Inland waters rra report on nam mae hkok watershed eastern shan state burma myanmar


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RRA report on Nam Mae Hkok Watershed,
Eastern Shan State Myanmar
Watershed Profile

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Inland waters rra report on nam mae hkok watershed eastern shan state burma myanmar

  1. 1. Page 1 of 15 Regional Environmental Technical Assistance 5771 Poverty Reduction & Environmental Management in Remote Greater Mekong Subregion Watersheds Project (Phase I) RRA report on Nam Mae Hkok Watershed, Eastern Shan State Myanmar Watershed Profile By U Sit Bo U Zaw Win CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Mekong Watershed Situation in Myanmar 3. Proposed Watershed Area for Myanmar 2 4. RRA Tool 2 5. General Overview of the Nam Mae Hkok Watershed Area 2 5.1 Biophysical information 2 5.1.1 Land use 2 5.1.2 Climate 2 5.1.3 Geology and soil 3 5.1.4 Water Resources 3 5.1.5 Forest Resources 3 5.1.6 Wild Life 3 5.1.7 Infrastructure 3 Socio Economic Information 3 5.2.1 Population Structure 3 5.2.2 Livelihoods 4 5.2.3. Per Capita Available Land Resource 4 5.2.4 Labour and Gender 4 6. Upland Town Profile 5 6.1 Location and Infrastructure 5 6.2 Population 6 5.2
  2. 2. Page 2 of 15 6.3 Main Economic Sectors 6.4 6 Role of Public Sector and Local Government in Promoting Enterprise 6 6.5 Development of Industries Service Centres 6 6.6 Participation of People 6 6.6.1 Present Employment in Industries of Services Sectors 6 7. Method of Data Collection Village Check List 1. Introduction 2. Village Check List 2.1 Seik Khaung Village 2.2 Pu Mo Village 2.3 Brief on Checklist for household interviews Appendix 1. Upland town (Mongsat ) population & health profile 2. Check list for household interview (lowland fanner, male, married) 3. Cheek list for household interview (lowland farmer, female, married) 4. Check list for household interview (lowland fanner, male, single) 5. Check list for household interview (lowland fanner, female, single) 6. Check list for household interview (upland farmer, male, married) 7. Check list for household interview (upland fanner, female, married) 8. Check list for household interview(upland fanner, male, single) 9. Check list for household interview(upland farmer, female, single) 10. Photos 11. Maps 1. Introduction Under the Regional Environmental Technical Assistance (RETA) Programme, funded by Asian Development Bank, the first phase of Poverty Reduction and Environmental Management in Remote Greater Mekong Subregion(GMS) Watershed Project is launched to carry out a feasibility study for the development of the watershed areas. The preliminary studies are made in all the countries of the GMS, covering such subjects as Natural Resources Policy, Wood Trade, GIS and Land use, Protected Areas Management, Community forestry, Upland agriculture, Rural Infrastructure, Human Resources and Rural Development. Myanmar's involvement in the GMS amounts only to 2% of the total regional area. Six sub-watersheds are identified in this area of which the following three are shortlisted for final selection as project area for the coming phase II. They are: a. Nan Loi b. Nan Mae Ilkok and
  3. 3. Page 3 of 15 c. Nan Mae Khan In the mid-term review meeting held at Vientiane in February 1999, Nan Mae Hkok was tentatively selected as potential second phase project intervention area as the river passes through Myanmar and Thailand, and thus giving the possibility of regional cooperation between the two countries. Although time available for the study precludes field visits, it is considered that whatever information available of the common topics concerning environment, land use and community development would be of some value to the phase I study. The phase 1 project duration is from June 1998 to June 1999. 