire to achieve their personal and social goals 4 People remain children grown larger; they are naturally dependent on leaders People normally mature beyond childhood; they aspire to independence, self fulfillment and responsibility What are Some of the Most Powerful Motivators in our Lives? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Commitment Money Meaning Recognition Love Participation Emotion Appreciation Competition Sense of accomplishment Perceived need for change Cultural norms Chance to make a difference Independence Opportunity to serve Duty
  19. 19. How can you motivate yourself How can you motivate others _ Stick with your passions _ Associate with highly motivated people Share your enthusiasm Set a measurable goal Hang out with high achievers Make a compelling case Flavor tedium with pleasure Use emotional temptation Go with your strengths Set a fire and keep it going Make lists Make it fun Stay focused on results Explain how Just do something Keep doing something new and different Celebrate TEAM BUILDING 1.1. Learning Objectives At the end of the session, the participant will be able to: • Define team. • Differentiate between a team and a group. • List the stages of team development. • Understand the approaches of team work in health. • Describe the characteristics of an effectively functioning health team. • Understand the different skills that team members need. • Understand and get involved in the different activities of a health team. 1.2. Differences between a group and a team What is a group? A group is defined as of two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. What is a Team?  A team is a small number of consistent people committed to a relevant shared purpose, with common performance goals, complementary and overlapping skills, and a common approach to their work. Team members are mutually accountable for the outcome. (EPHTI, 2005)  A team is a formal work group in which there is a high level of interaction among group members who work intensely together to achieve a common goal.
  20. 20.  An organized group of people who are dependant on each other, working together with commitment towards a common objective for which they are mutually accountable. Key terms of the definition are described below: Relevant Shared Purpose: The purpose or goal is defined by the members of the team working collaboratively; within this purpose each team member has specific tasks which are discussed and agreed upon. Consistent Membership: Members become comfortable with and knowledgeable about each others’ skill levels and more committed to sharing their knowledge and skills to develop fellow team members as long as the team exists. Complementary and Overlapping Skills: Include technical or functional expertise, interpersonal skills, supervisory or management skills. Commitment to a Common Approach to the following areas: working methods and team process (documenting each work and individual work, methods for problem solving): roles and responsibilities (team versus job roles); behavioral expectations; the environment of the team which includes trust of each other. Mutually Accountable: Everyone is accountable all the time for the accomplishment of the results of the team, the process and functioning of the team as well as their own responsibilities. Other team members will compensate or contribute if some members are not able to achieve their specific responsibilities. Common performance goals: Needs to have a common performance goal that is closely related to the team’s purpose. Differences between a group and a team Group Team Size-2 or more people size can be bigger Size- 2 or more people, 5-7 the best Groups are just people assembled together for -status -social needs -security -power -goal achievements Teams can be formed within work groups or from different functions or sections of the organization. Group members are -relaxed and comfortable, -having informal atmosphere, -task well understood and accepted, -members listen well and participate, -people express feeling and ideas Teams are high level of interaction among others for -achieving common goal -stay tight on common interest Team members are -brightest and enthusiastic -optimistic -proactive -creative -concerned about committed to common goal
  21. 21. Group members may not be accountable to the action of the group. They are only accountable for individual effort of action Focus on individual roles, tasks and responsibility, even though group may cooperate They communicate the assessment and tasks are distributed to individuals. Individualized approach to work The leader is more responsible and authorized than the members. Group members are • Independent • Focus is on self • Told what to do • Little involvement • Disagreements avoided • Cautious • Training not always applied • Unresolved conflict • Not part of decisions Team members share a common goal and purpose, therefore, each team member is mutually accountable for the team’s outcome Individuals cooperate, communicate and share responsibility among each other They discuss as a team and determine goals. They jointly develop action plan. They have common approach to work The leader is equally responsible and authorized like any member of the team. Team members are • Interdependent • Focus is on team • Direction decided by team • Total involvement • Disagreements okay • Open communication • Training applied • Conflict normal • Part of decisions All teams are groups but not all groups are teams. Attitude is an important factor in determining whether you and the people with whom you work function as a “group” or a ‘team’. Stages of Team or Group Development A team is living and dynamic entity. It could progress from an early to a mature phase independent of the nature of the team or task it must perform. Tuckman’s model (2) proposed the following typical phases in team development. 1. Forming a. excitement, anticipation, optimism. b. members getting to know each other c. anxiety, fear, or even suspicion about the job ahead… and demonstrate these behaviors. d. discovering what is considered acceptable behavior e. determining the group’s real task f. defining group’s rules g. questions about purpose h. non intimate relations i. members seek leadership This stage is complete when the members begin to see themselves as part of the group. Useful activities/tools the team leader can use to help forming groups are: 1 Introduction/inclusion activities. 2 Clarify the mission 3 Establish ground rules for team behavior. 4 Provide any needed training.
  22. 22. 2. Storming a. clarifying member’s expectations b. understanding members’ interpersonal styles c. resist collaborating with each other d. individuals establish their own expertise within the group e. members test each other’s strength f. arguing among members, even when they agree to the real issues. g. defensiveness, competition, withdrawal h. member ejection may occur Some members may become dissatisfied and challenge not only the tasks of team and how these will be carried out, but also the leader’s role and style of leadership. This is the start of intragroup conflicts. Useful activities/tools in the Storming phase are: 1 Conflict management techniques. 2 Clarification/teaching of concepts, tools, team dynamics, meeting methods, and roles. 3. Norming a. holding the group together b. dealing with divergent views and criticism c. dealing with a premature sense of accomplishment. d. intensified, interpersonal involvement e. desire for group attention f. member interdependence g. dependence on the leader h. increased trust i. well established norms j. rules, roles, standards k. growing capacity to plan l. relief that everything is going to work out…and exhibit these behaviors m. commitment to working out differences n. giving and receiving feedback constructively This process should result in the team establishing procedures for handling conflicts, decisions, and methods to accomplish the team projects. Useful activities/tools the team can use in the Norming phase are: 1 Continue the fostering of shared responsibility. 2 Refocus on the agenda or purpose (when necessary) 3 Provide training on quality 4. Performing a. sense that “our” group is special b. acceptance of individual differences
  23. 23. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. people can be themselves disagreement/conflict is OK structure, roles, norms established and accepted teamwork utilizes the diverse strength of the members satisfaction with the team’s progress. trust in one another… and exhibit these behaviors willingness to take risks. commitment to process and goals. Leadership is provided by the team members, best suited for the task at hand. Members have learned how to work together, manage conflict, and contribute their resources to meet the team’s purposes. 5. Adjourning- A well-integrated group/team is a. Able to disband when its work is finished. b. Willing to work together in the future. c. Celebrate individual/ collective accomplishments The team dissolves when the team has completed the project. It may be reoriented to continue on a next phase of the project. Effective Team Building Team development is based on the assumption that any group is able to work more effectively if its members are prepared to deal with such questions as: • How can this team work together more effectively? • How can we better use the resources we represent? • How can we communicate with one another more effectively in order to make better team decisions? • What is impeding our performance? (Mark Alexander, “The Team Effectiveness Critique” University Associates, Instrumentation Kit, 1987) These questions are answered by Players committed to helping the team with: Shared Goals and Objectives Planning is always the first critical stage of any program. Carefully prepared plan helps to attain the goals/objectives of the team. These goals and objectives are not a simple understanding of the immediate task, but an overall understanding of the role of the team in the total organization, its responsibilities, accountabilities, and the things the team wishes to accomplish. A game plan must be developed, accepted, and followed. The team wins when everyone focuses on agreed upon goals, has open communication, and achieves the goals. Shared Leadership Development and cohesion of a team occurs only when there is a feeling of shared leadership among all members. No one person can be expected to perform all the required leadership functions. All
  24. 24. members perform both task and maintenance functions. Although some are naturally more taskfocused, others are more maintenance-focused so as to have a balance in the team. Trust and Conflict Resolution All teams experience disagreement. The ability to openly recognize conflict and seek to resolve it through discussion is critical to the team’s success. Utilization of Resources The purpose of the team is to do things effectively! In order to accomplish this, the team must establish an environment that allows individual resources to be used. The roles and responsibilities of each member of the team should be clearly mentioned from the outset so that each member of the team knows what to do and duplication of roles will be avoided. Similarly, if the roles are clearly defined, no important role will be missed by the team. Control and Procedures Procedures guide the team’s activities. Procedures include meeting agendas, schedules of actions and other action-oriented functions of the team. The team determines how it maintains control over what happens during team meetings. Control includes such things as ground rules of behaviour, steps followed during meetings, methods for consensus decisions, timelines, and use of resources. Some teams find they do not need a formal leader, each member regulators his/her own contributions and behaviours as well as those of others. New teams frequently struggle over this issue and most new teams are more successful with a designated leader. Interpersonal Communications This involves open, honest discussions. Members listen to one another and attempt to build one another’s contributions. Team members achieve effective interpersonal communication through selfregulation. Problem Solving and Decision Making There should be agreed-on approaches to problem solving and decision-making. There are many variations on how to team problem solve. Experimentation and Creativity Teams should be prepared to periodically move beyond the boundaries of established procedures and processes in order to experiment with new ways of accomplishing things. Effective teams use experimental thinking in order to allow the team greater flexibility in dealing with problems and decision-making. Evaluation The team should periodically examine its processes from both the task and maintenance aspects. The team should ‘stop’ and ‘look’ at how well it is doing and what, if anything, may be hindering its operation. Effective team self-assessment is one of the most critical factors leading to team development. A reward system recognizing individual and team achievements must be established. . In short, in Effective Teams:
