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Gender and tobacco final 31st may



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  • 1. Gender and Tobacco with an emphasis on marketing to women Dr. Nilar Tin Director (Planning)
  • 2. “GENDER” refers to the social identity of female and male human beings. OR “GENDER” used to describe the various characteristics assigned to women and men by a given society It defines the boundaries of what women and men can and should be and do. It shapes and determines the behaviour, roles,
  • 3. “SEX” and “GENDER” are not the same! SEX  Biological  Constant across time and location  Universal GENDER Social  Varies across time and location  Contextual 
  • 4. Socialisation starts from birth People are born male and female  Learn to become boys & girls  Grow into men and women in a socio cultural context  Gender-the socially defined roles and responsibilities assigned to men and women in a given culture, location, society and time  Training for adult roles imparted through play and education 
  • 5. Gender and Tobacco use patterns Stereotypical expectations used as justification for limited life choices-masculine images of strength, freedom and ruggedness  a,musfm;av;qdk tm;&Sdvdkh jurf;rS/ 7rf;rS/ vGwfvyfr_&SdrS  Social implication of asking boys to light up cigarette  Approximately 24% of smokers start by age 10 (WHO)
  • 6. Gender and Tobacco use patterns Gendered stereotypes reinforced by moral precepts  Stereotypical expectations used as justification for limited life choices-women are expected as housewives/caregivers FROM TO  People of higher SE status usually begins smoking: Shows independence, glamour, stylish …….
  • 7. Gender and Tobacco use patterns  What about girls and women of lower SE status????? • Peer approval positively correlates with smoking in girls more than in boys • rebelliousness & • sociability makes girls to smoke • Housewives and children have been exposed to secondhand smoke because of smoking husband and father • Of all deaths attributed to secondhand smoke, 64% occur among women (lung cancer, heart disease and other health problems)
  • 8. Gender and Tobacco use patterns  What about girls and women of lower SE status????? • Women and girls tend to smoke as a “buffer” against negative feeling • Young urban Vietnamese women said they might start smoking if they become very unhappy Low income mothers in western countries used smoking as a “time out” from the demands of caring for young children Types of tobacco used by women varies, in some country cigarettes and in some smokeless tobacco is used very heavily
  • 9. The impact of smoking on health Like men, women who smoke can suffer from many tobacco-related health problems such as • lung cancer • cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, bladder, kidney • heart disease • chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases • Stroke • infertility and many other illnesses • In addition, women smokers face a significantly higher risk of developing smoking-related illnesses such as lung cancer and myocardial infarction than men.
  • 10. The impact of smoking on health Additional hazards of women smokers (because of sex) • menstruation (irregular cycles, higher incidence of dysmenorrhoea, etc.) • abnormal pregnancy (spontaneous abortion, premature labor, lower birth weight, infertility) • female-specific cancers (cervix, breast cancers) • lower bone density (among post menopausal women) • Women who use oral tobacco products are also at risk of getting cancers of the gum and buccal mucosa, etc. • Smoking among women who are caregivers also causes a wide variety of adverse health effects in their children, such as lower respiratory tract infections, asthma, middle ear infections, etc.
  • 11. Facts about gender & tobacco • There are currently 1.3 billion adult smokers (>15 years old) in the world, out of a population of 6 billion people • This figure expected to rise to 1.7 billion between 2020-2025 (Guindon & Boisclair, 2003) • Globally, about 80% of the world’s smokers live in low-income and middle income countries (Mathers & Loncar, 2006) • Approximately 250 million women and 1 billion men are daily smokers (WHO, 2002) • While male rates have peaked and are in slow decline, female rates are still rising. • The prediction is that, while 12% of the female population currently smoke, this will rise to 20% by 2025 (Samet & Yoon, 2001)
  • 12. Rate of Tobacco use among women vary considerably around the world • Women comprises 20% of the world’s more than 1 billion smokers • On an average 22% of women in developed countries and 9% of women in developing nations are daily smokers • Data from 151 countries show that about 7% of adolescent girls smoke cigarettes as opposed to 12% of adolescent boys • In Russia 24% of girls (age13-15% of boy) and 27% of boys smoke cigarettes • In Argentina, 27% of girls and 21% of boys smoke cigarettes • In the United Kingdom 23% of women and 25% of men smoke • In the Philippines 9% of women and 48% of men smoke • In Vietnam 4% of women and 70% of men smoke • In Lebanon 35% of women and 46% of men smoke • In Myanmar 33.3% of men and 15% of women smoke (Current smoker) • In Myanmar 31.8% of men and 12.1% of women smoke (Current smokeless)
  • 13. Tobacco Advertisements make people to smoke • 1913- R.J Reynolds company started launching “Camel” brand as the very first cigarette • 1964- Marlboro Man increases cigarette marketing to 10% increase • 1972- Marlboro becomes best selling cigarette • 1920- started to target women and girls in marketing
  • 14. Exploiting Gender Differences to promote Tobacco Tobacco Industry • industry uses positive life style images (health, nature, beauty) to promote the social acceptability of cigarettes Gender issue • girls and women are more likely to fear weight gain than boys, and to initiate and continue smoking for weight control Advertisement for Virginia Slims Uno cigarettes by JTI (Russia) Virginia Slims Noire cigarettes by JTI (Japan)
  • 15. Tobacco advertisement and gender Tobacco Industry • In 2007 RJ Reynolds launched a new cigarette for women Camel 9 • targets girls and women with aggressive and seductive advertising that exploits ideas of independence, sex appeal, slimness, glamour and beauty Gender issue • Tobacco use among women is rising as a result of changes in the role and economic status of women as economy grows • as well as changes in social and cultural factors as nations modernize • advertizes in fashion magazines like Vogue with large youth readership
  • 16. Tobacco advertisement towards girls & women Tobacco Industry In 2009 Pall Mall Scarlet Aromatic Cigarette in attractive bright cherry and silver color packing was launched in Russia Gender issue •designed to appeal young girls (like bright color and aroma) • maximum retail price of 1 USD (an affordable price for young girls)
  • 17. Tobacco advertisement towards girls and women Tobacco Industry •In 2010, Imperial Tobacco redesigned Davidoff cigarettes • With sleek red, white and silver packing and create “the ultimate fashion accessory” Gender issue Girls and women like fashionable things Davidoff cigarettes by Imperial Tobacco
  • 18. Then what to do?????? • Although WNTD 2010 will focus on women it has to take into account the need to protect boys and men from the tobacco companies' tactics also. • It is therefore important that tobacco control policies recognize and take into account gender norms and differences and responses to tobacco in order to …reduce tobacco use and improve the health of men and women worldwide • Awareness and advocacy on gender and tobacco • Community and school based discussion of the health impacts of gender expectations for both males and females
  • 19. • In another 2007 report, Sifting the evidence: gender and tobacco control, WHO commented, Both men and women need • full information about the sex-specific effects of tobacco use… • equal protection from gendered advertising and marketing and • the development of sex-specific tobacco products by transnational tobacco companies • gender-sensitive information about, and protection from, second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to tobacco or nicotine
  • 20. The WHO Framework Convention recognizes • "the need for gender-specific tobacco control strategies“ • "full participation of women at all levels of [tobacco control] policy-making and implementation [of tobacco control measures]" On World No Tobacco Day 2010, and throughout the following year, WHO will encourage • governments to pay particular attention to protecting women from the tobacco companies' attempts to lure them into lifetimes of nicotine dependence.
  • 21. • Tobacco use could kill one billion people during this century. • Recognizing the importance of reducing tobacco use among women, and acting upon that recognition, would save many lives.