2. Mekong Watershed Situation in Myanmar Most of Eastern Shan State falls in the Mekong Watershed area. The following table summarises the area of Mekong Sub-watershed falling in various townships. Sr. Area of Sub-watershed Sq. Miles No. Township Mekong Drainage 1 Kengtung 45.79 2 Mong Hpyak 89.03 49.66 3 Mong Yowmg 4 Mong Hsat 5 Mong Hkok 6 Mong Yung 7 Tachi lake 329.91 7.13 617.63 Total 927.22 1312.61 937.04 597.31 - Nam Mac Hkok Nam Mac Hok - Nam Loi Nam Yawng 260.04 1404.89 - 479.79 - Nam Lin 27.51 59.29 705.28 732.35 508.80 1838.46 - - 1170.66 269.75 - - - - - - 590.43 - - - 838.46 273.35 1013.18 - Total 1710.72 1440.41 590.43 - 838.46 65.19 3593.64 1293.21 633.28 8416.97 3. Proposed Watershed Area for Myanmar The phase II project cannot cope with all Sub-watersheds of Mekong falling in all participating countries. The mid-term review meeting held in Vientiane in February 1999 has tentatively selected Nam Mae Hkok subwatershed as future intervention area for the phase II project. This sub- watershed covers part of Myanmar and Thailand, thus facilitating regional cooperation between Myanmar and Thailand. Nam Mae Hkok river originates in Kentung District, flows southwards though Mong-hsat District, crosses Myanmar-Thailand border and thence through Chiang Rai District and Joins the Mekong river. 4. RRA Tool The guidelines for this Rapid Rural Appraisal(RRA.) was formulated by Science, Technology and Environment Organization (STENO) of Vientiane, Lao PDR and sent to Myanmar by fax in February 1999. The actual work can only be started after the visit of the team leader to Myanmar on 20th march 1999. After some lengthy enquiries to the local Forest Department staff at Mong-hsat, the actual field work was carried out in April 1999. 5. General Overview of the Nam Mae Hkok watershed Area 5.1 Biophysical information
  4. 4. Page 4 of 15 5.1.1 Land use Land use system of Nam Mae Hkok watershed area can be summarized as follows. Sr. No. Land use class Area Acres 1 Lowland rice cultivation 6421 2 Terrace Farming 474 3 Upland rice 4155 4 Home Gardens, Orchards 882 5 Shifting Cultivation 7320 6 Deciduous forest 2278 7 Evergreen forest 645497 8 Scrub land 173230 Total 840077 Acres 5.1.2 Climate Since there was no meteorological station on Mong Hsat District, no recorded data for the past years were available. The nearest estimate made from available data from Kengtung and Mong Phyat Districts indicates an annual precipitation of about 63 inches and temperatures ranging from 12' C to 35' C. 5.1.3 Geology and Soil Mainly limestone, latterite and in some places metamorphic rocks occur over the District. Majority of soils found are mountain red brown soils, Brown Forest soils on hilly areas and yellow alluvial soils on flat plains. 5.1.4 Water Resources Nam Moe Hkok is a perennial river although some of its tributaries are seasonal. Small river craft are used to travel to villages along the Nam Moe Hkok river throughout the whole year. 5.1.5 Forest Resources Although forest cover is quite good with evergreen and deciduous forests, the economic value of the forest is quite low due to the effect of shifting cultivation and occurrence of lesser used timber species in small sizes. Bamboos are quite abundant. Occurrence of tree species are limited to Dipterocarpus Spp, Anogeissus acuminata, Salmalia malabarica, Homalium tomentosum, Dalbergia Spp. etc. An area of 118 sq.miles (75528 Acres) is proposed as Nam Hkok Reserved forest at the head waters of the river. Another 10.755sq. miles of forest is set aside to form a protected unclassed forest to preserve forest around Mae Pan Hydro Power Station. 5.1.6 Wild life Except for Sambhur, large game are quite scarce. Wild boar, barking deer, bear, wild dogs and monkeys can still be found in many areas. Quite a number of wild fowl, parrots, doves, partridge, quail etc. are found in the area. 5.1.7 Infrastructure An all weather road connects Monghsat with Taunggyi through Mong Ton & Loilem. There are also fair weather roads from Monghsat to Tachilek and also Mong Hsat to Keng Tung through Mong Pyin. Myanmar Airways operates twice a week flights to Monghsat.
