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Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
Bioterrorism Research
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Bioterrorism Research

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Bioterrorism Research …

Bioterrorism Research

Research on bioterrorism has increased, particularly in the past 5 years. A view of the country comparison metrics, influential authors, and the most highly cited papers in the field.

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  • 1. TOPICAL THEME FOR TODAY –BIOTERRORISM
  • 2. TOPICAL THEME FOR TODAY-BIOTERRORISM • The topic of bioterrorism comprises a variety of topics and approaches, and is timely. • Notable among the highly cited papers are reports on the genome sequences or the specific biochemical actions of the pathogens underlying anthrax, smallpox, plague, and other scourges whose causative agents have the potential to be weaponized. 2
  • 3. TOPICAL THEME FOR TODAY-BIOTERRORISM (cont.) • Additional topics include the technology of bio-sensors and other means of detection, along with the development of vaccines and other counter-measures. • Other papers assess the public-health and environmental aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, or offer more general discussions of preparedness and emergency management. 3
  • 4. HOW DID WE DEFINE THE TOPIC? • Searched titles, abstracts, agroterror* bio defen* and keywords across Web bio* containm* Biodefen* of Science- biochemical – Science Citation Index weapon* biological war* Expanded chem* attack Counterterroris* – Social Science Citation Index emergency homeland preparedness securit* – Arts and Humanities Citation Index nerve agent* germ war* – Conference Proceedings bio* attack* anthrax* Citation Index- science bioterror* Biothreat* – Conference Proceedings Citation Index- social science/humanities 4
  • 5. YOU NEED TO KNOW… • What are the hot topics related to bioterrorism? • Who are the key researchers? • Which countries and institutions are most active in this topic? Which are most highly cited? • Which US government organizations are focusing more on bioterrorism research? • Who’s collaborating in this area? • What journals focus on the topic? • What funding agencies most frequently fund this research? 5
  • 6. ABOUT THIS DATASET- BIOTERRORISM 6
  • 7. ABOUT THIS DATASET- BIOTERRORISM (CONT.) • 15,290 journal articles in 239 journal categories (1981-2008) • 2,485 conference proceedings papers • 63% of papers were cited • 138,789 total citations received, for an average of 9.08 cites/paper – 76% of the materials are articles and reviews, and they have an average citation rate of 11.46 7
  • 8. ABOUT THIS DATASET- BIOTERRORISM (CONT.) • 176 of the papers (1.5% of the set) are in the top 1% of their field. Almost 800 are in the top 10% of their field. • The research appeared in over 3,000 journals. • Research from 142 countries 8
  • 9. RESEARCH ON BIOTERRORISM HAS INCREASED, PARTICULARLY IN THE PAST 5 YEARS 9
  • 10. TOP SUBJECT CATEGORIES JOURNAL CATEGORY PAPERS PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 1,145 MICROBIOLOGY 1,060 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 1,040 IMMUNOLOGY 958 MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL 889 CHEMISTRY, ANALYTICAL 885 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY 839 INFECTIOUS DISEASES 794 BIOTECHNOLOGY & APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY 776 MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES 769 10
  • 11. DRILL DOWN TO SPECIFIC TOPIC: ANTHRAX 11
  • 12. MOST HIGHLY CITED PAPER- LAST 10 YEARS Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Nature 2001 (article) Average citations specific to journal, year, and document type Citations received per year Percentile rank specific to field and year. The closer to zero, the more highly cited. 12
