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Vt h2 dev_plan_041012 Document Transcript

  • 1. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20121VERMONTHydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan – “Roadmap” CollaborativeParticipantsClean Energy States AllianceAnne Margolis – Project DirectorValerie Stori – Assistant Project DirectorProject Management and Plan DevelopmentNortheast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster:Joel M. Rinebold – Program DirectorPaul Aresta – Project ManagerAlexander C. Barton – Energy SpecialistAdam J. Brzozowski – Energy SpecialistThomas Wolak – Energy InternNathan Bruce – GIS Mapping InternAgenciesUnited States Department of EnergyUnited States Small Business AdministrationBurlington skyline – “Burlington Waterfront from Spirit of Ethan Allen”, Panoramio,http://www.panoramio.com/photo/3160072, October, 2011Skiing – “A Great Weekend Needs more Than Snow at Okemo”, The New York Times,http://travel.nytimes.com/2007/03/02/travel/escapes/02ski.1.html?pagewanted=all, October 2011Mount Washington Hotel – “Strategic HR New England”, Law Publishers, http://www.mainehr.com/StrategicHRNE/,September, 2011University of Vermont – “RCGRD”, Research Center for Groundwater Remediation Design,http://www.rcgrd.uvm.edu/rcgrd_bottom.html, October, 2011Welding – “MIG Welding”, Gooden’s Portable Welding, http://joeystechservice.com/goodenswelding/WeldingTechniques.php,October, 2011Blueprint construction – “Contruction1”, The MoHawk Construction Group LLC., http://mohawkcg.com/, October, 2011
  • 2. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20122VERMONTEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThere is the potential to generate approximately 94,600 megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity fromhydrogen fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the State of Vermont, annually through thedevelopment of 12 – 16 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell generation capacity. The state and federalgovernment have incentives to facilitate the development and use of renewable energy. The decision onwhether or not to deploy hydrogen or fuel cell technology at a given location depends largely on theeconomic value, compared to other conventional or alternative/renewable technologies. Consequently,while many sites may be technically viable for the application of fuel cell technology, this plan providesfocus for fuel cell applications that are both technically and economically viable.Approximately two-thirds of the Vermont’s total energy usage is for heating and transportation, andnearly all of the fuel dollars spent in those sectors are for fossil fuels and flow out of state. In 2010,Vermonters paid over $600 million ($300 million more than a decade ago) to import fossil fuels for use inhomes, businesses, and other buildings. Drivers also purchased approximately $1 billion per year ingasoline and diesel for transportation. Combustion of transportation fuels accounts for 47 percent ofVermont’s GHG emission. Even though total emissions within the state have steadily been reduced byapproximately three percent per year, (since 2004) trends indicate Vermont is still well behind its goals ofachieving GHG emission levels 25 percent below 1990 levels by 2012 and 50 percent below 1990 levelsby 2028.1Favorable locations for the development of renewable energy generation through fuel cell technologyinclude energy intensive commercial buildings (education, food sales, food services, inpatient healthcare,lodging, and public order and safety), energy intensive industries, wastewater treatment plants, landfills,wireless telecommunications sites, federal/state-owned buildings, and airport facilities with a substantialamount of air traffic.Currently, Vermont has at least 5 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industrysupply chain in the Northeast region. Based on a recent study, these companies making up the Vermonthydrogen and fuel cell industry are estimated to have realized over $2.5 million in revenue andinvestment, contributed approximately $142,000 in state and local tax revenue, and generated over$3.3 million in gross state product from their participation in this regional energy cluster in 2010.Hydrogen and fuel cell projects are becoming increasingly popular throughout the Northeast region.These technologies are viable solutions that can meet the demand for renewable energy in Vermont. Inaddition, the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology would reduce the dependence on oil,improve environmental performance, and increase the number of jobs within the state. This plan provideslinks to relevant information to help assess, plan, and initiate hydrogen or fuel cell projects to help meetthe energy, economic, and environmental goals of the State.Developing policies and incentives that support hydrogen and fuel cell technology will increasedeployment at sites that would benefit from on-site generation. Increased demand for hydrogen and fuelcell technology will increase production and create jobs throughout the supply chain. As deploymentincreases, manufacturing costs will decline and hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be in a position tothen compete in a global market without incentives. These policies and incentives can be coordinatedregionally to maintain the regional economic cluster as a global exporter for long-term growth andeconomic development.1Vermont.gov, “Volume 1 – Vermont’s Energy Future”, http://www.vtenergyplan.vermont.gov/, December 2011
  • 3. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20123VERMONTTABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................2INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................5ECONOMIC IMPACT ...........................................................................................................................7POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETS ...................................................................................................8Education ............................................................................................................................................10Food Sales...........................................................................................................................................11Food Service .......................................................................................................................................11Inpatient Healthcare............................................................................................................................12Lodging...............................................................................................................................................13Public Order and Safety......................................................................................................................13Energy Intensive Industries.....................................................................................................................14Government Owned Buildings................................................................................................................15Wireless Telecommunication Sites.........................................................................................................15Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)........................................................................................16Airports...................................................................................................................................................17Military ...................................................................................................................................................18POTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETS .........................................................................................19Alternative Fueling Stations................................................................................................................20Bus Transit..........................................................................................................................................21Material Handling...............................................................................................................................21Ground Support Equipment ................................................................................................................22CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................23APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................25