  5. 5. Page 5 of 15 As for communications, postal service, telegraph and Radio-telephone services are available. 5.2 Socio Economic Information 5.2.1 Population Structure Actual population of Nam Moe Hkok watershed cannot be obtained due to shortage of time. The closest representation can be that of Monghsat Township profile which is attached as appendix (1). Since the Nam Moe Hkok watershed area is about 75% of the total township area including the Urban areas, population is estimated as follows: (a) Population 56777 Urban (all) 14858 Rural (0.75%) 41919 male : female ratio 91:100 labour availability 15-49 yr. group (0.75%) 21300 (b) Population Density 14.30/ Sq - Km (c) Population growth rate 0.43% (d) Maternal Mortality rate 1.53/ 1000 live births. (e) Leading cause of death Malaria 5.2.2 Livelihoods Agriculture is the main occupation of the rural population. Available statistics indicates over 11000 acres of permanent agriculture in the watershed area. Land use information from 1989-90 landsat TM imagerry is given in (5.1.1). It was revealed that over 700 sq. miles of closed and degraded forests were affected by shifting cultivation. The availability of swidden land is determined by the traditional rights of the residing ethnic groups, which are mainly Shan, Wa, Ahkhar and Larhu tribes. 5.2.3 Per Capita Available Land Resource For Nan Mae Hkok watershed, per capita available land resources is estimated as follows: Forest land Closed & degraded Forest affected by shifting cultivation other land 6.78 acres 7.85 Acres 0.16 Acres 5.2.4 Labour and Gender Estimated strength of available labour (people of working age 14-49 years) in the watershed area is about 21300 of which male to female ratio stands at 91.100. Since school attendance in quite low, some of the 5 yr. 14 yr. age group would also join in the working group. (See appendix 1) 6. Upland Town Profile 6.1 Location and Infrastructure
  6. 6. Page 6 of 15 Name Monghsat District Monghsat State Eastern Shan State Monghsat township is located between Latitude 20, 4' to 20* 55 'N and Longitude 98 ' 32' to 99 ' 42' E. Adjoining townships are Mongpyin and Kengtun in the north, Monghpyat and Tachilake in the east, Thailand in the south and Mongton and Salween river in the west. The Urban area of Monghsat lies between Hona Village tract in the north, Seikkhaung village tract in the east, Mae Nim village tract in the south and Kya de village tract in the west. Monghsat is linked to Taunggyi, Capital of Shan State via an all weather road through Loilem and Mongton. Two fair weather roads are linked to Kyaington and Tachilik. Monghsat has an airport, served twice weekly by Myanmar Airways. Other communications available are postal service, telegraph and radio telephone services. Being a township as well as District headquarters, the following Government Department are represented. 1. District Peace and Development Council 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Township Peace and Development Council Myanmar Agriculture Service Irrigation Department Department of Livestock Breeding and Fisheries Department of Land Records Forest Department Department of Health Department of Education Immigration Police Customs Audit Construction Electric Power Corporation Myanmar Economic Bank Department of Cooperatives Post and Telecom Judiciary and Law Office Myanmar Airways Jail Department 6.2 Population The population of Monghsat township by Gender breakdown is as follow: Urban 14858 + Rural 55892 = 70750 Male 33822 + Female 36928 = 70750 Ethnic group Larhu 40% Shan 35 % Ah Khar 10% Other Ratio 9 1: 100 15% 6.3 Main Economic Sectors Agriculture both permanent and swidden is the main occupation of the rural population and is only at