  • 13. ROLE-UP METRICS INTO SUMMARY FIGURES E.G. ALL US NAVY RESEARCH H-index: This statistic reflects the number of papers (N) in a given dataset having N or more citations. 26 of US Navy's 156 papers were cited at least 26 times each. Productivity # papers 156 Total influence # citations 2,343 H-index 26 Efficiency Avg. citation rate 15.02 Percent of papers cited 82.05 13
  • 14. ROLE-UP METRICS INTO SUMMARY FIGURES E.G. ALL US NAVY RESEARCH (CONT.) C-index (journal performance ratio): equals the sum of all actual citations divided by the sum of all the expected citations, producing a ratio of actual to expected for a group of papers. Relative Impact/ C-index 1.20 Bench-marking Average percentile 40.61 % papers in top 10% of their field 38 % papers in top 1% of their field 4.23 Special-ization Disciplinarity index 0.04 14
  • 15. ROLE-UP METRICS INTO SUMMARY FIGURES E.G. ALL US NAVY RESEARCH (CONT.) Average percentile: average of the percentile measurements for the papers in this set. •Indicates performed overall, with each paper’s citation count having been normalized for its field of study and year. Relative Impact/ C-index 1.20 Bench-marking Average percentile 40.61 % papers in top 10% of their field 38 % papers in top 1% of their field 4.23 Special-ization Disciplinarity index 0.04 15
  • 16. WHICH COUNTRIES ARE MOST ACTIVE? Bioterrorism research: Papers per country, 1999-2008 47% of papers have only US authors 16
  • 17. COMPARE COUNTRIES WITH CITATION METRICS Avg. C Index Cites (Journal Avg. Total Total per H Performance Percentil Papers Cites Paper Index Ratio) e USA 6,764 67,816 10.03 91 1.03 49.89 China 207 1,223 5.91 15 1.17 59.09 India 216 1,144 5.30 17 0.80 63.49 Germany 473 4,199 8.88 33 1.00 51.89 All bioterrorism 12,316 96,710 7.85 94 1.01 53.98 papers These metrics normalize for field, age, and size differences. 17
  • 18. COMPARE COUNTRIES WITH CITATION METRICS (CONT.) USA Avg. C Index Cites (Journal Avg. Total Total per H Performance Percentil Papers Cites Paper Index Ratio) e USA 6,764 67,816 10.03 91 1.03 49.89 China 207 1,223 5.91 15 1.17 59.09 India 216 1,144 5.30 17 0.80 63.49 Germany 473 4,199 8.88 33 1.00 51.89 China All bioterrorism 12,316 96,710 7.85 94 1.01 53.98 papers These metrics normalize for field, age, and size differences. 18
  • 19. COMPARE COUNTRIES WITH CITATION METRICS (CONT.) India Avg. C Index Cites (Journal Avg. Total Total per H Performance Percentil Papers Cites Paper Index Ratio) e USA 6,764 67,816 10.03 91 1.03 49.89 China 207 1,223 5.91 15 1.17 59.09 India 216 1,144 5.30 17 0.80 63.49 Germany 473 4,199 8.88 33 1.00 51.89 Germany All bioterrorism 12,316 96,710 7.85 94 1.01 53.98 papers These metrics normalize for field, age, and size differences. 19
  • 20. COMPARE COUNTRIES WITH CITATION METRICS (CONT.) Avg. C Index Cites (Journal Avg. Total Total per H Performance Percentil Papers Cites Paper Index Ratio) e USA World 6,764 67,816 10.03 91 1.03 49.89 China 207 1,223 5.91 15 1.17 59.09 India 216 1,144 5.30 17 0.80 63.49 Germany 473 4,199 8.88 33 1.00 51.89 All bioterrorism 12,316 96,710 7.85 94 1.01 53.98 papers These metrics normalize for field, age, and size differences. 20
  • 21. WHO’S COLLABORATING Coauthored Coauthored Papers Papers (1999-2003) Country Country (2004-2008) Country Country 31 England USA 102 Canada USA 25 France USA 59 England USA 23 Canada USA 50 Germany USA 19 Germany USA 32 Australia USA 13 Russia USA 30 France USA Peoples R 11 Australia USA 29 USA China 11 Italy USA 26 Israel USA 10 India USA 23 France Germany 9 Israel USA 23 Japan USA 7 France Italy 20 England Germany 7 Japan USA 20 Sweden USA 7 Netherlands USA 19 Italy USA 6 Australia England 19 Switzerland USA 21
