Objectives unit 6
1. Introduce the concept of culture
2. Relate the concept of identity to culture
3. Introduce the concep...
Census Aruba 2010:
Aruba is multicultural and has always been
“Aruba tin 96 diferente nacionalidad di 133
diferente pais”
...
Activity 1:
• In your own words, what does culture mean
to you and what associations do you get when
thinking about cultur...
“A way of life”
• The full range of learned human behavior
patterns
• Everything that people create or develop:
• Values, ...
The concept of culture
• Definition of culture as a concept has implications
for our categorization processes, the way we
...
Defining Culture:
Culture as
“ processes of continuing shifting and changing
systems of meaning” *. There are “shared
syst...
A more practical definition of culture
• The full range of learned human behaviour
patterns. It refers to everything that ...
Characteristics of Culture
1. Culture is learnt (socialization, see unit 5)
2. Culture is dynamic: ongoing process shaping...
Activity 2:
• Compare the culture of your grandparents
with yours:
• Culture is variable over time and place!
2 types of culture
Material culture
Part of the culture that is
concrete and tangible, the
material things that a society
...
Activity 3:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

State whether the examples below represent material or
non-material culture:
Food
Norms
M...
Activity 4:
Arubansare/or my specific cultural group, is...
• Imagine you are living abroad, and you have
to explain to yo...
Stereotyping
• To stereotype someone is to attribute to that
person some characteristics which are seen to
be shared by al...
StereotypesPrejudice
• Prejudice: the holding of derogatory social
attitudes or cognitive beliefs, the expression
of nega...
Cultural variability: dimensions
“Culture is like a mental software”
Culture is always a collective
phenomenon, shared by
individuals that live in the
same...
5 dimensions (Hofstede)
• The foundation for most cross-cultural interpretation is
the work of Geert Hofstede. He studied ...
Individualism - Collectivism
• The degree to which individuals are supposed
to look after themselves (individualism) or
re...
1. Individualism - Collectivism
Individualism

collectivism

“I” consciousness
1. The individual is the single most
import...
2. Power distance
The extent to which a society prefers that power in relationships, institutions, and
organizations is di...
3. Masculinity - Feminity
• The degree to which masculine or feminine traits are valued
and revealed. This scale refers to...
4. Uncertainty avoidance
•
•

The future is unknown.
Uncertainty Avoidance measures the extent to which a culture programs...
5.Long-term vs short-term orientation
• Orientation towards time. Long-term orientation refers to the extent to
which a cu...
Acculturation in plural societies
Plural societies
• As a result of immigration many societies
become culturally plural
• i.e. people of many cultural backg...
Acculturation
• Acculturation comprehends those phenomena which
result when groups of individuals having different
culture...
Acculturation strategies
• In all plural societies, cultural groups and their individual members,
in both the dominant and...
The process:
• When these two underlying issues are considered
simultaneously, a conceptual framework (Fig. 1) is
generate...
1) Is it considered to be of
value to maintain one’s
identity and

yes

no

characteristics? 

2) Is it considered to be ...
4 acculturation strategies
(from the point of view of the non-dominant/minorities groups):

1.

2.
3.
4.

Integration: Whe...
Week 11 cultural identity Kcom 222
Week 11 cultural identity Kcom 222
Week 11 cultural identity Kcom 222
Week 11 cultural identity Kcom 222
Week 11 cultural identity Kcom 222
Week 11 cultural identity Kcom 222
Week 11 cultural identity Kcom 222
Week 11 cultural identity Kcom 222
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Week 11 cultural identity Kcom 222