  7. 7. Page 7 of 15 subsistence level. Deficit food stuff is imported from lowland States and utility goods and cosmetics are imported from Thailand. No major trading is noted in the township. 6.4 Role of Public Sector and Local Government in Promoting Enterprise A visible public sector involvement in promoting enterprise is the allocation of 8000 acres of land to Wa' National Group for establishment of Litchi (Litchi chinensis) plantation. In 1998-99, 2500 acres has been planted. It will take about three years to complete planting. The Government is encouraging private investors to promote agricultural production by leasing out land in many parts of the country. 6.5 Development of Industries Service Centres No significant developments noted. 6.6 Participation of People 6.6.1 Present Employment in Industries or Service Sectors 6.6.2 Engagement in Business Activities 6.6.3 Engagement in Trade between Upper Catchment Areas and Upland Town People from Upper Catchment Areas brought their agricultural produce to the Upland Town for sale and buy back essential food stuff like salt, rice and preserved fish etc. The volume of trade is not large to be called commercial trading. The system of trade even resembles barter system. 6.6.4 Representation among Staff of Relevant Government Agencies All the Government agencies and departments are represented in the upland town to the appropriate level. Monghsat begin a District as well as Township Headquarters, all township level Government agencies and many of the essential Government Departments of District level, such as District Peace and Development Council, District Police Station, District Education, Health, Agriculture, Forest, Land Records etc. are represented. 6.6.5 Government Measures in Support of Upland Population/Ethnic minorities The Ministry of Progress of Border Areas and National Races is responsible for the rehabilitation of ethnic tribes and is carrying out many development activities concerning Health, Education, Food Security and Infrastructure development. 7. Method of Data Collection Socio-economic and Biophysical data are obtained from Government Department from Monghsat and Taunggyi, Forest Department and Ministry of Health. Field studies can only be made for one upland village and one lowland village. Household Inter-view Checklist is made as follows.
  8. 8. Page 8 of 15 Sr.No Village Occupation Sex Marital Status 1. Upland Farmer Farmer Male Female Married 1 + Single 1 Married 1 + Single 1 2. Lowland Farmer Farmer Male Female Married 1 + Single 1 Married 1 + Single 1 All together (8) farmers are interviewed. Village Check List 1. Introduction In the Eastern Shan State, out of many ethnic tribes, Shans prefer to live in lowland areas and permanently. They cultivate lowland rice and vegetables on the fields which are rain fed or irrigated. If they have to live in higher ground, they practice terrace farming, whether rain fed or irrigated. Larhu and Ahkhar tribes prefer higher elevation and usually live in villages located on ridge tops. Larhus can sometimes cultivate lowland rice in the plains but they live only at the ridge-top villages. The Ahkhar people ^are more like nomads, never living in the same place very long. They practice shifting cultivation (Swidden Agriculture) and move to another places when the food production is insufficient due to depletion of soil fertility. These people never built their houses permanently. It was learnt that these people move to new places about every 15 years. 2. Village Check List 2.1 Seik Khaung Village 2.1.1 Location State Eastern Shan District Monghast Township Monghast Seik Khaung village is located at a distance of 3 km in the North-East of Monghsat on the bank of Nam Mae Hkok river. The Monghsat-Tachilek Motor road passes through this village. The area is relatively plain around the village. (Photo 2 & 3) 2.1.2 History of the Village The village elders estimate that Seik Khaung village was established around 1890. The village was originated by one farmer and his family settling on the flood plain beside Nam Mae Hkok river. As time goes by, it grew in to a village. There was no record of any natural disasters except that of some loss of farm land around 1950 when infiltrated Kuomington Chinese troops constructed an airfield near Monghsat. 2.1.3 Village Population There are (162) household with a total population of 829 people of which (300) are male and (520) are female. All are Shans and Buddhism is their religion. There are some migrations in and out of the village, mostly out of the village as some people cross the border to work in Thailand. The small number of male population indicates this trend.