  25. 25. • • • • • • • • • People trust each other Feelings are expressed freely Conflict is worked through Process issues are part of work Commitment is high Objectives are common to all Listening is high People are open Everyone in the team contributes to decision making How to measure Team Effectiveness? • • • • Measuring the productivity Showing Cohesiveness Learning, growth and development Integration with the rest of organization Team Behaviors Team Helping Behaviours Team Hindering Behaviours Being open Holding back information and/or feelings Being honest Negative attitude Being direct Not open and honest Contributing ideas Protection of own issues or organization area Riding on ideas Hidden agendas or aligning self in such a way that ideas are not clear Supporting Does not contribute ideas or different perspectives Supportive conflict Angry conflict Clarifying or restating issues Supporting only personal issues Keeping to the subject or task at hand Playing the power or authority game Listening to understand Silence Willingness to be influenced and to change Unwillingness to compromise Willingness to give up on interest Will not admit to problems of that own ideas could be wrong Willing to take personal risks in declaring feelings Will not take personal risks in being direct and honest Relation of the Team Members with each other and with the Community
  26. 26. There must be good relationship among team members and between the team and the community. To establish good relations, a health team needs to work with the community and this comprises of the following four steps: Step 1- Listen, learn, and understand To work with people and help them, it is essential to understand their ways of life. These can be learned only by living with people, listening and watching. It is not recommended to ask too much questions, this annoys people. Health team may observe and learn about communities concerning their work and living standards, family life, social and political structure, population structure, value, beliefs and customs, and health attitudes. Step 2- Talk, discuss, and decide The health team should work with the community towards recognizing its health problems and putting them in order of priority. Discussion can be formal or informal: Informal discussion with families, people, political leaders and religious leaders, etc. will produce further ideas. From these talks it is possible to make a list of the main problems that concerns the community. Formal meeting conducted by a community leader could be held to try to decide which the most serious problems are and what can be done about them. This could be difficult and several meetings might be needed before any clear decision can be reached. In this way the people are encouraged to participate in solving their own health problems. However, health staff should be cautious in such meetings, as community leaders are likely to try to persuade the people to agree with them about which problems should be given priority. Step 3- Encourage, Organize and Participate When the people have decided what the main health problems are and agreed to their order of importance, a plan of action must be prepared. The health team works with the community to put the plan into action, to make changes that will lead to improvement over a period of time. Step 4- Inform Once a plan of action has been proposed, discussed and accepted, the community should be informed of its objective and of any decisions taken. If people do not know what is intended, they are unlikely to do anything to help in achieving it. Skills of the Health Team Leader and Members A skill is an acquired and learned ability to translate knowledge into performance. It is the competency that allows for performance to be superior in the field where the worker has the required skill. All health team members and leaders need to have technical, human relation and conceptual skills. The degree of skill required may vary between the members and the leaders, for example, conceptual skill is highly needed by the leader. Technical Skill: It basically involves the use of knowledge, methods and techniques in performing a job effectively. This skill is acquired through education and training. Human Relation Skill: It is the ability to work with other people in a cooperative manner. It involves understanding, patience, trust and genuine involvement in interpersonal relationships. Conceptual Skill: It is the ability to view the organization/team as a whole and as a total entity. It also reflects the mental abilities of team members to visualize the complex interrelationships in work areas,
  27. 27. relationships among people, among various organizations in the health system and even between its external environments. It permits team members to understand how the various factors in particular situations fit together and interact with one another. In addition to the above-mentioned skills, communication, decision-making and problem solving skills are required for effective functioning of heath team. Communication Skill It is common experience that personal relations within a team can be difficult. Difficulties are often caused or made worse by poor communication within the team and between the leader and the team members. In the same way, difficult relations may cause, or make worse, poor communication. A team leader should, therefore, pay special attention to the quality of team relations, and of communication as a means of maintaining good relations. To encourage communication, the team leader should always observe certain principles: All team members should be free to express and explain their views and should be encouraged to do so. A message or communication, whether oral or written, should be expressed clearly and in the language and terms that can be understood by all concerned. Communication has two elements - sending and receiving. When the message that is sent is not received, communication has not taken place. Therefore, the team leader (or other communicator) should always use some means of checking that the intended effect has taken place. Conflict or disagreement is normal in human relationships; it should be managed in a way that will achieve constructive results. Some Communication Skills and Techniques Disagreeing with Respect Reveal discomfort immediately. Don’t store up feelings and then dump them all at once on the other person. Stick to the present. It is not helpful to bring up the past during disagreements. Don’t just complain, but offer a plan for change. The goal is constructive problem solving, not griping. Use active listening. Before you respond to a person’s statements, repeat it back to him/her using your own words. Communicate feelings using “I” statements. Think “How does this make me feel?” and state that to the other person, rather than accusing them of making you feel a certain way. Take responsibility for how you feel. Allow time to finish the disagreement without walking out in a huff, ending with a sarcastic comment, or becoming violent. Learn the difference between “time out” and abandonment: “time out” says, “I need a break. Let’s start the discussion again in ten minutes.” Abandonment is walking out not saying where you are going or when you will be back to continue the discussion. Allow for differences in communication style. Do you talk out a problem out loud, or do you reflect on it quietly and state the conclusion of your thinking?
  28. 28. No audiences. Do not involve another person in your disagreement unless it is a third party you have both agreed to involve. No name-calling, threats, or “silent treatment.” Focus on behavior, not character. “Do not attack another person’s character. Talk only about the behaviors involved. Example of attack on character: “You are thoughtless and stupid.” Example of focus on behavior: “I am irritated because the work you did was incomplete and did not include changed we agreed you would make.” Agree to disagree. It is possible to understand another person’s point of view without agreeing with it. You may not be able to resolve every issue to your liking, but you can respect another person’s right to a viewpoint with which you do not agree. Decision - Making Skill Making a sound team decision is a challenge for any team. Hence, team members, be it in big or small team, need to have minimal decision-making skill. Team members need to attain consensus around a course of action. This means they have to know how to work together to identify options and come to shared agreement on which options make the most sense. The decision-making process comprises the following steps: 1. Identifying an existing problem 2. List possible alternatives for solving the problem 3. Select the most beneficial of these alternatives 4. Implement the selected alternatives 5. Gather feedback to find out if the implemented alternative is solving the identified problem. Problem Solving Skill Many times, people consider problem solving to be the action an individual or a team takes to take care of a situation. Though action is important, understanding the problem and suggesting for the action is more important. Generally, the team will undertake the problem solving process as part of the team meetings. Each stage of the process will involve discussion and coming to various consensus decisions among team members. Individual members will also take on assignments, usually involving gathering and analyzing information on some part of problem that they report back to the entire team. The steps in the problem solving process 1. Recognize and define the problem 2. Collect information and analyze current process
  29. 29. 3. Identify possible causes for the problem 4. Generate alternative actions to eliminate causes 5. Select the actions that seem best and implement them 6. Assess the change and learn 7. Make the change permanent and start over Coordination To coordinate activities or groups of activities is to bring them in to proper relation with each other so as to ensure that everything that needs to be done is done and that no two people are trying to do the same job. Coordination helps work to progress smoothly. Coordination is the means of: • Distributing authority • Providing channels of communication and • Arranging the work so that 0 The right things are done (what?) 1 In the right place (where?) 2 At the right time (when?) 3 In the right way (how?) 4 By the right people (by whom?) When an activity is coordinated, everything works well: a coordinated activity is orderly, harmonious, efficient and successful. When an activity is not coordinated, it is liable to fail in its objective: an uncoordinated activity is disorderly, discordant, inefficient and unsuccessful. Working Environment of the Team Work Both the internal and external environment should be conducive to achieve the goals and objectives of the team. Factors in the internal environment that can influence success are like the relation between the members, relation between the members and the team leader, trust among the members and leader of the team. Trust can be gained when the following attributes are present: Honesty: truth telling, integrity, and no exaggerations among team members; Openness: a willingness to share opinion, ideas and feelings, even when it is uncomfortable to do so, receptivity to new information and to the perceptions and ideas of others. Consistency: predictable behavior and responses. Congruence between what you say and what you do. Competence: Capable of doing what is expected and can do the job for which he/she is assigned.