  1. 1. Objectives unit 6 1. Introduce the concept of culture 2. Relate the concept of identity to culture 3. Introduce the concept of cultural variability and operationalize this in different cultural dimensions (Hofstede) 4. Present the concept of acculturation, how this relates to cultural identity and multicultural societies 5. Apply abovementioned concepts/theories (point 1-4) to Aruba’s context
  2. 2. Census Aruba 2010: Aruba is multicultural and has always been “Aruba tin 96 diferente nacionalidad di 133 diferente pais” Aruba has 96 different nationalities from 133 different countries
  3. 3. Activity 1: • In your own words, what does culture mean to you and what associations do you get when thinking about culture?
  4. 4. “A way of life” • The full range of learned human behavior patterns • Everything that people create or develop: • Values, norms, goals, and culture in general develop as people interact with each other over time; • It includes beliefs, values, behaviors and physical objects that create a people’s way of life • People create their culture, and this culture in turn shapes their behavior
  5. 5. The concept of culture • Definition of culture as a concept has implications for our categorization processes, the way we describe, evaluate, understand and communicate about cultures (ours and theirs) • Difference between static and dynamic approaches of the concept culture – A statically entity, block, unchanging, monolithic – A dynamic entity, changeable, contextual and with internal variations • Stereotypes are often related with statically views of culture (unchanging, generalizations, “they all are the same”)
  6. 6. Defining Culture: Culture as “ processes of continuing shifting and changing systems of meaning” *. There are “shared systems of values, norms, ideas, attitudes, behaviours, means of communication and the products of these” ** that are continuingly created in the interaction with their particular environment. [Systems of meaning] that play an important role in shaping the behaviour of the individual.*** *Bartels en Brouwer, 1999:16 **Van Oudenhoven, 2002: 14 *** Berry, 1997
  7. 7. A more practical definition of culture • The full range of learned human behaviour patterns. It refers to everything that people create or develop. Values, norms, goals and culture in general develop as people interact with one another over time. It includes beliefs, values, behaviours and physical objects that create a people’s way of life • People create their culture and this culture in turn shapes their behaviour
  8. 8. Characteristics of Culture 1. Culture is learnt (socialization, see unit 5) 2. Culture is dynamic: ongoing process shaping and re-shaping itself, variable over time and place 3. Culture is shared (negotiated agreements: conventions) 4. Culture is transmittable (from one generation to the other one) 5. Culture is adaptive: in order to survive, it must adapt to changes in society 6. Culture is symbolic
  9. 9. Activity 2: • Compare the culture of your grandparents with yours: • Culture is variable over time and place!
  10. 10. 2 types of culture Material culture Part of the culture that is concrete and tangible, the material things that a society creates and uses for survival; Physical and technological aspects of our daily lives, including: food, houses, clothing, paintings, books etc… Non-material culture All intangible components of our ways of life: language, norms, ideas, believes, it includes: religion, techniques, philosophies etc…shared by members of the society
  11. 11. Activity 3: • • • • • • • • • • State whether the examples below represent material or non-material culture: Food Norms Monuments Values Religious beliefs Clothing Ideas Church buildings Beliefs Art
  12. 12. Activity 4: Arubansare/or my specific cultural group, is... • Imagine you are living abroad, and you have to explain to your new friends what it means to be ‘Aruban’ or your specific cultural group? • How would you describe the Aruban culture or your specific cultural group to your new friends?
  13. 13. Stereotyping • To stereotype someone is to attribute to that person some characteristics which are seen to be shared by all or most of his or her fellow group members (Brown, 1995) • Stereotypes can lead to prejudice
  14. 14. StereotypesPrejudice • Prejudice: the holding of derogatory social attitudes or cognitive beliefs, the expression of negative affect or display of hostile or discriminatory behaviour towards members of a group on account of their membership of that group (Brown, 1995)
  15. 15. Cultural variability: dimensions
  16. 16. “Culture is like a mental software” Culture is always a collective phenomenon, shared by individuals that live in the same social environment. Culture is composed of the unwritten rules of the social game. It is the collective mental programming of the members of a group or categories of people that distinguish themselves from other groups/categories Geert Hofstede The foundation for most cross-cultural interpretation is the work of Geert Hofstede.
  17. 17. 5 dimensions (Hofstede) • The foundation for most cross-cultural interpretation is the work of Geert Hofstede. He studied the value dimensions that vary across cultures • Hofstede developed with the help of large-scale (+/- 50 countries) samples starting in the 1970s cultural index scores for five constructs: 1. Power distance, 2. Uncertainty avoidance, 3. Individualism/Collectivism, 4. Masculinity/Feminity and 5. Long term/Short term orientation.
  18. 18. Individualism - Collectivism • The degree to which individuals are supposed to look after themselves (individualism) or remain integrated into groups (collectivism). • All cultures have both individual and collective dispositions
  19. 19. 1. Individualism - Collectivism Individualism collectivism “I” consciousness 1. The individual is the single most important unit in any social setting 2. independence rather than dependence is stressed 3. individual achievement is rewarded 4. The uniqueness of each individual is of paramount value “We” consciousness 1. Characterized by a more rigid social framework that distinguishes between in in-groups and out out-groups 2. Greater emphasis on the views, needs, and goals of the in in-group rather than one one-self 3. Social norms and duty defined by the in in-group rather than behavior to get pleasure 4. Beliefs shared with the in in-group rather than beliefs that distinguish self from in in-group 5. Great readiness to cooperate with in in-group members.