  • 22. HIGH IMPACT INSTITUTIONS Most prolific Most highly cited Organization Papers Organization Cites 1 US Army 581 1 US Army 9,621 Ctrs. Disease Control & Ctrs. Disease Control & 2 373 2 6,912 Prevent Prevent 3 Harvard University 222 3 Johns Hopkins University 5,006 4 Johns Hopkins Univ 179 4 Harvard University 4,859 5 US Navy 155 5 NIAID 2,692 6 NIAID 125 6 Inst Pasteur 2,404 7 University of Pittsburgh 110 7 US Navy 2,342 8 Texas A&M Univ 104 8 Def Sci & Technol Lab 2,190 9 University Maryland 99 9 University Michigan 2,027 10 University Michigan 99 10 New York City Dept Health 1,826 22
  • 23. WHICH INSTITUTIONS COLLABORATE Number of coauthored 939 total citations papers (1999- 26.54 avg cites/paper 2008) 35 Ctrs Dis Control & Prevent Emory Univ 30 US Army Uniformed Serv Univ Hlth Sci 21 Ctrs Dis Control & Prevent New York City Dept Hlth 20 Battelle Mem Inst US Army 20 Geocenters Inc US Army 20 NCI US Army 20 New Mexico State Univ Univ Calif Riverside 18 Harvard Univ Massachusetts Gen Hosp 17 Uniformed Serv Univ Hlth Sci Walter Reed Army Inst Res 16 Ctrs Dis Control & Prevent US Army 23
  • 24. WHO ARE THE INFLUENTIAL AUTHORS ON THIS TOPIC? Arthur Friedlander, M.D. Senior Scientist, United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Frederick, MD 24
  • 25. WHO ARE THE INFLUENTIAL AUTHORS ON THIS TOPIC? (CONT.) Arthur Friedlander, M.D. Senior Scientist, United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Frederick, MD http://www.usmedicine.com/article.cfm?articleID=1784&issueID=114 25
  • 26. AM FRIEDLANDER Productivity # papers 42 Relative Impact/ C-index 2.42 Bench-marking Total # citations 2,788 Average 14.68 influence percentile Self-citing 29 papers % papers in top 57 10% of their field H-index 21 Efficiency Avg. citation 66.38 % papers in top 17 rate 1% of their field Percent of 88.10 Special-ization Disciplinarity index 0.13 papers cited 26
  • 27. COMPARE RESEARCHERS, INSTITUTIONS, ETC. Avg. C Index Cites H (Journal Avg. Total Total per Inde Performance Percentil Papers Cites Paper x Ratio) e Friedlander, AM 42 2,788 66.38 21 2.42 14.68 US Army, Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases All US Army 582 9,625 16.54 43 1.34 46.10 (bioterrorism research) Quinn, CP 32 978 30.56 14 2.12 27.13 Ctrs for Disease Control All of CDC 373 6,912 18.53 38 1.13 42.18 (bioterrorism research) All bioterrorism 12,316 96,710 7.85 94 1.01 53.98 papers These metrics normalize for field, age, and size differences. 27
  • 28. WHICH JOURNALS FOCUS ON THIS TOPIC? 2007 impact Papers Journal Cites factor BIOSECURITY AND BIOTERRORISM‐ 282 BIODEFENSE STRATEGY PRACTICE AND SCIENCE 534 1.88 243 CHEMICAL & ENGINEERING NEWS 65 0.38 219 SCIENCE 2,562 26.37 184 STUDIES IN CONFLICT & TERRORISM 85 180 NATURE 3,385 28.75 ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN 179 CHEMICAL SOCIETY 6 28
  • 29. WHICH FUNDING AGENCIES ARE SUPPORTING RESEARCH ON BIOTERRORISM TOPICS? Number Funding body of papers (2008) NIH 57 NIAID 13 US Army 13 US Dept Energy 12 NSF 12 29
  • 30. TODAY WE FOCUSED ON A TOPICAL ANALYSIS • However, these metrics and types of analysis are often used for performance assessment activities: – Analyze your intramural or extramural research Which programs are producing world class research? Which researchers are standing out from the rest? How does our research compare with our peer institutions? Did our investments in new staff or research facilities pay off? 30
  • 31. EVALUATE RESEARCH OUTCOMES: TRACK, MEASURE, RANK Integrate citation metrics into strategic planning and performance review Use objective measures of R&D for internal reviews, funding acquisition 31
  • 32. EVALUATE RESEARCH OUTCOMES: TRACK, MEASURE, RANK Use objective measures of R&D for internal reviews, funding acquisition 32
  • 33. EVALUATE RESEARCH OUTCOMES: TRACK, MEASURE, RANK Promote research accomplishments 33

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