  9. 9. Page 9 of 15 2.1.4 Resource Base (a) Paddy Land There are 470 acres of paddy land. Lowland rice is grown on all of those areas in the rainy season. Vegetable are grown after paddy. Breakdown of Agricultural land use is as follows: 1. Rain fed paddy land 100 Acres 2. Irrigation paddy land 370 Acres 3. Summer irrigated paddy 20 Acres Rice production for the past 10 years average about 45 baskets (958 Kgs). The present yield is about 35 baskets (745 Kgs). Ownership of paddy land ranges from 1-5 Acres per households. Only some can produce enough to support their families. Most other households get only enough for 6-10 months of the year. Fertilizers are used in rice cultivation with summer paddy. The rest of the fields are used to grow vegetables. Mostly Cabbages are grown which are not only sold in Monghsat (K 30/- each) but sent to Thailand also at much higher price (B 15/- each _= K 120/-). The income from cabbage can be K 10000/- to 50000/- per household. This income is used to buy rice in case of deficit. Some families also work as traders dealing food stuff and utility goods. (b) Natural Forest Although natural forests coverage is good around the village in the past 30 years, the coverage is now decreased due to excessive cutting of small timber and fuelwood. The forest around the village are now in the secondary growth stage with bamboos. Some of the degraded forest are also leased to 'Wa' national to cultivate Litchi. At present, the Forest Department can only encourage to the local People to establish community forest under which the local people can have right of use of the forest resources for at least 30 years. (c) Plantations To ease of fuel shortage problem, the Forest Department has plans to establish 150 acres of fuelwood plantation in 2000-2001. (d) Slash and Burn (Swidden) Agriculture Not practiced by the villagers. (e) Water Supply Wells are dug to get drinking water. The Mae Pan stream is perennial and the water is used for irrigation of fields by means of a weir. (f) Availability of Fish Fish used to be abundant in Nam Mae Hkok and its tributaries. The use of illegal fishing practice, such as mine blasting and electrocuting has reduced the fish population. Now-a-days the people of Seik Khaung cannot get enough fish from the streams. But fish is still available at Monghsat Market. (g) Live Stock Seik Khaung village has the following livestock. 1. Buffaloes 102 Nos
  10. 10. Page 10 of 15 2. Bullocks & Cows 23 Nos 3. Pig 215 Nos 4. Chicken 340 Nos Buffaloes and Bullocks are used as draft animals mostly for ploughing the fields and for cart haulage. Foot and mouth disease is encountered in some years. The Government provides vaccination and treatment through township Veterinary Assistant. 2.1.5 Health Service The village has a Rural Health Centre staffed by one Health Assistant and two Nurses. Main cause of illness is malaria. Severe cases are referred to Township Hospital in Monghsat. 2.1.6 Education The village has one Primary School staffed by (3) teachers. School attendance is 120 students. Being Buddhists, the village monk also helps in teaching. 2.1.7 Veterinary Service There is no separate veterinary assistant allocated to the village. The staff from Monghast veterinary office visit the village at times of need to give preventive vaccination to the animals. The most common disease is foot and mouth disease of cattle. 2.1.8 Agricultural Extension One village tract manager takes care of agricultural extension works for the whole village tract. They distribute fertilizers and technology. 2.1.9 Agricultural Credit Government operated farm credits are not available as yet. Farmers have to depend on rich people. 2.1.10 Availability of Electricity Electricity is available only from 6.00 PM to 9.00 PM from Diesel Generator of Monghsat town. A Hydro-power station is under construction on Mae Pan stream, 15 KM from Seik Khaung village. It is estimated to be finished in 2002. The power available will be 240 KWH and by then village can have more electricity. 2.1.11 Livelihood Strategies (a) Occupation The main occupation of all households is agriculture. Some of the families also open shops selling utility goods and food stuff imported from Thailand and Mainland Myanmar. The distribution of work among gender is such that men work as farmers and women work as traders and shopkeepers. (b) Labor Pattern Hired labor (men and women), communal work force helping each other etc. are the common practices. (c) Use and Control of Resource and Benefits Farming households are led by the father, where as farming and trading combined households share responsibility such that father is in charge of farming and mother takes care of household work and trading. (d) Income and Expenditure Pattern