  20. 20. 2. Power distance The extent to which a society prefers that power in relationships, institutions, and organizations is distributed. Or: (rephrased) The extent to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. The classroom/ work context/family context: how is power distributed? Large power distance Small power distance Believe that power and authority are facts Inequality in society should be minimized. of life. Social hierarchy is prevalent; The powerful and the importance placed on status and rank powerless try to live in harmony.
  21. 21. 3. Masculinity - Feminity • The degree to which masculine or feminine traits are valued and revealed. This scale refers to the distribution of emotional roles between the genders, it opposes “tough” masculinity to “tender” feminity. Masculinity Feminity The extent to which dominant values in society are male oriented. These cultures are associated with such behaviors as ambition, differentiated sex roles, achievement, the acquisition of money, and signs of manliness Stress caring and nurturing behavior. A feminine world view maintains that people need not be aggressive and that men and women can assume nurturing roles; it also promotes sexual equality and holds that people and the environment are important. Gender roles are more fluid. Interdependency and androgyny are the ideal.
  22. 22. 4. Uncertainty avoidance • • The future is unknown. Uncertainty Avoidance measures the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations and tries to control the uncontrollable. The extent to which people within a culture are made nervous by situations which they perceive as unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable, situations which they therefore try to avoid by maintaining strict codes of behavior and a belief in absolute truths. High Uncertainty Avoidance Low uncertainty Avoidance Try to avoid uncertainty and ambiguity by providing stability for their members, establishing more formal rules, not tolerating deviant ideas and behaviors, seeking consensus, and believing in absolute truths and the attainment of expertise. More easily accept the uncertainty inherent in life and are not as threatened by deviance, tolerate the unusual. They prize initiative, dislike structure associated with hierarchy, are more wiling to take risks, are more flexible, think there should be as few rules as possible, depend less on experts, more on common sense .
  23. 23. 5.Long-term vs short-term orientation • Orientation towards time. Long-term orientation refers to the extent to which a culture programs its members to accept delayed gratification of their material, social and emotional needs. How do we value patience? Long-term orientation Short-term orientation • Adaption of traditions to a modern context • Funds available for investments • Perseverance towards slow results • Respect for social and status obligations within limits • Concerns with respecting the demands of virtue • • • • Respect for traditions Little money available for investment Quick results expected Respect for social and status obligations regardless of costs • Concerns with possessing the truth
  24. 24. Acculturation in plural societies
  25. 25. Plural societies • As a result of immigration many societies become culturally plural • i.e. people of many cultural backgrounds come to live together in a diverse society • In many cases they form cultural groups that are not equal in power (numerical, economic or political) • These differences give rise to terms such as “mainstream”, “minority”, “ethnic group”
  26. 26. Acculturation • Acculturation comprehends those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups” • The 2 groups in this definition are 1) mainstream society (cultural group in host country) and 2) minority groups • Although the concept is neutral, i.e. change may take place in either or both groups, in practice acculturation tends to induce more change in one or both groups
  27. 27. Acculturation strategies • In all plural societies, cultural groups and their individual members, in both the dominant and non-dominant situations, must deal with the issue of how to acculturate. • Strategies with respect to two major issues are usually worked out by groups and individuals in their daily encounters with each other. They resolve two important issues • These issues are: 1. cultural maintenance: to what extent are cultural identity and characteristics considered to be important, and their maintenance strived for 2. contact and participation: to what extent should they become involved in other cultural groups, or remain primarily among themselves
  28. 28. The process: • When these two underlying issues are considered simultaneously, a conceptual framework (Fig. 1) is generated which posits four acculturation strategies. • These two issues can be responded to on attitudinal dimensions, represented by bipolar arrows. For purposes of presentation, generally positive or negative (“yes” or “no” responses) to these issues intersect to define four acculturation strategies
  29. 29. 1) Is it considered to be of value to maintain one’s identity and yes no characteristics?  2) Is it considered to be of value to maintain relationships with larger society?  yes Assimilation (1.yes/2.yes) no Integration (1.no/2.yes) Separation/ Segregation Marginalization (1.yes/2.no) (1.no/2.no)
  30. 30. 4 acculturation strategies (from the point of view of the non-dominant/minorities groups): 1. 2. 3. 4. Integration: When there is an interest in both maintaining one’s original culture, while in daily interactions with other groups, Integration is the option; here, there is some degree of cultural integrity maintained, while at the same time seeking to participate as an integral part of the larger social network. Assimilation: when individuals do not wish to maintain their cultural identity and seek daily interaction with other cultures, the Assimilation strategy is defined Separation/segregation: when individuals place a value on holding on to their original culture, and at the same time wish to avoid interaction with others, then the Separation alternative is defined. Marginalization: when there is little possibility or interest in cultural maintenance (often for reasons of enforced cultural loss),and little interest in having relations with others (often for reasons of exclusion or discrimination) then Marginalization is defined

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