  30. 30. Respect: treating all people with dignity and fairness. Examples of factors in the external environment, which can influence performance of the team, are like the health policy, the political environment, availability of resources and infrastructure, support and recognition by the community. External support and recognition can enhance the performance of the team. The team’s performance will increase when it is recognized for its accomplishments by the greater organization or by the society. Motivating and Dissatisfying Factors Motivation factors Motivation is an inner impulse that makes a person to act in a certain way. There are two groups of factors that encourage people to apply their ability and energy to work, and that makes people dissatisfied at work. These are motivators and dissatisfiers. Some of the common motivators in work are: Achievement- most people like to do things well. They like to succeed. Their satisfaction in success and in getting things done well comes largely from achieving what they expect to be able to achieve and what they aim at achieving. Recognition – very few people are satisfied with simply knowing in their own minds that they have been successful. Most people like others also to know of their success. The work itself-people like to do useful and worthwhile work; helpful to other people and helping themselves achieve their ideas. The staffs of an organization like to do work that they can see as contributing to the objectives of the organization. Responsibility- to have responsibility is to be able to accept the consequences, good or bad, of a decision or an action. Most people welcome responsibility; some fear it. Advancement –it is a form of recognition. Recognition without reward is not very convincing. People prefer recognition that comes in a tangible form such as an increase of salary or more responsibility, with freedom to use their own initiative, which leads to job satisfaction. Self - improvement- people like to become mature, to develop as people. Many make great sacrifices to improve themselves and their families. Incentives- Incentive is one of the motivating factors to have effective functioning of health team. Incentives motivate the member for better achievement of the team’s goal/objective. The following are some of the incentives: Material and financial incentives Recognition for better performance given by the superiors and the community Dissatisfying Factors Things that make people displeased with their work are known as dissatisfiers or demotivating factors. The team members should try to avoid dissatisfying factors and be aware in advance. Some of the common causes of dissatisfaction are:
  31. 31. 1. Incompetent supervision 2. Poor personal relations 3. Poor leadership quality 4. Low pay 5. Bad working conditions The Danger of Team Work Whose job is it? This is a story of four people named Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody • There was an important job to be done and everybody was asked to do it • Everybody was sure Somebody will do it • Anybody could have done it but Nobody did it • Somebody got angry about that because it was Everybody’s job, but Nobody realized that Everybody thought Anybody could do it • It ended up that Everybody blamed somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could have done. 1.3. Learning activity one: Exercise Broken Squares: Non Verbal Problem Solving Exercise This exercise is intended to demonstrate the importance of working in teams. Doing the game/puzzle consists of a set of five envelopes containing pieces of cardboard cut into different patterns, which, when properly arranged, will form five squares of equal size. One set should be provided for each group of five persons. Procedure to prepare a set of cardboard squares, each 6 inches x 6 inches 0 The square should be 6 inches on both sides. 1 The halfway should be 3 inches, note all marks are halfway. 2 All similar pieces labeled A, C, F should be the same size cuttings as shown. 0 Each set can be made from same color cardboard, or each set can be made from different 1 color cardboards 3 The squares can be placed in a row as below: 4 After cutting the cards as labeled, put all pieces with letters marked into envelopes labeled 1,2,3,4,5.
  32. 32. A B H C I D E F G J Envelope 1: contains the pieces labeled as I, H, E Envelope 4: contains the pieces labeled as D, F Envelope 2: contains the pieces labeled as A, A, A, C Envelope 5: contains the pieces labeled as G,B,F,D Envelope 3: contains the pieces labeled as A, J Essential elements in the game 1. There has to be a facilitator 2. Groups of five participants 3. One observer has to be assigned to each group 4. Cardboard squares in envelopes, ready on the table A. Instructions for Participants in the Game (5 participants in each group) 1. Each participant has to get an envelope which has pieces of cardboards for forming squares 2. After opening the envelope, each group has to form 5 squares of equal size 3. Nobody is allowed to speak when the game is started 4. Each of you can give pieces to others but you cannot take/ask for a piece from any other person 5. Time allowed is 10 minutes and you have to make 5 squares of equal size B. Instructions for Observers of the Game (given earlier before the exercise) 1. Observe the persons in the group 2. Notice and write down what the person does any of the tasks, such as behavior of the person you are observing was helpful or not. 3. Write what the person did and how it affects the team. 4. Also observe the entire team and how they did or did not work together. 5. Do not comment on personality. 6. Do not assist in doing the game. 7. If a participant is breaking the rules, gently tell the person or if necessary call the facilitator. Facilitator has to 1. Read the instructions to all team members. 2. Give each group of five a set of squares in the five envelopes labeled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 3. Fix time (10 minutes)
  33. 33. 4. Ask the group to start the game. When the task is completed, ask each group to discuss the following questions a. In what ways do you think each of you helped/hindered the group in completing the tasks? b. How did members feel when someone holding a key piece did not see the solution? c. How did members feel when someone completed the square incorrectly and then sat back without helping the group further? d. What made the difference between not solving the game and solving it? e. What did the observers see? f. How are some of the things you learn from the game which is true of a real health team life? (Players/Participants first and observers next) Ask the participants to use “Team Effectiveness Critique” to assess how well their team functions in the “Broken Squares” exercise. Help them score and interpret the critique. Following the assessment, ask the participants to discuss the effectiveness of the team’s activities in relation to shared goals/objectives, utilization of resources, trust/conflict resolution, shared leadership, control/procedures, communication, approaches to solving the problem, experimentation/creativity, and evaluation. Ask the participants to record: • Three things they learned from the “Broken Squares” exercise. • Three strengths they learned from the team administration of the “Team Effectiveness Critique.” • Three things that their team/teams needs to work on in order to improve its/their effectiveness. What are the common problems that health staffs are currently facing? • Health problems are increasing and complex • Limited financial support • Limited human resources • Limited logistics • Changes in environment, policies and priorities • Uncertain socio economic conditions For Health System Strengthening many inputs have been provided to the programme implementing townships. ? How do you learn to be a good manager? By looking into a role model Trial and error
  34. 34. Learning ANNEX: TOOL and GAMEs For Leadership & Management Trainer / Facilitator . wm0ef rdrdtaeESifh pmoifb,favmufaumif;aumif; ta[mta=ymb,favmufoefoef em;axmif aewJh y&dwfowf taeeJh wcsdefvHk;em;xJ0ifatmifem;axmifEdkifvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg/ oifwef;wpfckrSm awG;awmp7m/ upm;p7m/ juHqp7m/ OD;a %Smufa7m udk,fygcEQmvSKyf&Sm;aprJh udpP7yfawGwDxGif=yD; xnfhoGif;ay;ygrS oifwef;wpfckvHk;pdwfyg0ifpm;vmrSm =zpfygw,f? vlawG[m pmoif77ifydkwwfvG,fygw,f? wpfOD;7if;ESD;cifrifap=cif;/ twm;tqD;awGz,f&Sm; (oifwef;yHhydk;ol)taeESifh aysmfaysmf&$if&$ifOm%fyGifhvif;=yD; oifwef;om;awG wpfOD;eJh wpfa,mufeJhwpfa,mufjum;rSm&SdwJh Edkifap=cif;twGuf Facilitator games, ice breaker, mind course, energizer, role play, case study & brain teaser rsm;xnfhoGif;ay;7ygw,f?
  35. 35. 'DvdkbJ rdrd/ oifwef;om;taeeJh aus;vufa'o&Sd =ynfolrsm;udk usef;rma7;ynmay;wJhtcg oifhavsmfrJh enf;vrf;awGoHk;=yD;olwdkhOm%fyGifhaprnfhupm;enf;awGoHk;=yD; olwdkhudk pOf;pm;cdkif;yg? olwdkh a+ymwJhpum;udk rsm;rsm; em;axmifay;yg? =yD;rS rdrdvdk7modkh vrf;rSefwnfhrwfay;wwfygap?