  • 4. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20124VERMONTIndex of TablesTable 1 - Vermont Economic Data 2011 ......................................................................................................7Table 2 - Education Data Breakdown.........................................................................................................11Table 3 - Food Sales Data Breakdown........................................................................................................11Table 4 - Food Services Data Breakdown ..................................................................................................12Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Data Breakdown.........................................................................................12Table 6 - Lodging Data Breakdown............................................................................................................13Table 7 - Public Order and Safety Data Breakdown...................................................................................14Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector ..............................................................14Table 9 - energy Intensive Industry Data Breakdown ................................................................................15Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data Breakdown........................................................................15Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data Breakdown ........................................................................15Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plant Data Breakdown..........................................................................16Table 13 - Landfill Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................16Table 14 – Vermont Top Airports Enplanement Count.............................................................................17Table 15 - Airport Data Breakdown ...........................................................................................................17Table 16 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge)...........................19Table 17 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell Applications ...........................................................................23Index of FiguresFigure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector....................................................................................................8Figure 2 - Electric Power Generation by Primary Energy Source................................................................8Figure 3 – Vermont Electrical Consumption per Sector.............................................................................10Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption ..........................................................................................13
  • 5. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20125VERMONTINTRODUCTIONA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Development Plan was created for each state in the Northeast region(Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and NewJersey), with support from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to increase awarenessand facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. The intent of this guidance documentis to make available information regarding the economic value and deployment opportunities forhydrogen and fuel cell technology.2A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or a hydrogen-rich fuel such as natural gas) and oxygen tocreate an electric current. The amount of power produced by a fuel cell depends on several factors,including fuel cell type, stack size, operating temperature, and the pressure at which the gases aresupplied to the cell. Fuel cells are classified primarily by the type of electrolyte they employ, whichdetermines the type of chemical reactions that take place in the cell, the temperature range in which thecell operates, the fuel required, and other factors. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications forwhich these cells are most suitable. There are several types of fuel cells currently in use or underdevelopment, each with its own advantages, limitations, and potential applications. These technologiesand applications are identified in Appendix VI.Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) in vehicles and providepower for stationary and portable power applications. Fuel cells are in commercial service as distributedpower plants in stationary applications throughout the world, providing thermal power and electricity topower homes and businesses. Fuel cells are also used in transportation applications, such as automobiles,trucks, buses, and other equipment. Fuel cells for portable applications, which are currently indevelopment, and can provide power for laptop computers and cell phones.Fuel cells are cleaner and more efficient than traditional combustion-based engines and power plants;therefore, less energy is needed to provide the same amount of power. Typically, stationary fuel cellpower plants are fueled with natural gas or other hydrogen rich fuel. Natural gas is widely availablethroughout the northeast, is relatively inexpensive, and is primarily a domestic energy supply.Consequently, natural gas shows the greatest potential to serve as a transitional fuel for the near futurehydrogen economy. 3Stationary fuel cells use a fuel reformer to reform the natural gas to near purehydrogen for the fuel cell stack. Because hydrogen can be produced using a wide variety of resourcesfound here in the U.S., including natural gas, biomass material, and through electrolysis using electricityproduced from indigenous sources, energy provided from a fuel cell can be considered renewable and willreduce dependence on imported fuel. 4,5When pure hydrogen is used to power a fuel cell, the only by-products are water and heat; no pollutants or greenhouse gases (GHG) are produced.2Key stakeholders are identified in Appendix III3EIA,”Commercial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2009”,http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/sum_pr_com.html, August 20114Electrolysis is the process of using an electric current to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.5U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/, August 2011
  • 6. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20126VERMONTDRIVERSThe Northeast hydrogen and fuel cell industry, while still emerging, currently has an economic impact ofover $1 billion of total revenue and investment. Vermont benefits from secondary impacts of indirect andinduced employment and revenue.6Furthermore, Vermont has a definitive and attractive economicdevelopment opportunity to greatly increase its economic participation in the hydrogen and fuel cellindustry within the Northeast region and worldwide. An economic “SWOT” assessment for Vermont isprovided in Appendix VII.Industries in the Northeast, including those in Vermont, are facing increased pressure to reduce costs, fuelconsumption, and emissions that may be contributing to climate change. Currently, Vermont’s businessespay $0.144 per kWh for electricity on average; this is the fifth highest cost of electricity in the U.S.7Vermont’s relative proximity to major load centers, the high cost of electricity, concerns over regional airquality, available federal tax incentives, and legislative mandates in Vermont and neighboring states haveresulted in increased interest in the development of efficient renewable energy. Incentives designed toassist individuals and organizations in energy conservation and the development of renewable energy arecurrently offered within the state. Appendix IV contains an outline of Vermont’s incentives andrenewable energy programs. Some specific factors that are driving the market for hydrogen and fuel celltechnology in Vermont include the following:Net Metering – Net metering is generally available to systems up to 500 kW in capacity thatgenerate electricity using eligible renewable-energy resources, and to micro-combined heat andpower (CHP) systems up to 20 kW. Renewable energy facilities established on military propertyfor on-site military consumption may net meter for facilities up to 2.2 MWs - promotes stationarypower applications.8Vermonts Sustainably Priced Energy Enterprise Development (SPEED) Program was created bylegislation in 2005 to promote renewable energy development. The SPEED program itself is not arenewable portfolio goal or standard. The Program goal is to be at 20 percent Class I renewablesby 2017. - promotes stationary power applications.9Vermont is one of the states in the ten-state region that is part of the Regional Greenhouse GasInitiative (RGGI); the nation’s first mandatory market-based program to reduce emissions ofcarbon dioxide (CO2). RGGIs goals are to stabilize and cap emissions at 188 million tonsannually from 2009-2014 and to reduce CO2-emissions by 2.5 percent per year from 2015-2018.10– promotes stationary power and transportation applications.6Vermont does not have any original equipment manufacturers (OEM) of hydrogen/fuel cell systems so it has no “direct”economic impact.7EIA, Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_a.html8DSIRE, “Vermont – Net Metering,”http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=VT02R&re=1&ee=1, August 20119DSIRE, “Sustainably Priced Energy Enterprise Development (SPEED) Goals”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=VT04R&re=1&ee=1, August, 201110Seacoastonline.come, “RGGI: Quietly setting a standard”,http://www.seacoastonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090920/NEWS/909200341/-1/NEWSMAP, September 20, 2009