  11. 11. Page 11 of 15 Families who practice trading, farming and shop keeping are well -to-do people having incomes in the range of 300,000 to 500,000 Kyats. Farming households can have incomes ranging from Kyats 60,000/- to 80,000/-. This income structure is much higher than upland village. The first group of families can live quite reasonably well of with some savings but the second group could only meet subsistence requirements. There are also people of lesser incomes. The standards of living also differ among the groups, the first group having the best houses, furniture and utilities, the second group having only timber or bamboo houses with meager utilities. But, one striking thing about the villagers is that, being Buddhists, they have equally strong piety towards religion, only differing in the quantity in donations but not in the quality. 2.1.12 Development Priorities The following development areas are noted. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Health facilities to combat malaria More arable land through bench terracing Improved agriculture practices Quality seeds More pasture land Income generation through livestock Agro-forestry practices Community forestry 2.2 Pu Mo Village 2.2.1 Location State East Shan District Monghsat Township Monghsat Pu Mu village is situated 12 Km east of Monghsat on a ridge forming the watershed of Mae Sa long stream, which is a tributary of Nan Mae Hkok. This village is 2 Km off the Monghsat-Tachilake fair-weather motor road. This road is the main trade route between Monghsat and Thailand through Tachilake. The nearest market place Pu Mo villagers can go is Mongsat. 2.2.2 History of the Village The village was formed 15 years ago. The old village is said to be located 5 Km further north. The people of this village, being Ahkar tribe, live on shifting cultivation and they never live in the same place longer than 1520 Years. They built their houses on the exposed ridge tops. The Ahkhar people believe that low lying swampy areas are unhealthy. Since this village is established quite recently, there is no report of any natural calamities. (Photo 6) 2.2.3 Village Population There are only (15) household and 76 people of which (46) are male and (30) are female, all of Ahkhar tribe. This village has a male to female ratio of 46:30, very much different from the situation of other villages. 2.2.4 Resource Base (a) Paddy Land
  12. 12. Page 12 of 15 There are about 50 acres of rain fed upland paddy land with ownership ranging from 1-4 acres per household. Paddy yield is around 25 baskets per acre ( 532 Kg/acre) . The same area is cultivated for about 2 to 3 years. After that they move to another place and make a new cut again. Chili and vegetables are grown on the boundary fences with a specially planted cucumber plant in the middle of the cultivated area. The Ahkhar people like chilies and sometimes chilly and salt are the main dish for their meals. (b) Natural Forest There used to be quite a good coverage of natural forests in the area in the past 30-40 years. At the present time there is left only of phon-so (secondary growth) and dominated by bamboos. Tree species that come up after shifting cultivation comprised of fast growing, soft wooded species such as Yemane (Gmilina arborea) Thitsein (Terminalia belerica), Sit (Albizzia procera), Bomeza (Albizzia chinensis). In some places secondary forest of *30 to 40 years can be seen. The only places where original virgin forest ages 30 to 40 years can be found is near water holes and natural springs. Generally therefore the condition of the forest can be observed in (3) different stages: i. The virgin forests near springs ii. Old secondary growth iii. Tertiary regrowth derived from cutting of the secondary growth. Although a lot of vegetative cover is present on the area, providing good soil cover, there is not much economic value in the forest except from the watershed management point of view. No forest conservation programmes exist near the village. (c) Plantations No forest plantation have been established in this area. The villagers have requested to the Forest Department to allocate funds for establishing fuelwood and watershed plantations in coming years. (d) Slash and Burn (Swidden) Agriculture The whole agriculture system is based on Slash and Burn cultivation. All the areas around the village are affected. (e) Water Supply A pipe line system is constructed to carry water from a spring 1 Km from the village to the centre of the village. Fetching water from this source to their homes is the duty of all family members including children and elderly people. Dried Gourd is used as water container (see photo number 7) Agriculture is totally rain fed. No Irrigation practiced. (f) Availability of Fish Fishing in the streams 3 to 5 Km away from village may produce some fish but fish is quite scarce. There is no fish breeding program. (g) Live Stock The present status of livestock is as follows. 1. Buffaloes 10 Nos 2. Bullocks/Cows 7 Nos 3. Pigs 100 Nos 4. Chicken 200 Nos