  36. 36. Game (1) Clear the Deck “&SKyfaewmawG t7if&Sif;juygpdkh” Theme: To leave any worries they have outside the training room tm;vHk;rsufpdrSdwfvdkufjuyg? 'Daeh'Doifwef;udk oifwef;om;rsm;eHhtwl ,laqmifvmwJh pdwfxJrSm &SdaewJh tawG;awG oHo,awGtay:rSm rdepftenf;i,favmuf tcsdef,lpOf;pm;vdkufyg? tJ'DxJrSm trsm;juD;&Sdygvdrfhr,f? 'DrvmcifrD;zdkrD;ydwfcJh7Jhvm; / tdrftcef;xJwHcg;ydwfcJhrd&Jhvm; / vmcgeD; wpfa,mufaomoleJh a=ymvufppum; r+ywfcJhao;ygvm; / tdrf=yef7if/ taqmif=yef7if e,fzHk;=yefquf7tHk;r,f? uav;awGbmvdkcsifvJar;7tHk;r,f/ ckvuf&Sdta=ctae/ tcsdefrSmbJ c%av;7yfvdkuf=yD; pdwfxJrSmvkyfcsifaewm vkyfp7mawGudk list vkyfvdkufyg?
  37. 37. vufawGhrSm ck'Doifwef;cef;rxJrSm aemufxuf(6)em7DavmuftwGif;awmh a7mufaewJhaemufxyf rdrdtaeeJh wpfckrSrvkyfEdkifavmufbl;qdkwmawG;=yD; tJ'gawGudk oifwef;twGuf taESmifht,Sufr+zpfapa7;twGuf wpfckvkyfju7atmif rdrd pdwful;xJrSm xJhEdkifwJh awGeJh tzHk;eJh aomheJh aoaocsmcsm aowWmav;wpfckzefwD;vdkufyg? qHhavmufrJhaowWm cwf+yD; rdrdpdwful; cyfjuD;juD;wpfck tawG; tzHk;zGifhvsuf rdrda&ShrSm a7mufaeyg+yD? +yD; tJ'DaowWmxJ ckawG;aewJhtajumif;t7mawGudk wpfck+yD;wpfck aoaocsmcsmxJxnfh=yD; tzHk;udkvHk atmifydwf/ aomhcwfodrf;vdkufyg? aomhudkoifhtdyfuyfxJaoaocsmcsmxnfhodrf;vdkufyg? aemuf(6)em7Djum=yD;rS aomhzGifh=yD; vkyfr,fvdkh pdwful;=yD; rsufpdzGifhvdkufyg? uJ oifwef;pjuygpdkh ---- vkyfaqmifp7mawG
  38. 38. Game (2) People Scavenger “&SmyHkawmfusL;” Theme: Ice breaking exercise for letting participants find out about each other 7nfrSef;csuf? 1? oifwef;om;rsm;taeeJ h wpfa,mufeJhwpfa,muf 7if;7if;ESD;ESD;odap7ef 2? tzGJh taeeJh v_yf&Sm;r_&Sdap7ef tcsdef ? 15-20rdepf tzGJhyrm% ? tuefhtowfr&Sdf vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? oifwef;om;wpfOD;pDtwGuf “vl&SmyHkawmf” pm&Guf/ abmyif/ yxr7&SdaomoltwGuf ay;7efqk vkyfief;pOf? 1? oifwef;om;tm;vHk;udk “vl&SmyHkawmf” pm&Guf (arSmufvsuf) ESifh abmyifwpfacsmif;pDay;xm;yg? vl&SmyHkawmfzGifh onfh upm;enf;udk pwifupm;rnf=zpfajumif;a=ym=yyg? 2? oifwef;om;tm;vHk;udk pm&Guf tcsuf+yonfESifh arSmufxm;aom (arSmufvsuf) a0=yD;aemuf
  39. 39. pm&Guf udkvSefI tcef;xJwGif pm&GufxJYygaom vlrsm;udk&Smju7ef? 3? &SmawGhygu 4if;yk*~dKvf trnfESifhvufrSwf a7;xdk;cdkif;7ef? vufrSwfxdk;ay;aomolonf wpf&Gufvsif tuGufwpfuGuf wGifom xdk;cGifh&Sdygonf? 4if;taeESifh t+cm;t7nftcsif; ESifh +ynfhpHkapumrl wpf &Gufvsif wpfuGufom vufrSwfxdk;cGifh&Sdygonf? 4? tuGuftm;vHk; wGif yxrqHk;vufrSwftm;vHk;7+yD;olu “u|efawmf§u| efronf tawmfqHk; vl&SmyHk awmfzGifhEdkifolyg” vdkhatmfyg? 5? pm&Gufudk aocsmpGm ppfaq;I qkay;yg? t+cm;enf;vrf; ? oifwef;om;rsm;. ta+ctaeay:rlwnfI vl&SmyHkawmfzGifh upm;enf;wGif umva'oESifh vdkufavsm nDaxGpGm xnfhay;Edkifygonf? Oyrm “'Daehreuf xrif;ausmfpm;vmcJhol” “bkef;awmfjuD;ausmif;wGif pmoifbl;ol” ponf+zifh pOf;pm; xnfhoGif;Edkifygonf? “&SmyHkawmfusL;” oifwef;om;trnf-----------------------------
  40. 40. oifhtaeeJh atmufaz:+yyg vufrSwfxdk;cdkif;yg? efawmf§u|efronf ta,muf yk*~dKvfrsm;udk (20)vHk; tawmfqHk; &SmazG+yD; vufrSwfxdk;=yD;ygu vl&SmyHk awmfzGifhEdkifolyg” vdkhatmfyg? trnf “u| vufrSwf (1) oifeJhtuFsDta7mifqifwl0wfxm;ol ------------------------------ (2) oifeJharG;vwlwJhol ------------------------------ (3) oifeJharG;aeheHwlwJhol (Sun, Mon born) ------------------------------ (4) tdrfrSm acG;arG;xm;wJhol ------------------------------ (5) tdrfrSm ajumifarG;xm;wJhol ----------------------------- (6) vufpGyf0wfxm;wJhol ------------------------------ (7) vufpGyf0wfrxm;wJhol ------------------------------ (8) abmvHk;uef0goemygol ------------------------------ (9) tysdK/ vlysdK ------------------------------ (10) xrif;csuf0goemygol ------------------------------ (11) t7rf;junfhaumif;wJhol ------------------------------
  41. 41. (12) oiftus…eJh ta7mifuGJ0wfxm;ol (13) c&D;oGm;0goemygol ------------------------------------------------------------- (14) oifeJhwpfausmif;xJpmoifbl;ol (15) uav;(4)a,mufarG;xm;ol ------------------------------------------------------------ (16) 7Dp7ma=ymwwfol ------------------------------ (17) aomjumom; / orD; ----------------------------- (18) cspfzdkhaumif;ol ------------------------------ (19) ynmwwfyHkaygufol ------------------------------- (20) 'DtzGJhxJrSm ti,fqHk; ------------------------------ Game (3) Broken squares “pwk7ef; 5 ck+zwfqufpdkh” Theme: Non Verbal Problem Solving exercise 7nfrSef;csuf - oifwef;om;rsm;taeESifh toif;tzGJheJh =yema+z&Sif;wJhtcg &Sd7rJh t7nftcsif;rsm;ukd odwwfoGm;ap7ef? tcsdef ? 15-20rdepf (Team Building Efficiency) tvdkvdk
  42. 42. tzGJhyrm% ? tkyfpkrsm; / wpftkyfpkvsif (5)OD;/ tkyfpkwpfpktwGuf apmifhjuyfjunfh&_olwpfOD;pDxm;7ef/ vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? 6vufr ywfvnf u'frsm;udk atmufygtwdkif; +zwfquf+cif;+zifh pwk7ef; (5)ck7rnf+zpfygonf/ 5 A B H C I D E F G J pmtdwf (1) wGif I, H, E tydkif;rsm; ygrnf pmtdwf (2) wGif A, A, A,C tydkif;rsm; ygrnf pmtdwf (3) wGif A, J tydkif;rsm; ygrnf pmtdwf (4) wGif D,F tydkif;rsm; ygrnf pmtdwf (5) wGif B, C, F, G, tydkif;rsm; ygrnf tpDtpOf 1? (5)a,mufwpftkyfpkrSm – ay;xm;r,f? “p”r,fqdkrS tdwfzGifh7ygr,f? pmtdwf(5)tdwfwpfa,mufwpftdwfpD
  43. 43. 2? “p”=yDqdkwmeJh rdrdtdwfxJrSm&SdwJh puULu'fawGxkwfyg? rdrdwdkhwpfOD;csif;a&ShrSm 6 vufr pwk7ef; (square) wpfck=zpfatmifvkyf7r,f? 3? vkyf7rSmu 6 vufrywfvnf pwk7ef; “5”ck (5 squares) vkyf7rSmyg? upm;enf; Oya' (Rule of the Game) 1? tzGJhom;rsm;u pum;vHk;0ra=ym7yg? 2? rdrdrSm&SdwJhu'ftydkif;udk olrsm;udk ay;Edkifygw,f? 3? olrsm;rSm&Sdwmudk vSrf;r,l7yg? rawmif;7yg? 4? tcsdef(10)rdepftwGif; Squares (5)ck 7atmifquf7ygr,f? 5? u'ftydkif;awGudk pm;yGJtv,frSm yHkcsrxm;ygeJh? apmifhjunfholrSvdkufem7rnfhtcsufrsm; (Instruct to Observers) 1? tzGJhom;rsm;udk junfh7ygr,f? 2? olwdkhtcsif;csif;pum;ra=ym7ef a=ym7ygr,f? 3? wpfOD;csif;pD7Jh vkyfaqmifrSKudk (Note down) rSwfom;xm;7ygr,f? 4? vlwpfa,mufcsif;7Jh t=yKtrlu tzGJhtay:rSm b,fvdkoufa7mufvJ apmifhjunfhyg? (observe) 5? olwdkhaygif;vkyfvm;/ ay;=yD;vkyfief;atmifvm;? apmifhjunfhyg?