  • 7. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20127VERMONTECONOMIC IMPACTThe hydrogen and fuel cell industry has direct, indirect, and induced impacts on local and regionaleconomies. 11A new hydrogen and/or fuel cell project directly affects the area’s economy through thepurchase of goods and services, generation of land use revenue, taxes or payments in lieu of taxes, andemployment. Secondary effects include both indirect and induced economic effects resulting from thecirculation of the initial spending through the local economy, economic diversification, changes inproperty values, and the use of indigenous resources.Vermont is home to at least five companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industrysupply chain in the Northeast region. Appendix V lists the hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chaincompanies in Vermont. Realizing over $2.5 million in revenue and investment from their participation inthis regional cluster in 2010, these companies include manufacturing, parts distributing, supplying ofindustrial gas, engineering based research and development (R&D), coating applications, and managingof venture capital funds. 12Furthermore, the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is estimated to havecontributed approximately $142,000 in state and local tax revenue, and over $3.3 million in gross stateproduct. Table 1 shows Vermont’s impact in the Northeast region’s hydrogen and fuel cell industry as ofApril 2011.Table 1 - Vermont Economic Data 2011Vermont Economic DataSupply Chain Members 5Indirect Rev ($M) 2.51Indirect Jobs 9Indirect Labor Income ($M) .622Induced Revenue ($M) .832Induced Jobs 7Induced Labor Income ($M) .252Total Revenue ($M) 3.3Total Jobs 16Total Labor Income ($M) .878In addition, there are over 118,000 people employed across 3,500 companies within the Northeastregistered as part of the motor vehicle industry. Approximately 1,270 of these individuals and 70 of thesecompanies are located in Vermont. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology were to gainmomentum within the transportation sector, the estimated employment rate for the hydrogen and fuel cellindustry could grow significantly in the region.1311Indirect impacts are the estimated output (i.e., revenue), employment and labor income in other business (i.e., not-OEMs) thatare associated with the purchases made by hydrogen and fuel cell OEMs, as well as other companies in the sector’s supply chain.Induced impacts are the estimated output, employment and labor income in other businesses (i.e., non-OEMs) that are associatedwith the purchases by workers related to the hydrogen and fuel cell industry.12Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, August8, 201113NAICS Codes: Motor Vehicle – 33611, Motor Vehicle Parts – 3363
  • 8. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20128VERMONTResidential31%Commercial20%Industrial15%Transportation34%POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETSIn 2009, Vermont consumed the equivalent of 46.26 million megawatt-hours of energy amongst thetransportation, residential, industrial, and commercial sectors.14Electricity consumption in Vermont wasapproximately 5.5 million MWh, and is forecasted to grow at a rate of .6 annually over the next decade.Figure 1 illustrates the percent of total energy consumed by each sector in Vermont. A more detailedbreakout of energy use is provided in Appendix II.This demand represents approximately four percent of the population in New England and five percent ofthe region’s total electricity consumption. The State relies on both in-state resources and imports ofpower over the region’s transmission system to serve electricity to customers. Net electrical demand inVermont was 627 MW in 2009 and is projected to increase by approximately 30 MW by 2015. Thestate’s overall electricity demand is forecasted to grow at a rate of .6 percent (1.3 percent peak summerdemand growth) annually over the next decade. Demand for new electric capacity as well as areplacement of older less efficient base-load generation facilities is expected. With approximately 1,125MW in total capacity of generation plants, Vermont represents four percent of the total capacity in NewEngland. 15Figure 2 shows the primary energy sources for electricity consumed in Vermont for 2009.1614U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), “State Energy Data System”,“http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/rank_use.html”, August 201115ISO New England, “Vermont 2011 State Profile”, www.iso-ne.com/nwsiss/grid_mkts/key_facts/me_01-2011_profile.pdf,January, 201116EIA, “1990 - 20010 Retail Sales of Electricity by State by Sector by Provider (EIA-861)”,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January 4, 2011Figure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector Figure 2 - Electric Power Generation by PrimaryEnergy SourcePetroleum0.1%Natural Gas0.1%Nuclear72.2%Hydroelectric20.3%OtherRenewables7.3%
  • 9. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20129VERMONTFuel cell systems have many advantages over other conventional technologies, including:High fuel-to-electricity efficiency (> 40 percent) utilizing hydrocarbon fuels;Overall system efficiency of 85 to 93 percent;Reduction of noise pollution;Reduction of air pollution;Enhancement of reliability (Hurricane Irene); Often do not require new transmission;Siting is not controversial; andIf near point of use, waste heat can be captured and used. Combined heat and power (CHP)systems are more efficient and can reduce facility energy costs over applications that use separateheat and central station power systems.17Fuel cells can be deployed as a CHP technology that provides both power and thermal energy, and cannearly double energy efficiency at a customer site, typically from 35 to 50 percent. The value of CHPincludes reduced transmission and distribution costs, reduced fuel use and associated emissions.18Basedon the targets identified within this plan, there is the potential to develop at least approximately 12 MWsof stationary fuel cell generation capacity in Vermont, which would provide the following benefits,annually:Production of approximately 94,600 MWh of electricityProduction of approximately 254,800 MMBTUs of thermal energyReduction of CO2 emissions of approximately 17,000 tons (electric generation only)19For the purpose of this plan, potential applications have been explored with a focus on fuel cells that havea capacity between 300 kW to 400 kW. However, smaller fuel cells are potentially viable for specificapplications. Facilities that have electrical and thermal requirements that closely match the output of thefuel cells potentially provide the best opportunity for the application of a fuel cell. Facilities that may begood candidates for the application of a fuel cell include commercial buildings with potentially highelectricity consumption, selected government buildings, public works facilities, and energy intensiveindustries.Commercial building types with high electricity consumption have been identified as potential locationsfor on-site generation and CHP application based on data from the Energy Information Administration’s(EIA) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). These selected building typesmaking up the CBECS subcategory within the commercial industry include:EducationFood SalesFood ServicesInpatient HealthcareLodgingPublic Order & Safety2017FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell Basics”, www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html, July, 201118“Distributed Generation Market Potential: 2004 Update Connecticut and Southwest Connecticut”, ISE, Joel M. Rinebold,ECSU, March 15, 200419Replacement of conventional fossil fuel generating capacity with methane fuel cells could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions by between approximately 100 and 600 lb/MWh: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); eGRID2010 Version1.1 Year 2007 GHG Annual Output Emission Rates, Annual non-baseload output emission rates (NPCC New England); FuelCellEnergy; DFC 300 Product sheet, http://www.fuelcellenergy.com/files/FCE%20300%20Product%20Sheet-lo-rez%20FINAL.pdf,UTC Power, PureCell Model 400 System Performance Characteristics, http://www.utcpower.com/products/purecell400
