Quality without Heroics


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How do you make Quality the norm? Some tips to get you there

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Quality without Heroics

  1. 1. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Quality without Heroics Jason Yip, jcyip@thoughtworks.com Kristan Vingrys, kvingrys@thoughtworks.com
  2. 2. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Questions •! Is it so uncommon for things to work that when they finally do, you break out in celebration? •! Do you frequently burn the midnight oil and rely on heroic efforts to get a system into production? •! If we had a distribution of your customer experiences, where would zero raised defects lie? A worthy goal? Or is it even within the realm of possibility?
  3. 3. © ThoughtWorks 2008 •! Quality can reduce costs. –! “When people and organizations focus primarily on quality, defined by the following ratio quality tends to increase and costs fall over time.” W. Edwards Deming’s philosophy •! Your customers are publicly praising the quality of your product or service. Complete fantasy? •! What can you do right now to apply these concepts to the software development context that don't require any more resources then you currently have. Why should I care?
  4. 4. © ThoughtWorks 2008 What is Quality? http://www.flickr.com/photos/kb35/349762358/
  5. 5. “Quality is a customer determination, not an engineer's determination, not a marketing determination, or a general management determination. It is based upon the customer's actual experience with the product or service, measured against his/her requirements - stated or unstated, conscious or merely sensed - and always represents a moving target.” -- Armand V. Feigenbaum
  6. 6. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Where are you on the Quality curve?
  7. 7. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Haven’t I heard all this before?
  8. 8. © ThoughtWorks 2008 In 1912, Frederick Winslow Taylor is brought before a House of Representatives Special Committee to discuss the moral implications of his new task management system.
  9. 9. © ThoughtWorks 2008 The 4 main principles of the Taylor system 1.! Scientific task design –! ‘develop a science for each element of a man's work, which replaces the old rule of thumb method‘ 2.! Scientific selection •! 'scientifically select and then train, teach and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could'. 3.! Management-worker co-operation •! ‘heartily co-operate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed'. 4.! Equal division of work –! 'There is a an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all the work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men.'
  10. 10. “The new way is to teach and help your men as you would a brother; try to teach him the best way and show him the easiest way to do his work.” -- Frederick Winslow Taylor
  11. 11. “I can say, without the slightest hesitation, that the science of handling pig-iron is so great that the man who is ... physically able to handle pig-iron and is sufficiently phlegmatic and stupid to choose this for his occupation is rarely able to comprehend the science of handling pig-iron.” -- Frederick Winslow Taylor
  12. 12. “We will win, and you will lose. You cannot do anything because your failure is an internal disease. Your companies are based on Taylor’s principles. Worse, your heads are Taylorized, too. You firmly believe that sound management means executives on the one side and workers on the other, on the one side men who think and on the other side men who only work.” -- Konusuke Matsushita
  13. 13. © ThoughtWorks 2008 In 1950, the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers invites Dr. William Edwards Deming to lecture in Japan.
  14. 14. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Quality = Results of work Total costs
  15. 15. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Focuson Costs Quality Quality = Results of work Total costs Not minimising waste Ignoring unnecessary rework Taking staff for granted Not rapidly resolving disputes Not noticing lack of improvement
  16. 16. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Focuson Quality = Results of work Total costs Minimise waste Amplify Learning Engage Staff Effective conflict resolution Continuous improvement Costs Quality
  17. 17. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Plan Do Check Act
  18. 18. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa was active in the integration and expansion of these concepts into actual practice
  19. 19. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Quality is too important to leave in the hands of specialists
  20. 20. © ThoughtWorks 2008 How do we encourage an atmosphere of problem-solving? http://www.flickr.com/photos/sloth_rider/392367929/
  21. 21. © ThoughtWorks 2008 The Ishikawa or Fishbone diagram
  22. 22. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Quality Circles
  23. 23. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Quality Circles are about developing a problem-solving culture, not just the specific results
  24. 24. Shigeo Shingo was most well known for his writings about the Toyota Production System
  25. 25. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Statistical methods detect errors too late in the process
  26. 26. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Instead, identify underlying causes to produce preventative measures
  27. 27. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Mistake-proofing or poka yoke
  28. 28. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Jidoka – Automation with a human touch
  29. 29. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Summary of things that work 1.! Quality is a customer determination 2.! Problem solving should be systematic and iterative -> continuous improvement 3.! Quality is too important to leave in the hands of specialists – quality experts on one side and workers on the other side doesn’t work 4.! Mistake-proof with good engineering and process improvement 5.! Stop-the-line when problems are detected rather than wait for end of line inspection
  30. 30. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Quality Lesson •! Quality is a customer determination •! Contextual Inquiry •! Onsite Customer •! Acceptance Driven Development •! Frequent and regular showcases •! Iterative user testing Applied Today
  31. 31. © ThoughtWorks 2008 •! Problem solving should be systematic and iterative -> continuous improvement •! Daily Stand Up •! Retrospectives Quality Lesson Applied Today
  32. 32. © ThoughtWorks 2008 •! Mistake proof with good engineering and process improvement •! Develop deep technical expertise •! Go beyond “How can this be tested?” to “How can I design this such that this type of problem can’t occur?” Quality Lesson Applied Today
  33. 33. © ThoughtWorks 2008 •! Quality is too important to leave in the hands of specialists - quality experts on one side and workers on the other side doesn’t work •! Enable all team members to test •! Requirements as tests Quality Lesson Applied Today
  34. 34. © ThoughtWorks 2008 •! Stop-the-line when problems are detected rather than wait for end of line inspection •! Continuous integration and testing •! Build pipelines Quality Lesson Applied Today
  35. 35. © ThoughtWorks 2008 Summary •! There is no silver bullet. •! Some practices are ways to help achieve a concept, but they are not the only way. •! Just implementing the practice without embracing the concept will not improve quality.
  36. 36. © ThoughtWorks 2008 http://www.flickr.com/photos/daquellamanera/68812531/
  37. 37. © ThoughtWorks 2008 “There is no substitute for knowledge.” – W. Edwards Deming