  44. 44. 6? pum;a=ym7if owday;yg? 7? olrsm;qDu awmif;wmawGh7if rSwfom;xm;yg? 8? 0ifrul7yg? 0ifra=ymay;7yg? ar;cGef; 1? udk,fbmomudk,f'DtzGJh7Jh awG Squares qufpyfrSKrSm b,fvdkulnDcJhovJvdkh/ upm;7ygovJ? 'grSr[kwf b,fvdktaESmuft,Suf=yKrdw,fvdkh cHpm;7ygovJ? 2? wu,fvdkh vdktyfaewJh tydkif;udk udkifxm;=yD; ta=zrodwJhvltay: b,fvdkoabmxm;rdovJ? 3? wcsdkKhu udk,fhbmom Squares wpfck=yD;wmeJh vufydkuf=yD;olrsm;rulnDwmrsdK;&Sdovm;? awGh7yg ovm;? 4? tm;vHk; awG quf=yD;wmeJh em;vnfvdkufovJ? wu,fht=yifrSm Squares r=yD;wmbmuGm=cm;rSK&SdvJ? 5? 'Dupm;enf;u b,ftcsufudk usef;rma7;tzGJhtpnf;rSm =zpfysuf &Sdygovm; ? &Sd7ifa=ym=yyg? &Sif;vif;csuf EXPLANATION aewmeJh xif[yfwmrsm;
  45. 45. - 7nfrSef;csufcsif;wlnDwJh wpfa,mufutvdkufwod twGuf wpfa,muf +znfhay;wm vdktyfcsufudk “Sharing”vkyfcsif;=zifh atmif=rifEdkifwm - group xJrSm wpfa,mufvdktyfcsufwpfa,mufjunfhwwfwm? vdktyfwm+znfhqnf;ay; wwf+cif; - “Goal” - 5 Squares =zpf7r,f? - 'Dtwdkif;pum;a=ymcGifhay;vdkuf7if Card awGvk=yD; 7ef=zpfvmEdkifw,f? - acgif;aqmifwpfa,mufay:csifay:vmr,f? ay;ay;igvkyfvdkufr,fvdkh =zpfcsif=zpfr,f? - trSefutm;vHk;acgif;aqmifr_udkr#a0aqmif&Gufwwfju7ef 7nf&G,fygw,f? - udk,fh&Sdwmolrsm;ay;zdkh vG,fulvm;? - olrsm;qDay;vdkufvdkh udk,fhtwGufvJolrsm;=yefay;wm vkyfvdkh7r,f? - wpfa,muftay:wpfa,muf,Hkjunfr_&Sdvmr,f? - pkaygif;+yema+z&Sif;7wmudk em;vnfvmygr,f? - “Sharing” “Co-operative” “Supportive” “Understanding unspoken needs” To HSS Teams (Package Tour) to perform common goal feel
  46. 46. Broken Squares oifcef;pmrS package tour oGm;wJh team rsm;wGif- • wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; vdktyfcsufawG +znfhqnf;ay;Edkif+cif;/ • pkaygif;aqmif&Gufwwf+cif;/ • t+yeftvSefaxmufulaz;r+cif; / ESifh • wpfOD;ay:wpfOD;em;vnfay;+cif; tm; +zifhrdrdwdkhaqmif&Guf7rnfhusef;rma7;apmifha&Smufr_ vkyfief; rsm;udk wGifus,fpGmaqmif&GufEdkifjurnf+zpfygonf? 5 squares =yD;rS goal pGrf;aqmifEdkifrSK/ a7mufrSmvdkbJ acgif;aqmif usef;rma7;aumif;r,f? rdrd7Jh =yvmEdkif7if/ wpfbuf uvnf; package oGm;wJh EdkifrSK&SdrS awGu +ynfolrsm;7Jh udk aoG;=yD; knowledge, skill, competency needs team udk =znfhEdkif7if team effect 7vmr,f? - tcsdwftqufrdrd&Sdju7Jhvm;? - Package oGm;rJhvlawGaoaocsmcsm plan - vkyf7Jhvm;? wpfOD;aumif;tvkyftwGufbJ udk,feJhtwloGm;r,fhtzGJheJh rpOf;pm;bJ/ judKwifawGhqHk zkef;quf/ tajumif;jum;=yD; b,fol bmvkyfjurvJ wm0efcGJ0yg? - toD;oD;udk,fwm0efudk,fausaepOf aehpOf wpfa,ufvdktyfcsufwpfa,mufu od=yD; =znfhqnf; ay;7ygr,f?
  47. 47. qufvuf+yD;rdrdwdkh ywfoufvdkh qufxm;wJh atmufyg pwk7ef;+zwfqufupm;enf;eJh tcsufrsm;ESifh qef;ppf+yD; udk,fhtzGJh7Jh7rSwfudk rSefrSef uefuef trSwfay;juygpdkh 1? 7nfrSef;csuf upm;enf;7Jh 7nfrSef;csufudk upm;enf;7Jh 7nfrSef;csufudk tzGJhom;tm;vHk;rSaumif;pGmr&Sif;yg wpfzGJhvHk;u aumif;aumif;em; vnfygw,f 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2? pGrf;tm;pktoHk;+yK+cif; tzJGhom;tm;vHk;taeeJh udk,fhrSm&SdwJh tzGJhom;tm;vHk;7Jh pGrf;tm;pkudk pGrf;tm;pkudkaumif;pGmr&Sif;yg/roHk;yg wpfzGJhvHk;u aumif;aumif;em; vnf+yD; toHk; +yKcJhygw,f 1 2 3 4 3? ,Hkjunfr_ESifh oabmxm;uGJvGJr_ tzJGhom;rsm;twGif; ,Hkjunfr_tm;eJ tzGJhom;tm;vHk;twGif;,Hkjunf 5 6 7
  48. 48. oabmxm;uGJvGJr_udk a+AmifawGh7ygonf r_&Sd+yD; oabmxm;rwdkufqdkif r_udk a+z&Sif;ygonf 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4? acgif;aqmifr_ pum;ra+ym7o+zifh tzJGhom;wpfa,mufu tzGJhom;tm;vHk;twGif;acgif; juD;pdk;+yD; acgif;aqmifr_tcef;uè udkrawGh7yg aqmifr_tcef;uè udk r#a0 cHpm;7ygonf 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5? juD;juyfxdef;odrf;+cif;ESifh vkyfief;pOf tzJGhtwGif;xdef;odrf;juD;juyf+cif;ESifh vkyfief; tzGJhom;tm;vHk;tpDtpOfwus tpDtpOfwusvkyfonf udkrawGh7yg udk,fhuèudk,f xdef;odrf;wm0ef ,laqmif&Gufjuygonf 1 2 3 4 5 6 6? tcsif;csif;qufoG,f+cif; pum;ra+ymbJ tzGJhtwGif;vkyfaqmif pum;ra+ymbJtzGJhtwGif;aumif; 7wmtcuftcJ awGh7ygw,f aumif; qufoG,fvkyfaqmifju 7
  49. 49. ygonf 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7? +yema+z&Sif;+cif;ESifh qHk;=zwfcsufcs=cif; tzJGhtwGif;+yema+z&Sif; Edkif7efenf;vrf; tzGJhom;tm;vHk;taeeJh tm;vHk; udk tm;vHk;oabmwlnDr_+zifh &Sm rawGhyg oabmwlnDr_eJh +yem7Jhta+z udk&SmEdkifcJhygonf 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8? prf;oyf+cif;ESifh wDxGifr_&Sd=cif; tzJGhtwGif;prf;oyfwDxGif +cif;+zifh tzGJhom;tm;vHk;taeeJh tm;vHk; =yem7Jh ta+zudk &Sm7efwGefhqkwfaeonf uenf;trsdK;rsdK;eJh+yem7 Jhta+z udk wDxGif&SmEdkifcJhygonf 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  50. 50. 9? +yeffvnfqef;ppf=cif; tzJGhtwGif; 7nf&G,fcsuf/ enf;vrf; tzGJhom;tm;vHk;taeeJh tcgtm; vkyfief;pOf ponfwdkh udk t+rJr+ywf avsmfpGm 7yfem; +yD; 7nf&G,fcsuf qef;ppfaecJhonf enf;vrf; vkyfief;pOf wdkhudk qef;ppfygonf 1 2 3 oifwef;om;rsm;udk 4 5 6 pwk7ef;+zwfqufupm;enf;eJh 7 ywfoufvdkh oif,l7&Sdaom tcsuf (3)csufudk a7;cdkif;yg? oifwef;om;rsm;udk pwk7ef;+zwfqufupm;enf;eJh ywfoufvdkh trSwfay;7wJh oifcef;pm7Jh tm;omcsuf (3)csufudk a7;cdkif;yg? oifwef;om;rsm;udk tzGJhtwGif; tm;omr_7apEdkif7ef tcsuf (3)csufudk a7;cdkif;yg? Game (4) Join the Dots “tpufrsm;udk qufjupdkh” Theme: Think outside of the “self limiting boxes” 7nfrSef;csuf - oifwef;om;rsm;taeESifh wcgw7HrdrdawG;aeaom =yemtcsdKh7Jhta=zrsm;rSm abmifcwf xm;wJh t=yifbufrSm &Sdaewwfw,fqdkwmodap7ef? ta=ctae