  • 10. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201210VERMONTThe commercial building types identified above represent top principal building activity classificationsthat reported the highest value for electricity consumption on a per building basis and have a potentiallyhigh load factor for the application of CHP. Appendix II further defines Vermont’s estimated electricalconsumption per each sector. As illustrated in Figure 3, these selected building types within thecommercial sector are estimated to account for approximately 15 percent of Vermont’s total electricalconsumption. Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Figure 3 – Vermont Electrical Consumption per SectorEducationThere are approximately 124 non-public schools and 393 public schools (62 of which are considered highschools) in Vermont.21,22High schools operate for a longer period of time daily due to extracurricularafter school activities, such as clubs and athletics. Furthermore, two of these schools have swimmingpools, which may make these sites especially attractive because it would increase the utilization of boththe electrical and thermal output offered by a fuel cell. There are also 33 colleges and universities inVermont. Colleges and universities have facilities for students, faculty, administration, and maintenancecrews that typically include dormitories, cafeterias, gyms, libraries, and athletic departments – some withswimming pools. Of these 95 locations (62 high schools and 33 colleges), 21 are located in communitiesserviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 1: Education).Educational establishments in other states such as Connecticut and New York have shown interest in fuelcell technology. Examples of existing or planned fuel cell applications include South Windsor HighSchool (CT), Liverpool High School (NY), Rochester Institute of Technology, Yale University,University of Connecticut, and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science andForestry.20As defined by CBECS, Public Order & Safety facilities are: buildings used for the preservation of law and order or publicsafety. Although these sites are usually described as government facilities they are referred to as commercial buildings becausetheir similarities in energy usage with the other building sites making up the CBECS data.21EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html22Public schools are classified as magnets, charters, alternative schools and special facilities
  • 11. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201211VERMONTTable 2 - Education Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)550(3)21(1)7(1)2.1(1)16,556(1)44,592(1)1,838(1)Food SalesThere are over 800 businesses in Vermont known to be engaged in the retail sale of food. Food salesestablishments are potentially good candidates for fuel cells based on their electrical demand and thermalrequirements for heating and refrigeration. Approximately 18 of these sites are considered larger foodsales businesses with approximately 60 or more employees at their site. 23Of these 18 large food salesbusinesses, eight are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 2: FoodSales).24The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at a small convenience store may not beeconomically viable based on the electric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuelcell may be appropriate.Popular grocery chains such as Price Chopper, Supervalu, Wholefoods, and Stop and Shop have showninterest in powering their stores with fuel cells in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York.25WholeFoods Market of Glastonbury, CT, has a 200 kW fuel cell that provides 50 percent of its power. In thewake of Hurricane Irene the power supplied by the fuel cell was enough to keep the freezers andrefrigerators operating during the power outage, minimizing loss of product.26Table 3 - Food Sales Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)800(2)8(1)8(1)2.4(1)18,922(1)50,962(1)2,100(1)Food ServiceThere are over 1,000 businesses in Vermont that can be classified as food service establishments used forthe preparation and sale of food and beverages for consumption.27Approximately one of these sites isconsidered a larger restaurant business with approximately 130 or more employees at its site and islocated in a community serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 3: Food Services).28The applicationof a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at smaller restaurants with less than 130 workers may not be economicallyviable based on the electric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW)may be appropriate to meet hot water and space heating requirements. A significant portion (18 percent)23On average, food sale facilities consume 43,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. When compared to currentfuel cell technology (>300 kW), which satisfies annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh,calculations show food sales facilities employing more than 61 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the applicationof a larger fuel cell.24EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html25Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA), “Fuel Cells for Supermarkets – Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat andPower Systems”, Benny Smith, www.cleanenergystates.org/assets/Uploads/BlakeFuelCellsSupermarketsFB.pdf26Hartford Business.com; “Distributed generation kept lights on after Irene”, http://www.hartfordbusiness.com/news20290.html,September 201127EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html28On average, food service facilities consume 20,300 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel celltechnology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations showfood service facilities employing more than 130 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuelcell.
  • 12. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201212VERMONTof the energy consumed in a commercial food service operation can be attributed to the domestic hotwater heating load.29In other parts of the U.S., popular chains, such as McDonalds, are beginning to showan interest in the smaller sized fuel cell units for the provision of electricity and thermal energy, includingdomestic water heating at food service establishments.30Table 4 - Food Services Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)1,000(2)1(1)1(1)0.3(1)2,365(1)6,370(1)263(1)Inpatient HealthcareThere are over 71 inpatient healthcare facilities in Vermont; 17 of which are classified as hospitals.31Ofthese 17 locations, two are located in communities serviced by natural gas and contain 100 or more bedsonsite (Appendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare). Hospitals represent an excellent opportunity for theapplication of fuel cells because they require a high availability factor of electricity for lifesaving medicaldevices and operate 24/7 with a relatively flat load curve. Furthermore, medical equipment, patientrooms, sterilized/operating rooms, data centers, and kitchen areas within these facilities are often requiredto be in operational conditions at all times which maximizes the use of electricity and thermal energyfrom a fuel cell. Nationally, hospital energy costs have increased 56 percent from $3.89 per square footin 2003 to $6.07 per square foot for 2010, partially due to the increased cost of energy.32Examples ofhealthcare facilities with planned or operational fuel cells include St. Francis, Stamford, and WaterburyHospitals in Connecticut, and North Central Bronx Hospital in New York.Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)550(3)21(1)7(1)2.1(1)16,556(1)44,592(1)1,838(1)29“Case Studies in Restaurant Water Heating”, Fisher, Donald, http://eec.ucdavis.edu/ACEEE/2008/data/papers/9_243.pdf, 200830Sustainable business Oregon, “ClearEdge sustains brisk growth”,http://www.sustainablebusinessoregon.com/articles/2010/01/clearedge_sustains_brisk_growth.html, May 8, 201131EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html32BetterBricks, “http://www.betterbricks.com/graphics/assets/documents/BB_Article_EthicalandBusinessCase.pdf”, Page 1,August 2011
  • 13. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201213VERMONTOfficeEquipment, 4%Ventilation, 4%Refrigeration, 3%Lighting, 11%Cooling, 13%Space Heating ,33%Water Heating ,18%Cooking, 5% Other, 9%LodgingThere are over 451 establishments specializing intravel/lodging accommodations that include hotels,motels, or inns in Vermont. Approximately 24 ofthese establishments have 150 or more rooms onsite,and can be classified as “larger sized” lodging thatmay have additional attributes, such as heated pools,exercise facilities, and/or restaurants. 33Of these 24locations, three employ more than 94 workers andare located in communities serviced by natural gas.34As shown in Figure 4, more than 60 percent oftotal energy use at a typical lodging facility is due tolighting, space heating, and water heating. 35Theapplication of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) athotel/resort facilities with less than 94 employeesmay not be economically viable based on theelectrical demand and operational requirement;however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may beappropriate. Popular hotel chains such as the Hiltonand Starwood Hotels have shown interest inpowering their establishments with fuel cells in NewJersey and New YorkVermont also has 39 facilities identified asconvalescent homes, two of which have bed capacities greater than, or equal to 150 units, and are locatedin communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 5: Lodging).Table 6 - Lodging Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)490(6)9(1)9(1)2.7(1)21,287(1)57,332(1)2,363(1)Public Order and SafetyThere are approximately 91 facilities in Vermont that can be classified as public order and safety; theseinclude 33 fire stations, 39 police stations, and 12 state police stations, and seven prisons. 