Background… The year is 1215 and King John of England has angered his own nobles with oppressive taxes and abusing his own power…
So then… A group of these angry nobles force King John to sign a document that would forever change English law… The Magna Carta!
Why so important? Gave basic rights to all English citizens. Made clear that the monarch (king/queen) must obey the law.
Could no longer arrest or imprison someone without cause!
Now entitled to a “legal judgement of [your] peers”
Today, we call this DUE PROCESS OF LAW and the right of HABEAS CORPUS
The King agreed not to raise taxes without first consulting his Great Council!
Later, American colonists would point to this clause when arguing “No taxation without representation!”
What were the Crusades? The Crusades were a series of wars in which Christians battled Muslims for control of lands in the Middle East.
There were a total of 9 Crusades
The Seljuk Turks move into the Holy Land (Jerusalem and other places where Christians believed Jesus lived and preached).
The Seljuk Turks were Muslim…
The Seljuk Turks now controlled the Holy Land in the Middle East…
This now prevented Christians from traveling to the Holy Land!
How does the Christian Church Respond?
Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asked Pope Urban II for help…
Pope Urban II agrees to send Christian knights to fight off the Muslim Seljuk Turks…
The 1st Crusade begins in 1096.
Why go fight on a Crusade? Religious motivation Many knights hoped to gain land and money Adventure Pope Urban II had his own motivations… ….he wanted to heal the split between the Byzantine and Roman churches (remember the Great Schism??)
So what happened?
The Crusades, in all, lasted nearly 200 years(1095-1291)
Only the 1st Crusade came close to achieving its goals.
Christian knights captured Jerusalem…then massacred Muslim and Jewish residents of the city.
All other Crusades were won by Muslims…
Impact of the crusades
Trade expanded and increased
-Returning crusaders brought back goods from the Byzantine Empire and Middle East…
Did not end the split between the Roman and Byzantine Churches
- The Crusades actually made the split even worse…
Christians realized there were regions of the world they never knew existed
- Curious Europeans set out to explore far-off places…
Crusades Video Clip http://www.history.com/videos/the-crusades-crescent-and-the-cross#the-crusades-crescent-and-the-cross
What was the Black Plague? The Black Death was an outbreak of the bubonic plague. It was caused by a bacteria carried by fleas residing on black rats on merchant ships. The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population.
Normal Life Breaks Down… Some people turned to magic and witchcraft for cures Many people believed the plague to be God’s punishment These people beat themselves with whips to show they repented their sins Other people left cities and hid in their homes Some Christians blamed Jews for the plague Thousands of Jews were slaughtered, as a result of the hysteria
The Economy Suffers…
Black Plague Video Clips http://www.watchknow.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=7155 http://www.watchknow.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=7157 http://www.watchknow.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=7162
The Spanish Inquisition was set up by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain in 1478. Its purpose was to examine the sincerity or genuineness of people who converted to Christianity. What was the Spanish Inquisition?
Heresy = rejecting or not practicing the beliefs of the Christian Church. People were urged to turn themselves in or tell of others who might be guilty of heresy. For example, you could be turned in for: Questioning Christian beliefs/practices Eating meat on a day of abstinence Urinating against a church wall Accusation
First, you would be arrested. Then, you would be imprisoned. And finally, you would be put on trial to determine if you were guilty of heresy! Then what…
And if found guilty… You would be burned alive…
Hundred Years’ War
What was the Hundred Years’ War? A series of conflicts between England and France between 1337 and 1453 (actually 116 yrs.) The two countries were battling for land and control of the English Channel
New Military Technology New military technology during the Hundred Years’ War changed warfare… Longbow
Accurate, could shoot 3 arrows with longbow in same time it took to shoot 3 arrows with crossbow
Tremendous firing power, could pierce plate armor and chain mail
Could smash castle walls
Effects of New Military Technology Changed warfare Knights no longer effective because new weapons could easily pierce armor Battles could be fought from a farther distance now Standing armies of serfs and peasants used now = serfs & peasants could operate longbow and crossbow w/o much training End of chivalry Combatants began to fight “dirty”
Crossbow & Longbow
Background… The year is 1429 and the French have consistently suffered defeat by the English for the past 92 years… The King of France, Charles VII, is desperate for help and alternatives to help his people beat the English…
Joan OF arc Joan was 17 years old when she approached the King of France. Joan told the King that Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret told her to drive out the English. Desperate, the King of France authorized Joan to lead an army against the English!
Inspiration Joan motivated and inspired the French troops. In one year, Joan led the French to several victories! Joan’s victories “turned the tide” of the Hundred Years’ War in favor of the French!
Capture Joan was captured in 1430 during battle She was put on trial for witchcraft and found guilty of heresy… She was sentenced to execution.
Joan of Arc’s Death After an “unfair” trial, Joan of Arc was sentenced to die by burning at the stake.
No relics of her exist. The
English burned her body three times to reduce it to ashes…
Legacy The French went on to win the Hundred Years’ War and Joan was credited with rallying the French. Joan of Arc was made a saint of the Roman Catholic Church in 1920.