  51. 51. - abmifausmfawG;ac:wwf7ef? ? tcsdef 15-20rdepf tzGJhyrm% ? tuefhtowfr&Sdf vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? - oifwef;om;wpfOD;pDtwGuf pm&Guf(3)&Guf/ cHwHwpfacsmif;pD - flip chart pm&Guf§ felt-tip pen tpDtpOf 1?oifwef;om;rsm;udk pm&Guf(3)&GufeJhcJwHay;yg? 2?yxrpm&GufrSm (9)puf =yem ygygw,f? (2)rdepftwGif; tpuf (9)pufudk rsOf;a=zmifhav;ajumif;=zifh xdatmifwpfqufwnf; (cJwHudkpm&Gufay:rS rjuGbJ)qGJ7ef? 3?yxrqHk;qGJEdkifoludk qkcsyg? a&Shudkvm=yD; flip Chart ay: qGJ=ycdkif;yg? 4?qufvufI (12)puf rsOf;a=zmifh =yempm&Gufay;yg? (5)ajumif; =zifh tpuf(12)pufudk wpfqufwnf;xdatmif (cJwHudkpm&Gufay:rS rjuGbJ)qGJ7ef? 5?aemufqHk;(16)puf =yempm&Gufay;yg? rsOf;a=zmifh(6)ajumif;=zifh tpuf(16)pufudk wpfqufwnf;xdatmif (cJwHudkpm&Gufay:rS rjuGbJ)qGJ7ef? 6?qGJ7eftcuftcJ&Sdolrsm;udkk ulnD7ef? qGJwwfoGm;olrsm;rS
  52. 52. 7?Tavhusifhcef;rS 77Sdaom ocFef;pm “abmifausmfI pOf;pm;awG;ac:7ef” Oyrm - ay;7ef aqG;aEG;7eftcsuf - wpfcgxJeJh(3)ckpvHk;vG,fvG,fqufwwfygovm;? - vlwdkif;[mtvdkvdkabmifxJu rxGuf7bl;vdkh xifaewwfjuwm obm0=zpfaeygw,f? - wpfcgw7Habmift=yifxGuf=yD;pOf;pm;ay;=cif;=zifh rdrdvkyfief;rsm;udk ydkrdkatmif=rifatmif vkyfaqmifEdkifygrnf? Nine Dots (Join 9 dots with 4 consecutive straight lines not lifting the pen off the paper) tpuf (9)pufudk rsOf;a+zmifh 4 ajumif;+zifh xdatmifwpfqufwnf;pm&Gufay:rScJwHrjuGbJ qufqGJ+yyg . . . . . . . . . Twelve Dots (Join 12 dots with 5 consecutive straight lines not lifting the pen off the paper) tpuf (12)pufudk rsOf;a+zmifh 5 xdatmifwpfqufwnf;pm&Gufay:rScJwHrjuGbJ qufqGJ+yyg ajumif;+zifh
  53. 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . Sixteen Dots(Join 16 dots with 6 consecutive straight lines not lifting the pen off the paper) tpuf (16)pufudk rsOf;a+zmifh 6 ajumif;+zifh xdatmifwpfqufwnf;pm&Gufay:rScJwHrjuGbJ qufqGJ+yyg . . . . Game (5) Tennis Court . . . . with . . . . tennis . . . . balls “wif;epfuGif;ESifh wif;epfabmvHk;rsm;” Theme: Quick exercise to get participants thinking 7nfrSef;csuf - tkyfpkrsm;wGif &$ifvef;wufjuGvmap7ef - oifwef;om;rsm;taeESifh awG;ac:apaom avhusifhcef;?
  54. 54. - oifwef;om;rsm;xJwGif b,folacgif;aqmifvmrvJ? ? tcsdef 5-10rdepf tzGJhyrm% ? tuefhtowfr&Sdf vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? - wif;epfuGif;ESifhwif;epfabmvHk;rsm; yHkygaom pm&Gufrsm;/ cHwHwpfacsmif;pD - tcef;a&ShwGif flip chart pm&Guf§ felt-tip pen tpDtpOf 1?oifwef;om;rsm;udk 5 a,muf wpftkyfpk zGJhxm;yg/ olwdkhudk +yema+z&Sif;7rJh avhusifhcef; aqmif&Guf7rnf+zpfajumif;a+ym+yyg? 2? wpfzGJhpDudk wif;epfuGif;ESifh wif;epfabmvHk;rsm;yHk ygaompm&Guf(1)&GufpDay;yg? 3?wif;epfuGif;udk tay:pD;rS junfh+yD; wif;epfuGif;xJ&Sd wif;epfabmvHk; (15) vHk; udk rsOf;a+zmifh (3)ajumif;+zifh abmvHk; (3)vHk;pDygaom tpdwf (5)pdwf=zpfatmif (cJwHudkpm&Gufay:rS rjuGbJ)qGJ7ef? 4?yxrqHk;qGJEdkifaomtkyfpkudk qkcsyg? a&Shudkvm=yD; flip Chart ay: qGJ=ycdkif;yg?
  55. 55. 5?qufvufI Tavhusifhcef;rS 77Sdaom tzGJhtvdkuf aqmif&Guf7wJh tajumif;aqG;aEG; cdkif;yg? aqG;aEG;7eftcsuf -rnfonfhtoif;u +yem7Jh t+zudkt7ifqHk;7ygovJ -bmajumifhvJ Tennis Court with Tennis Balls wif;epfuGif;udk rsOf;a+zmifh oHk;ajumif;+zifh wif;epfabmvHk; (3) vHk;pDygaom tpdwf (5) pdwf7 atmifydkif;yg? cJwHudk pm&Gufay:rSrjuGbJ qGJ7ef?
  56. 56. Game (6) What Do You See? “oifbmawG hygovJ” Theme: People perceive things differently and perception relates to learning 7nfrSef;csuf - oifwef;om;rsm;taeESifhwpfa,mufeJh wpfa,muf t+rifrwlEdkifwmodapaom avhusifhcef;? - t+rifrwlwJhtwGuf tawG;rwl oifjum;r_yHkpHrwlEdkifjuyg? ? tcsdef 5-10 rdepf tzGJhyrm% ? tuefhtowfr&Sdf vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? - Illusion Photos power point, LCD tpDtpOf
  57. 57. 1?oifwef;om;rsm;udk y&dk*sufwm+zifh "gwfyHkrsm;+yI 4if;wdkht+rif udkar;junfhyg? 2? wpfyHkcsif;rSm awGhEdkifwJh taetxm;/ rawGhEdkifwJh taetxm;/ a=ym+yrSawGhwJh tae txm;awG awGh7wJhtwGuf wpfOD;eJhwpfOD; t+rifcsif;rwlwmawGh7ygrnf? qufvufI Tavhusifhcef;rS 77Sdaom t+rifrwl+cif; tajumif;aqG;aEG; cdkif;yg? aqG;aEG;7eftcsuf -wpfa,mufeJhwpfa,muft+rifrwl+cif; SdESdKif;jurvJ udk b,fvdk!