36,37Approximately three of these locations are prisons and/or employ more than 210 workers and are locatedin communities serviced by natural gas.38,39These applications may represent favorable opportunities for33EPA, “CHP in the Hotel and Casino Market Sector”, www.epa.gov/chp/documents/hotel_casino_analysis.pdf, December, 200534On average lodging facilities consume 28,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel cell technology(>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations show lodgingfacilities employing more than 94 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.35National Grid, “Managing Energy Costs in Full-Service Hotels”,www.nationalgridus.com/non_html/shared_energyeff_hotels.pdf, 200436EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html37USACOPS – The Nations Law Enforcement Site, www.usacops.com/me/38CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201139On average public order and safety facilities consume 12,400 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Whencompared to current fuel cell technology (>300 kW), which satisfies annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 –Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption
  • 14. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201214VERMONTthe application of a larger fuel cell (>300 kW), which could provide heat and uninterrupted power. 40,41The sites identified (Appendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety) will have special value to provideincreased reliability to mission critical facilities associated with public safety and emergency responseduring grid outages. The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at public order and safety facilitieswith less than 210 employees may not be economically viable based on the electrical demand andoperational requirement; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate. Central Park PoliceStation in New York City, New York is presently powered by a 200 kW fuel cell system.Table 7 - Public Order and Safety Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)91(3)2(1)2(1)0.6(1)4,370(1)12,741(1)525(1)Energy Intensive IndustriesAs shown in Table 2, energy intensive industries with high electricity consumption (which on average is4.8 percent of annual operating costs) have been identified as potential locations for the application of afuel cell.42In Vermont, there are approximately 91 of these industrial facilities that are involved in themanufacture of aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, petroleum, coal products orsteel and employ 25 or more employees.43Of these 91 locations, 22 are located in communities servicedby natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries).Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector44NAICS Code Sector Energy Consumption per Dollar Value of Shipments (kWh)325 Chemical manufacturing 2.49322 Pulp and Paper 4.46324110 Petroleum Refining 4.72311 Food manufacturing 0.76331111 Iron and steel 8.15321 Wood Products 1.233313 Alumina and aluminum 3.58327310 Cement 16.4133611 Motor vehicle manufacturing 0.213315 Metal casting 1.64336811 Shipbuilding and ship repair 2.053363 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing 2.05Companies such as Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, and Pepperidge Farms in Connecticut, New Jersey,and New York have installed fuel cells to help supply energy to their facilities.3,504,000 kWh, calculations show public order and safety facilities employing more than 212 workers may represent favorableopportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.402,628,000 / 12,400 = 211.9441CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201142EIA, “Electricity Generation Capability”, 1999 CBECS, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/pba99/comparegener.html43Proprietary market data44EPA, “Energy Trends in Selected Manufacturing Sectors”, www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/energy/ch2.pdf, March 2007
  • 15. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201215VERMONTTable 9 - energy Intensive Industry Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)91(3)2(1)2(1)0.6(1)4,370(1)12,741(1)525(1)Government Owned BuildingsBuildings operated by the federal government can be found at 88 locations in Vermont; five of theseproperties are actively owned, rather than leased, by the federal government and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings).There are also a number of buildings owned and operated by the State of Vermont. The application of fuelcell technology at government owned buildings would assist in balancing load requirements at these sitesand offer a unique value for active and passive public education associated with the high usage of thesepublic buildings.Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)88(7)5(5)5(5)1.5(5)11,826(5)31,851(5)1,313(3)Wireless Telecommunication SitesTelecommunications companies rely on electricity to run call centers, cell phone towers, and other vitalequipment. In Vermont, there are at least 83 telecommunications and/or wireless company tower sites(Appendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites). Any loss of power at these locations may result in aloss of service to customers; thus, having reliable power is critical. Each individual site represents anopportunity to provide back-up power for continuous operation through the application of on-site back-upgeneration powered by hydrogen and fuel cell technology. It is an industry standard to install unitscapable of supplying 48-72 hours of backup power; this is typically accomplished with batteries orconventional emergency generators.45The deployment of fuel cells at selected telecommunication siteswill have special value to provide increased reliability to critical sites associated with emergencycommunications and homeland security. An example of a telecommunication site that utilizes fuel celltechnology to provide back-up power is a T-Mobile facility located in Storrs, Connecticut.Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)83(2)9(2)N/A N/A N/A N/A N/AWastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs)There are 29 WWTPs in Vermont that have design flows ranging from 1,500 gallons per day (GPD) to 20million gallons per day (MGD); three of these facilities average between 3 – 20 MGD. WWTPs typicallyoperate 24/7 and may be able to utilize the thermal energy from the fuel cell to process fats, oils, and45ReliOn, Hydrogen Fuel Cell: Wireless Applications”, www.relion-inc.com/pdf/ReliOn_AppsWireless_2010.pdf, May 4, 2011
  • 16. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201216VERMONTgrease.46WWTPs account for approximately three percent of the electric load in the United State.47Digester gas produced at WWTP’s, which is usually 60 percent methane, can serve as a fuel substitute fornatural gas to power fuel cells. Anaerobic digesters generally require a wastewater flow greater thanthree MGD for an economy of scale to collect and use the methane.48Most facilities currently represent alost opportunity to capture and use the digestion of methane emissions created from their operations. 49,50(Appendix I – Figure 10: Municipal Waste Sites)A 200 kW fuel cell power plant in Yonkers, New York, was the world’s first commercial fuel cell to runon a waste gas created at a wastewater treatment plant. The fuel cell generates about 1,600 MWh ofelectricity a year, and reduces methane emissions released to the environment.51A 200 kW fuel cellpower plant was also installed at the Water Pollution Control Authority’s WWTP in New Haven,Connecticut, and produces 10 – 15 percent of the facility’s electricity, reducing energy costs by almost$13,000 a year.52Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plant Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)28(5)1(6)1(6)0.3(6)2,365(6)6,370(6)263(3)Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)There are nine landfills in Vermont identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) throughtheir LMOP program: five of which are operational and four of which are considered potential sites forthe production and recovery of methane gas. 53,54The amount of methane emissions released by a givensite is dependent upon the amount of material in the landfill and the amount of time the material has beenin place. Similar to WWTPs, methane emissions from landfills could be captured and used as a fuel topower a fuel cell system. In 2009, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills were responsible for producingapproximately 17 percent of human-related methane emissions in the nation. These locations couldproduce renewable energy and help manage the release of methane (Appendix I – Figure 10: MunicipalWaste Sites).Table 