  13. 13. Page 13 of 15 Some occurrence of foot and mouth disease is noted. No serious problem encountered with pigs and chicken. Occasional vaccination is received. Pigs are sold out to buy rice and salt and for own consumption. 2.2.5 Health Service The village has no health care facility. Local medicine is used for minor cases. More serious cases have to go to Monghsat township hospital about 12 Km from the village. Malaria is the most Common disease. 2.2.6 Education The Ministry of Education has allotted a primary school for the village. Since the school attendance is negligible, primary school can not be opened in the village. Most of the people are Christians. 2.2.7 Veterinary Service No separate veterinary service allotted for the village. The township veterinary Assistant will visit the village when necessary to give vaccination. 2.2.8 Agricultural Extension Non existant. 2.2.9 Agricultural Credit Not available. 2.2.10 Availability of Electricity None. 2.2.11 Livelihood Strategies (a) Occupation All the people of the village are engaged to household and agriculture activities. The children has to fetch water while the elder people collect firewood. The men folk cut forests for shifting agriculture while women plant crops, tend and harvest the crops. In the leisure time men go out hunting and fishing. Some people go to other places to work as labourers after the cultivation is done. (b) Labor Pattern No hired labour is used in agriculture. Only communal labour pools are formed to help one another in times of need. (c) Use and Control of Resource and Benefits Agriculture is family occupation and therefore all members are responsible to help in all stages. Trading of livestock is taken up by men but the proceeds are used for the family affairs. Most of the people are at subsistence level. (d) Income and Expenditure Pattern There is not much difference in status among the villagers. Income levels range from K60,000/(well-to-do), K40,000/-(Mediocre) to K24,000/-(poor). Most of the families does not go very far beyond subsistence level. Those who can manage to save some extra money will spend for new clothes. The main item these people like to save is salt and rice. The status of a villager can be differentiated by the number of silver coins attached to their dresses. 2.2.12 Development Priorities
  14. 14. Page 14 of 15 The following areas need development. a. To convert distructive elements of Swidden agriculture to constructive forest plantation establishment. b. Health Care, more preventive measures, more health information. c. d. e. f. Livestock breeding Pasture and feed staff development New technologies in agriculture Improved seed for higher production g. Educational Programmes to discourage Swidden agriculture and to move towards more permanent type of agriculture through incentives and education. h. Infrastructure development. 2.3 Brief on Checklist for household interviews The survey team interviewed 8 farmers from two villages. 4 farmers live lowland village and 4 farmers live upland village. They are as follow. -Sr. Name Sex Village Remark 1 Daw Nan Lat Female Seikkhaung Married 2 Sai Zaw Win Male Seikkhaung Married 3 U Nan Di Yi Male Seikkhaung Single 4 Nam Wine Female Seikkhaung Single 5 Ahar Mu Male Pumo Married 6 Pu Cho Female Pumo Married 7 Ahar Phyit Male Pumo Single 8 May Nyee Female Pumo Single General Information Household interview paper of 8 farmers are attached in Appendix (2-9). The following are General information of those paper. 1. Health Malaria is common problem of lowland & upland area. 2. Housing Low Land area houses are constructed with hardwood Timber and some houses used cement for wall and floor. Upland villagers construct their houses using timber for posts, bamboo for wall and floor and Thatch for roofing. 3. Live stock Livestock raised by lowland farmers are mainly buffaloes and cattle. Pig farming is the main livestock activities of up land farmers. 4. Household landuse
  15. 15. Page 15 of 15 Lowland farmer own 1-5 areas of paddy land and upland farmer own average 1 acre paddy land. 5. Food situation Most of farmers who cultivate lowland areas get enough for their consumption but all farmers from upland areas do not get enough for their consumption. 6. Cash crop situation Lowland farmers cultivate cabbage in dry season and upland farmers plant chili & vegetable along paddy field boundary. 7. Forest resource Both of two village face with fuelwood shortage due to forest degradation. 8. Change of Crop Production Production of Swidden land paddy yield are decreasing year by year. 9. Development priorities suggestion of all farmer from upland and lowland are as follow: To create sustained income. To provide pasture development. To conserve natural forest. To plant fuelwood plantation. To get more agriculture land.