  58. 58. Game (7) Coloring Days “aeh7ufta7mifrsm;aq;qdk;=cif;” Theme: People perceive differently-can cause conflict in teams 7nfrSef;csuf - oifwef;om;rsm;taeESifhwpfa,mufeJh wpfa,muf t+rifrwlEdkifwmodapaom avhusifhcef;? - oifwef;om;rsm;taeeJh b,fvdk t+rifwlatmif SdjurvJpO;pm;wwfap7ef? ? tcsdef 5-15 rdepf tzGJhyrm% ? tuefhtowfr&Sdf vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? - color stickers, flip chart, felt tip pen tpDtpOf 1? oifwef;om;rsm;udk 5 a,muf wpftkyfpk zGJhxm;yg/ !
  59. 59. 2? wevFmrS we*FaEGxd “7” 7uf&Sd7m wpf7ufpDudk ta7mifowfrSwfay;7r,fqdkygu b,f7uf b,fta7mifowfrSwfay;csifygovJ udk rdrdrsufpdrSdwf=yD; pOf;pm;vdkufyg? 3? wevFmrS we*FaEGxd wpf7ufpDudk tkyfpkvdkufaqG;aEG;=yD; ta7mifowfrSwf+cif;udk ay;xm;wJh color sticker ay:rSm7ufudkcsa7;vdkufyg? rdrdtkyfpkeHygwfudkvJ a7;yg? 4? =yD;v#if flip chart ay:rSm a7;xm;aomaeh7ufrsm;ab;wGif ta7mifrsm;vmuyfyg? ay;xm;aom(5)a,mufwpftkyfpk wpfa,mufta7mif owfrSwfwm wGif wlEdkif wpfa,mufESifh rvm;? tkyfpkrsm;wGif aumwlEdkifygrvm; ? 5? bmajumifh 'D7ufudk 'Dta7mifowfrSwfwmvJ tcsif;csif;wlv#if§ rwlv#if a=ymjunfhyg? aqG;aEG;7eftcsuf -0efxrf;rsm;=zpfvdkh tvkyfESifhywfouf=yD; Monday to Friday tay: cHpm;=yD; +c,fay;wJh color csif;wlovm;? uGJ=ym;ygovm;? -Days of the week u Sunday to Saturday &dk;&dk;av;bJ obm0twdkif;&Sdaew,f? 'gayrJhvlawGu Sunday to Saturday tay: t=rifcsif;uGm=cm;aew,f? 'gqdkvsif 'Dhxufru&SKyfaxG;wJh b,favmufuGm=cm;vdkufjurvJ ta=ctaeay:rSmqdk t=rif
  60. 60. - tvkyf - wm0ef0wW7m; - aygif;oif;qufqHa7; -'DocFef;pmu tvkyfcGifxJrSm wpfa,mufeJh wpfa,muf tcsif;csif;jum;rSm=zpfvmrJh t=iif;yGm;rSK/ wpfa,muft=rifcsif;uGm=cm;r,fqdkwmxuf t=rifudk wpfa,mufu =yem yÃdyuQawGudk em;vnfay;r,fqdkygu oabmxm; avsmhcs=yD; uGJvGJrSK/ taumif;qHk;pkaygif; aqmif&GufEdkifjurSmyg qdkwmudk n$ef;=yay;ygw,f? pdwfcHpm;rSKtvdkuf ta7mifaq;qdk;=cif; Oyrm - teDa7mif -a'go=zpfvdkh rsufESmeDaewmbJ (Your face is Red with fury) yef;a7mif -&SufaoG;=zef;vdkh rsufESmyef;a7mifoef;aew,f pink with embarrassment) t=yma7mif -pdwf"gwfusvdkufwm (I’m feeling blue) tpdrf;a7mif-pdwfxJrSmremvdkvdkufwm (I’m green with envy) c7rf;ykyf -a'go+zpf (He turned purple with rage) t0ga7mif -omoemta7mif t=zLa7mif -pdwfvuf&Sif;vif; EdkifiH+cm;rS aeh7uftvdkuf ta7mifowfrSwfonfh Oyrm Positive meaning of colors Monday White Tuesday Red Purity, Wholesomeness, Sacred ritual Sacrifice, Sex (She is
  61. 61. Brown Green Yellow Violet White, Off White Indigo Blue Black, Dark Blue Violet Indigo Orange Pink Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Earth Fertility, Renewal, Wealth Enlightenment Creativity, Shyness Purity, Wholesomeness, Sacred ritual Mystery, Occult power, Artistic talent Nobility, Tranquility Power Creativity, Shyness Mystery, Occult power, Artistic talent Adventure, Change Love oufwefhta7mifrsm; Oyrm rdk;&Gm+yD;cgp aea7mif=cnfu rdk;pufav;rsm;udk+zwfoef;wJhtcg aumif;uifay:rSm ta7mifckESpfrsdK;ygwJh oufwefhay:vmwwfygw,f? VIBGYOR where V stands for violet c7rf; I for Indigo rJe,f+ym B for Blue t+ym G for Green tpdrf; Y for Yellow t0g O for Orange and vdarRmf R for Red teD Game (8) The Numbers Game “eHygwfrsm;eJ haqmh7atmif” Theme: Practice improves learning, Practice makes perfect 7nfrSef;csuf - oifwef;om;rsm;taeESifh xyfcgwvJvJ avhusifh+cif;+zifh oif,lr_wdk;wufEdkifajumif; od&Sdem; vnfap7ef?
  62. 62. ? tcsdef 10-15 rdepf tzGJhyrm% ? tuefhtowfr&Sdf/ 5 a,mufwpftkyfpkzGJh+yD; tkyfpkvdkuf xdkifygrnf vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? -eHygwfrsm;ygaompm&Guf 2&GufpD ESifhabmyif -flip chart, felt tip pen, timer tpDtpOf 1?oifwef;om;rsm; eHygwfrsm;ygaompm&Guf eHygwf 1 udk arSmufay;yg? 2? 'Dpm&GufxJrSm eHygwf 1 rS 49 txdygygw,f? 3? p+yDqkdwmeJh pm&GufvSef+yD; eHygwf 1 rS 49 xd eHygwftpOftwdkif; 0dkif;7ygr,f/ puUefh 30+ynfhwm eJh 7yfvdkh atmfygr,f/ tm;vHk;7yfvdkuf+yD; rdrd0dkif;=yD;om;pm&GufrSm eHygwfpOf b,f avmufxd 0dkif;+yD;vJ tkyfpkvdkuf trSwfudk aygif;7ygr,f/ 4? tkyfpktwGif; b,fvdkenf;AsL[moHk;+yD; eHygwfawG0dkif;vsif+refrvJ aqG;aEG;yg? 5? aemuffxyf p+yDqdkwmeJh 'kwd,pm&GufrSm 1 up+yD; tpOftwdkif;xyf0dkif;yg/ puUefh30
  63. 63. +ynfhwmeJh 7yfvdkhatmfvsif tm;vHk;7yfvdkuf+yD; rdrd0dkif;=yD;om;pm&GufrSm eHygwfpOfb,f avmufxd0dkif; +yD;vJ tkyfpkvdkuf trSwfudk aygif;7ygr,f/ 6? 'kwd, wpfcgvkyfjunfh=yD;aemuf yxrxufcufcJayrJh enf;odoGm;wJh twGuf rdrd0dkif; Edkifaom eHygwfta7twGuf wpfcgxufwpfcgydkvmwmawGh7ygr,f? aqG;aEG;7eftcsuf - qufvufI Tavhusifhcef;rS 77Sdaom xyfcgxyfcgavhusifh+cif;+zifh oif,lr_wdk;wufEdkifonfh tajumif; aqG;aEG;7ef? Quick Draw, page One 8 22 36 49 35 21 7 6 20 34 48 37 23 9
  64. 64. 10 24 38 47 33 19 5 4 18 32 46 39 25 11 12 26 40 45 31 17 3 2 16 30 44 41 27 13 14 28 42 43 29 15 1
  65. 65. Quick Draw, Page Two 1 5 9 13 17 21 3 24 25 29 33 37 27 7 20 40 41 45 43 31 11 16 36 48 49 47 35 15
  66. 66. 12 32 44 46 42 39 19 8 28 38 34 30 26 23 4 22 18 14 10 6 2 Game (9) Answers without Questions “ar;cGef;r&SdbJa+zjunfhyg” Theme: Just for fun but has sense of critical thinking and creativity. 7nfrSef;csuf - oifwef;om;rsm;taeESifh aysmf&$ifap7ef 7nf&G,fIvnf;aumif;/ - ar;cGef;rodbJa+zygu em;vnfap7ef? owdxm;wJhol tusdK;&SdEdkifajumif;