13 - Landfill Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)9(4)1(7)1(7)0.3(7)2,365(7)6,370(7)263(4)46“Beyond Zero Net Energy: Case Studies of Wastewater Treatment for Energy and Resource Production”, Toffey, Bill,September 2010, http://www.awra-pmas.memberlodge.org/Resources/Documents/Beyond_NZE_WWT-Toffey-9-16-2010.pdf47EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, “Introduction”, July, 200648EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, July, 200649“GHG Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Management”, Beecher, Ned, November 20, 2009,www.des.state.nh.us/organization/divisions/water/wmb/rivers/watershed_conference/documents/2009_fri_climate_2.pdf50EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, May 4, 201151NYPA, “WHAT WE DO – Fuel Cells”, www.nypa.gov/services/fuelcells.htm, August 8, 201152Conntact.com, “City to Install Fuel Cell”,http://www.conntact.com/archive_index/archive_pages/4472_Business_New_Haven.html, August 15, 200353Due to size, individual sites may have more than one potential, candidate, or operational project.54LMOP defines a candidate landfill as “one that is accepting waste or has been closed for five years or less, has atleast one million tons of waste, and does not have an operational or, under-construction project,”EPA, “LandfillMethane Outreach Program”, www.epa.gov/lmop/basic-info/index.html, April 7, 2011
  • 17. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201217VERMONTAirportsDuring peak air travel times in the U.S., there are approximately 50,000 airplanes in the sky each day.Ensuring safe operations of commercial and private aircrafts are the responsibility of air trafficcontrollers. Modern software, host computers, voice communication systems, and instituted full scaleglide path angle capabilities assist air traffic controllers in tracking and communicating with aircrafts;consequently, reliable electricity is extremely important and present an opportunity for a fuel cell powerapplication. 55There are approximately 52 airports in Vermont, including 12 that are open to the public and havescheduled services. Of those 52 airports, two (Table 3) have 2,500 or more passengers enplaned eachyear; one of these two facilities is located in communities serviced by natural gas. (See Appendix I –Figure 11: Commercial Airports). An example of an airport currently hosting a fuel cell power plant toprovide backup power is Albany International Airport located in Albany, New York.Burlington International Airport (BTV) is considered the only “Joint-Use” airport in Vermont. Joint-Usefacilities are establishments where the military department authorizes use of the military runway forpublic airport services. Army Aviation Support Facilities (AASF) located at this site are used by theArmy to provide aircraft and equipment readiness, train and utilize military personnel, conduct flighttraining and operations, and perform field level maintenance.Table 14 – Vermont Top Airports Enplanement CountAirport56Total Enplanement in 2000Burlington International 446,363Rutland State 4,010On May 18, 2011 a power surge occurred, going through the terminal and out into the airfield where ittook out three runway lights in addition to two transformers powering the rest of the runway lights.Flights were canceled at BTV that night as well as the preceding morning, resulting in frustrated customerthreatening to take their business elsewhere in the future.57Burlington International Airport represents a favorable opportunity for the application of uninterruptiblepower for necessary services associated with national defense and emergency response and is located in acommunity serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports).Table 15 - Airport Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)VT(% of Region)57(7)1 (1)(2)1(2)0.3(2)2,365(2)6,370(2)263(1)55Howstuffworks.com, “How Air Traffic Control Works”, Craig, Freudenrich,http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/air-traffic-control5.htm, May 4, 201156Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Vermont Transportation Profile”,www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics/vermont/pdf/entire.pdf, March 30, 201157Wcax.com, “Power outage cancels BTV flights,” http://www.wcax.com/story/14677403/flights-canceled-after-btv-runway-lights-fail, May 2011
  • 18. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201218VERMONTMilitaryThe U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is the largest funding organization in terms of supporting fuelcell activities for military applications in the world. DOD is using fuel cells for:Stationary units for power supply in bases.Fuel cell units in transport applications.Portable units for equipping individual soldiers or group of soldiers.In a collaborative partnership with the DOE, the DOD plans to install and operate 18 fuel cell backuppower systems at eight of its military installations, two of which are located within the Northeast region(New York and New Jersey).5858Fuel Cell Today, “US DoD to Install Fuel cell Backup Power Systems at Eight Military Installations”,http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/online/news/articles/2011-07/US-DOD-FC-Backup-Power-Systems, July 20, 2011
  • 19. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201219VERMONTPOTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETSTransportation is responsible for one-fourth of the total global GHG emissions and consumes 75 percentof the world’s oil production. In 2010, the U.S. used 21 million barrels of non-renewable petroleum eachday. Roughly 34 percent of Vermont’s energy consumption is due to demands of the transportationsector, including gasoline and on-highway diesel petroleum for automobiles, cars, trucks, and buses. Asmall percent of non-renewable petroleum is used for jet and ship fuel.59The current economy in the U.S. is dependent on hydrocarbon energy sources and any disruption orshortage of this energy supply will severely affect many energy related activities, includingtransportation. As oil and other non-sustainable hydrocarbon energy resources become scarce, energyprices will increase and the reliability of supply will be reduced. Government and industry are nowinvestigating the use of hydrogen and renewable energy as a replacement of hydrocarbon fuels.Hydrogen-fueled fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have many advantages over conventionaltechnology, including:Quiet operation;Near zero emissions of controlled pollutants such as nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide,hydrocarbon gases or particulates;Substantial (30 to 50 percent) reduction in GHG emissions on a well-to-wheel basis compared toconventional gasoline or gasoline-hybrid vehicles when the hydrogen is produced byconventional methods such as natural gas; and 100 percent when hydrogen is produced from aclean energy source;Ability to fuel vehicles with indigenous energy sources which reduces dependence on importedenergy and adds to energy security; andHigher efficiency than conventional vehicles (See Table 4).60,61Table 16 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge62)Passenger Car Light Truck Transit BusHydrogen Gasoline Hybrid Gasoline Hydrogen Gasoline Hydrogen Fuel Cell Diesel52 50 29.3 49.2 21.5 5.4 3.9FCEVs can reduce price volatility, dependence on oil, improve environmental performance, and providegreater efficiencies than conventional transportation technologies, as follows:Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual CO2 emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately10,170, 15,770, and 182,984 pounds per year, respectively.6359“US Oil Consumption to BP Spill”, http://applesfromoranges.com/2010/05/us-oil-consumption-to-bp-spill/, May31, 201060“Challenges for Sustainable Mobility and Development of Fuel Cell Vehicles”, Masatami Takimoto, Executive Vice President,Toyota Motor Corporation, January 26, 2006. Presentation at the 2ndInternational Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Expo TechnicalConference Tokyo, Japan61“Twenty Hydrogen Myths”, Amory B. Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute, June 20, 200362Miles per Gallon Equivalent63Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008, Calculations based upon average annual mileage of 12,500miles for passenger car and 14,000 miles for light trucks (U.S. EPA) and 37,000 average miles/year per bus (U.S. DOT FTA,2007)
  • 20. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201220VERMONTReplacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual energy savings (per vehicle) of approximately 230gallons of gasoline (passenger vehicle), 485 gallons of gasoline (light duty truck) and 4,390gallons of diesel (bus).Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual fuel cost savings of approximately $885 per passengervehicle, $1,866 per light duty truck, and $17,560 per bus.64Automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, General Motors, Honda, Daimler AG, and Hyundai haveprojected that models of their FCEVs will begin to roll out in larger numbers by 2015. Longer term, theU.S. DOE has projected that between 15.1 million and 23.9 million light duty FCEVs may be sold eachyear by 2050 and between 144 million and 347 million light duty FCEVs may be in use by 2050 with atransition to a hydrogen economy. These estimates could be accelerated if political, economic, energysecurity or environmental polices prompt a rapid advancement in alternative fuels.65Strategic targets for the application of hydrogen for transportation include alternative fueling stations;Vermont Department of Transportation (VDOT) refueling stations; bus transits operations; government,public, and privately owned fleets; and material handling and airport ground support equipment (GSE).Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Alternative Fueling StationsThere are approximately 620 retail fueling stations in Vermont;66however, only 11 public and/or privatestations within the state provide alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, compressed natural gas, propane,hydrogen, and/or electricity for alternative-fueled vehicles.67There are also at least 60 refueling stationsowned and operated by VDOT that can be used by authorities operating federal and state safety vehicles,state transit vehicles, and employees of universities that operate fleet vehicles on a regular basis. 68Development of hydrogen fueling at alternative fuel stations and at selected locations owned and operatedby VDOT would help facilitate the deployment of FCEVs within the state. (See Appendix I – Figure 12:Alternative Fueling Stations). Currently, there are approximately 18 existing or planned transportationfueling stations in the Northeast region where hydrogen is provided as an alternative fuel.69,70,7164U.S. EIA, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices: gasoline - $3.847 and diesel – 4.00,www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_a_epm0r_pte_dpgal_w.htm65Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States: Report to Congress,http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/congress_reports.html, August 201166“Public retail gasoline stations state year” www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/data/docs/gasoline_stations_state.xls, May 5, 201167Alternative Fuels Data Center, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/68EPA, “Government UST Noncompliance Report-2007”, www.epa.gov/oust/docs/VT%20Compliance%20Report.pdf, August8,200769Alternative Fuels Data Center, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/70Hyride, “About the fueling station”, http://www.hyride.org/html-about_hyride/About_Fueling.html71CTTransit, “Hartford Bus Facility Site Work (Phase 1)”,www.cttransit.com/Procurements/Display.asp?ProcurementID={8752CA67-AB1F-4D88-BCEC-4B82AC8A2542}, March, 2011
  • 21. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201221VERMONTFleetsThere are over 2,000 fleet vehicles (excluding state and federal vehicles) classified as non-leasing orcompany owned vehicles in Vermont. 72Fleet vehicles typically account for more than twice the amountof mileage, and therefore twice the fuel consumption and emissions, compared to personal vehicles on aper vehicle basis. There is an additional 750 passenger automobiles and/or light duty trucks in Vermont,owned by state and federal agencies (excluding state police) that traveled a combined 7,088,686 miles in2010, while releasing 388 metrics tons of CO2. 73Conversion of fleet vehicles from conventional fossilfuels to FCEVs could significantly reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions. Fleet vehiclehubs may be good candidates for hydrogen refueling and conversion to FCEVs because they mostlyoperate on fixed routes or within fixed districts and are fueled from a centralized station.Bus TransitThere are approximately 42 directly operated buses that provide public transportation services inVermont.74As discussed above, replacement of a conventional diesel transit bus with fuel cell transit buswould result in the reduction of CO2 emissions (estimated at approximately 183,000 pounds per year), andreduction of diesel fuel (estimated at approximately 4,390 gallons per year).75Although the efficiency ofconventional diesel buses has increased, conventional diesel buses, which typically achieve fuel economyperformance levels of 3.9 miles per gallon, have the greatest potential for energy savings by using highefficiency fuel cells. Other states such as California, Connecticut, South Carolina, and Maine have alsobegun the transition of fueling transit buses with alternative fuels to improve efficiency andenvironmental performance.Material HandlingMaterial handling equipment such as forklifts are used by a variety of industries, includingmanufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, food, retailers, and wholesale trade to move goodswithin a facility or to load goods for shipping to another site. Material handling equipment is usuallybattery, propane or diesel powered. Batteries that currently power material handling equipment are heavyand take up significant storage space while only providing up to 6 hours of run time. Fuel cells canensure constant power delivery and performance, eliminating the reduction in voltage output that occursas batteries discharge. Fuel cell powered material handling equipment last more than twice as long (12-14 hours) and also eliminate the need for battery storage and charging rooms, leaving more space forproducts. In addition, fueling time only takes two to three minutes by the operator compared to least 20minutes or more for each battery replacement (assuming one is available), which saves the operatorvaluable time and increases warehouse productivity.Fuel cell powered material handling equipment has significant cost advantages, compared to batteries,such as:1.5 times lower maintenance cost;8 times lower refueling/recharging labor cost;2 times lower net present value of total operations and management (O&M) system cost.72Fleet.com, “2009-My Registration”, http://www.automotive-fleet.com/Statistics/StatsViewer.aspx?file=http%3a%2f%2fwww.automotive-fleet.com%2ffc_resources%2fstats%2fAFFB10-16-top10-state.pdf&channel73U.S. General Services Administration, “GSA 2010 Fleet Reports”, Table 4-2, http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/230525, September201174NTD Date, “TS2.2 - Service Data and Operating Expenses Time-Series by System”,http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm, December 201175Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008.
  • 22. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201222VERMONT63 percent less emissions of GHG. Appendix X provides a comparison of PEM fuel cell andbattery-powered material handling equipment.76Fuel cell powered material handling equipment is already in use at dozens of warehouses, distributioncenters, and manufacturing plants in North America.77Large corporations that are currently or planningto utilize fuel cell powered material handling equipment include CVS, Coca-Cola, BMW, CentralGrocers, and Wal-Mart. (Refer to Appendix IX for a partial list of companies in North America that usingfuel cell powered forklifts)78There are approximately four distribution center/warehouse sites that havebeen identified in Vermont and may benefit from the use of fuel cell powered material handlingequipment. (Appendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses)Ground Support EquipmentGround support equipment (GSE) such as catering trucks, deicers, and airport tugs can be batteryoperated or more commonly run on diesel or gasoline. As an alternative, hydrogen-powered tugs arebeing developed for both military and commercial applications. While their performance is similar to thatof other battery-powered equipment, a fuel cell-powered GSE remains fully charged (provided there ishydrogen fuel available) and do not experience performance lag at the end of a shift like battery-poweredGSEs.79Potential large end-users of GSE that serve Vermont’s largest airports include Delta Airlines,Continental, JetBlue, United, and US Airways (Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports).8077DOE EERE, “Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment”,www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/pdfs/early_markets_forklifts.pdf, February 201178Plug Power, “Plug Power Celebrates Successful year for Company’s Manufacturing and Sales Activity”,www.plugpower.com, January 4, 201179Battelle, “Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets”,April 2007, www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/pemfc_econ_2006_report_final_0407.pdf80BTV, “Airlines”, http://www.burlingtonintlairport.com/airlines/airlines.html, August, 2011