  67. 67. ? tcsdef 10-15 rdepf tzGJhyrm% ? tuefhtowfr&Sdf/ 5 a,mufwpftkyfpkzGJh+yD; tkyfpkvdkuf xdkifygrnf? vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? -ta+zpm&Guf ESifh ar;cGef;trSwfay;pm&Guf -abmyif tpDtpOf 1?oifwef;om;rsm;udk ta+zpm&Guf ay;+yD; rdrESpfouf7mta+zudk0dkif;cdkif;yg? (3 rdepf) 2? 'kwd,pm&Gufudk a0yg/ 3? rdrd0dkif;xm;aom tuGufvdkuf 7aomtrSwfrsm;udk aygif;7ygr,f/ 4? rdrd b,fvdkvlpm;vJ tkyfpktwGif; vkyfjuyg 5? 200 atmuf7olb,fESpfa,mufvJ 6? 300-900 twGif;7olb,fESpfa,mufvJ 7? 900 txuf7olb,fESpfa,mufvJ aqG;aEG;7eftcsuf - ar;cGef;rsm;udk aemufrS +rif7wJhtwGuf b,fvdkcHpm;rdygovJ
  68. 68. -'Dupm;enf;tay: b,fvdk+rifygovJ ar;cGef;r&SdbJ a+zjunfhyg eHygwfpOfwpfckvsif tcsufwpfcsufa&G;cs,fyg (0dkif;7ef) 1 a,musfm; rdef;r vdifwl cGJ+cm;vdk hr7 2 q7mr ppfom; 7Jom; tqdkawmf 3 tdrf ausmif; 7JXme aq;&Hk 4 tdyfcef; tdrfom rD;zdkacsmif {nfhcef; 5 vuf E_wfcrf; a+caxmuf vufarmif; 6 teDa7mif yef;a7mif t0ga7mif t+zLa7mif
  69. 69. 7 tdk; trav; rvkyfeJh t7rf;aumif; 8 pm;yGJcif; tdyf,mcif; vufudkifyk0g t0wfpkwf 9 vufeJh&dkuf opfom;'kwfeJh wHawmifeJh a+caxmufeJ &dkuf wGwf huef usm; ajumif acG; 1 arsmuf 0 trnf--------------------- trSwfaygif;--------------------
  70. 70. ta+zzwf+yD; 7,farmaysmf&$ifEdkifygap 1 oifhcspfol7Jhvdif a,musf rdef;r vdifwl cGJ+cm;v m; (50) dkhr7 (20) (10) 2 q7mr ppfom; 7Jom; tqdkawmf (10) (20) (50) (100) yxrqHk;cdsef;awG tdrf ausmif; 7JXme aq;&Hk hwkef;u (10) (20) (50) (100) tdyfcef; tdrfom rD;zdka {nfhcef; (10) 3 oifhcspfol[m--- (100) csmif (100) oifhcspfolu oifhudkac:oGm; wJh ae7m 4 b,ftcef;rSmvJ (20) (50) 5 oifhcspfolub,fae7m vuf E_wfcrf; a+caxm vufarmif; udk (20) uf (10) tjuifemay;cJhvJ 6 (100) (50) tjuifemay;cH7=yD; teDa7 yef;a7mif t0ga7mi t+zLa7mif oifh7Jh (20) f wJhrsufESm eDae mif (10) (50) (100)
  71. 71. bmta7mif +zpfoGm; vJ 7 tjuifemay;cH7+yD; tdkif;td trav; rvkyfeJh t7rf;aumif; oifbm a+ymcJhvJ (20) (50) (100) cspfoleJhpdwfaum pm;yG tdyf,mcif; vufudkif t0wfpkwf ufvdkh yk0g (100) k; (10) 8 idkcJhvsif Jcif; (20) rsuf7nfudk bmeJh (10) (50) okwfrvJ 9 oifhcspfoludkpdwf vufeJh opfom;'kwf wHawmi a+caxmufe qdk;vsif oif olhudk &dkuf eJh&dkuf feJhwG Jhuef b,fvdkvkyfrvJ (20) wf (100) (10) (50) 1 oifpdwfqdk;vsif arsmuf usm; ajumif acG; 0 oifhrsufESm (10) (50) (100) (20) ub,foleJhwlovJ trnf-------------------->300 = Creativity; 7rSwfaygif;-----------------------<200 = Critical thinking; 900+ = Superb?
  72. 72. (zefwD;EdkifpGrf;&Sdol) (taumif;qHk; ?) (t+ypf+rifwwfol) Game (10) Fold Your Arms “vufydkufvdkufygf” Theme: Resistance to Change 7nfrSef;csuf - oifwef;om;rsm;taeESifh vG,fvG,fvufrcHbJ vltrsm;taeeJh wif;cHwwfwJh a+ymif;vJr_udk oabmudk od&Sdem; vnfap7ef? ? tcsdef 5-10 rdepf tzGJhyrm% ? tuefhtowfr&Sdf/ vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? -rvdkyg tpDtpOf 1?oifwef;om;rsm; rwfwwf7yfI vufESpfbufudka&Shudk qefhwef;cdkif;yg? 2? csufcsif;vufESpfbufudk vufydkufcdkif;yg? b,fvufutay:rSm&SdvJ rSwfxm;+yD; vuf+yef qefhwef;cdkif;yg? 3? 'Dwpfcg vufydkufcdkif;vsif tay:xm;aomvufudkatmufydkh vdkufyg? 4? oHk;acgufavmuf vkyfcdkif;yg? ckeu
  73. 73. aqG;aEG;7eftcsuf -vufudk b,fvdkcHpm;7ygovJ tay:atmufa+ymif; cdkif;wJhtcg -b,fESpfa,muf avmufu vG,fvG,fvkyfEdkifovJ - b,fESpfa,muf avmufu vG,fvG,f eJh rvkyfEdkifovJ Game (11) Silence “+idrfoufr_” Theme: See who proves herself as a leader playing this game. Tell the students before you begin that no one can make any noise throughout the activity. Group them into two teams and have them stand apart from each other on both sides of the room. Give the students an instruction like, "Line up according to birth date," or "Arrange yourselves in alphabetical order." The students have to figure out how to make a proper line without talking. They can gesture with their hands and write on paper, but they cannot speak. The first team to complete your request correctly wins the round. Continue with as many rounds as you like. The team that wins the most rounds wins the game.
  74. 74. 7nfrSef;csuf - acgif;aqmifr_udk em;vnfoabmaygufap7ef? ? tcsdef 5-15 rdepf tzGJhyrm% ? tuefhtowfr&Sdf/ vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; ? -rvdkyg tpDtpOf 1?oifwef;om;rsm; tcef;wpfbuf wpfcsufpDrSm wef;pDrwfwwf7yfcdkif;yg? 2? 'Dupm;yGJrSm b,folrS pum;ra+ym7yg 3? csufcsif; toif;(2)oif; udk rdrdeHrnf t*Fvdyfvdk Alphabet A-Z wef;pDcdkif;vdkufyg? 4? pum;ra+ym7wJh twGuf trnfrodoludk b,fvdkar;rvJ? 5? csufcsif; toif;(2)oif; udk rdrd arG;wJhckESpf tvdkuf juD;pOfi,fvdkuf wef;pDcdkif;vdkufyg? 6? pum;ra+ym7wJh twGuf arG;ESpfudk b,fvdkar;rvJ? aqG;aEG;7eftcsuf -pum;ra+ym7bJeJh b,fvdkcHpm;7ygovJ? vG,fvG,fulul vkyfEdkifygovm;
  75. 75. WHY TEAM FAIL ? Whose job is it? b,folhtvkyfvJ?? This is a story of four people named tm;vHk;-Somebody Everybody: wpfOD;wpfa,muf –Anybody b,fol+zpf+zpff-Nobody b,folrS r[kwf  There was an important job to be done and everybody was asked to do it ta7;juD;wJhtvkyfwpfck&Sdw,f/ tm;vHk;udkvkyfzdkh a+ymvdkufw,f  Everybody was sure Somebody will do it tm;vHk;taeeJh wpfOD;wpfa,muf uawmh vkyfrSmbJvdkh usdef;ao,lqvdkufw,f  Anybody could have done it but Nobody did it 'Dtvkyfu b,fol+zpf+zpfvkyf Edkifygw,f/ 'gayrJh b,folrS rvkyfjuyg  Somebody got angry about that, because it was Everybody’s job wpfOD;wpf a,mufu 'DudpPeJh ywfoufvdkh pdwfqdk;ygw,f/ bmajumifhvJqdkawmh 'g[m tm;vHk;7Jh tvkyf+zpfaevdkhyg  But Nobody realized that Everybody thought that Anybody could do it
  76. 76. 'gayrJh b,folrS rodvdkufwmu tm;vkH;u b,fol+zpf+zpf vkyfrSmbJ vdkhxifaejuwmudk;  It ended up that Everybody blamed somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could have done. tqHk;owfawmh tm;vHk;u wpfOD;wpfa,mufudk t+ypfwifw,f/ b,fol+zpf+zpfvkyfEdkifwJh tvkyfudk b,folrS rvkyfcJhjuvdkhbJ