  • 23. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201223VERMONTCONCLUSIONHydrogen and fuel cell technology offers significant opportunities for improved energy reliability, energyefficiency, and emission reductions. Large fuel cell units (>300 kW) may be appropriate for applicationsthat serve large electric and thermal loads. Smaller fuel cell units (< 300 kW) may provide back-up powerfor telecommunication sites, restaurants/fast food outlets, and smaller sized public facilities at this time.Table 17 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell ApplicationsCategory Total Sites PotentialSitesNumber of FuelCells< 300 kWNumber ofFuel Cells>300 kWCBECSDataEducation 550 218114 7Food Sales 800+ 8828Food Services 1,000+ 1831Inpatient Healthcare 71 2842Lodging 490 9859Public Order & Safety 91 2862Energy Intensive Industries 91 2872Government OperatedBuildings88 5885WirelessTelecommunicationTowers83899909WWTPs 28 1911Landfills 9 1921Airports (w/ AASF) 57(1) 1(1) 931Total 3,301 62 23 39As shown in Table 5, the analysis provided here estimates that there are approximately 62 potentiallocations, which may be favorable candidates for the application of a fuel cell to provide heat and power.Assuming the demand for electricity was uniform throughout the year, approximately 29 to 39 fuel cellunits, with a capacity of 300 – 400 kW, could be deployed for a total fuel cell capacity of 12 to 16 MWs.8121 high schools and/or college and universities located in communities serviced by natural gas82eight food sale facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas83Ten percent of the 21 food service facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas84One Hospital located in communities serviced by natural gas and occupying 100 or more beds onsite85Seven hotel facilities with 100+ rooms onsite and two convalescent homes with 150+ bed onsite located in communitiesserviced by natural gas86Correctional facilities and/or other public order and safety facilities with 212 workers or more.87Ten percent of 22 energy intensive industry facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas8813 actively owned federal government operated building located in communities serviced by natural gas89The Federal Communications Commission regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire,satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories90Ten percent of the 83 wireless telecommunication sites in Vermont targeted for back-up PEM fuel cell deployment91Vermont WWTP with average flows of 3.0+ MGD92Ten percent of the Landfills targeted based on LMOP data93Airport facility with 2,500+ annual Enplanement Count and AASFs
  • 24. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201224VERMONTIf all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations 300 kW units, a minimum of 94,608 MWhelectric and 254,811 MMBTUs (equivalent to 74,681 MWh) of thermal energy would be produced, whichcould reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 17,313 tons per year.94Vermont can also benefit from the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation such aspassenger fleets, transit district fleets, municipal fleets and state department fleets. The application ofhydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation would reduce the dependence on oil, improveenvironmental performance and provide greater efficiencies than conventional transportationtechnologies.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled passenger vehicle with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately 10,170 pounds, annual energy savings of 230gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $885.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled light duty truck with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per light duty truck) of approximately 15,770 pounds, annual energy savingsof 485 gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $1866.• Replacement of a diesel-fueled transit bus with a fuel cell powered bus could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per bus) of approximately 182,984 pounds, annual energy savings of 4,390gallons of fuel, and annual fuel cost savings of $17,560.Hydrogen and fuel cell technology also provides significant opportunities for job creation and/oreconomic development. Realizing over $2.5 million in revenue and investment in 2010, the hydrogen andfuel cell industry in Vermont is estimated to have contributed approximately $142,000 in state and localtax revenue, and over $3.3 million in gross state product. Currently, there are at least five Vermontcompanies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the Northeastregion. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology were to gain momentum, the number ofcompanies and employment for the industry could grow substantially.94If all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations with 400 kW units, a minimum of 133,152 MWh electric and624,483 MMBTUs (equivalent to 624,483 MWh) of thermal energy would be produced, which could reduce CO2 emissions byat least 24,367 tons per year
  • 25. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201225VERMONTAPPENDICES
  • 26. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201226VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 1: Education
  • 27. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201227VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales
  • 28. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201228VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 3: Food Services
  • 29. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201229VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare
  • 30. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201230VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 5: Lodging
  • 31. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201231VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety
  • 32. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201232VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries
  • 33. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201233VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings
  • 34. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201234VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites
  • 35. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201235VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites
  • 36. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201236VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports
  • 37. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201237VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations
  • 38. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201238VERMONTAppendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers & Warehouses
  • 39. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201239VERMONTAppendix II – Vermont Estimated Electrical Consumption per SectorCategory Total SiteElectric Consumption per Building(1000 kWh)95kWh Consumed per SectorNew EnglandEducation 550 161.844 89,014,200Food Sales 800 319.821 255,856,800Food Services 1,00 128 128,190,000Inpatient Healthcare 71 6,038.63 428,742,820Lodging 490 213.12 104,427,820Public Order & Safety 152 77.855 11,833,960Total 3,063 1,018,065,155Residential962,188,000,000Industrial 1,643,000,000Commercial 2,050,000,000Other Commercial 1,031,934,84595EIA, Electricity consumption and expenditure intensities for Non-Mall Building 200396DOE EERE, “Electric Power and Renewable Energy in Maine”, http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/electricity.cfm/state=ME,August 25, 2011
  • 40. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201240VERMONTAppendix III – Key StakeholdersOrganization City/Town State WebsiteClean Energy StatesAllianceMontpelierVThttp://www.cleanenergystates.org/University of Vermont(Clean Cities)BurlingtonVThttp://www.uvm.edu/~transctr/?Page=cleancty/default.phpRenewable EnergyVermontMontpelierVThttp://www.revermont.org/main/Department of Building andGeneral ServicesMontpelierVThttp://bgs.vermont.gov/Vermont Department ofPublic Service CEDFMontpelierVThttp://publicservice.vermont.gov/Vermont center forEmerging TechnologiesBurlingtonVThttp://www.vermonttechnologies.com/Vermont PublicTransportation AssociationMiddleburyVThttp://www.vpta.net/Go Vermont MontpelierVT http://www.connectingcommuters.org/Utility CompaniesVermont Gas Systems http://www.vermontgas.com/Vermont Electric Co-op http://www.vermontelectric.coop/Green Mountain Power http://greenmountainpower.com/Burlington Electric Co. https://www.burlingtonelectric.com/page.php?pid=1Central Vermont Public Service Corp. http://www.cvps.com/
  • 41. Appendix IV – Vermont Hydrogen/Fuel Cell Based Incentives and ProgramsFunding Source: Renewable Energy VermontProgram Title: Local Option – Property Tax ExemptionApplicable Energies/Technologies: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar ThermalElectric, Photovoltaic, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, CHP/Cogeneration,Anaerobic Digestion, Small Hydroelectric, Fuel Cells using Renewable FuelsSummary: Vermont allows municipalities the option of offering an exemption from the municipalreal and personal property taxes for certain renewable energy systems (Note: state property taxeswould still apply)Restrictions:All component parts thereof including land upon which the facility is located, not to exceed one-halfacreTiming: CurrentMaximum Size:UnspecifiedRequirements:Adoption of this exemption varies by municipality, but the exemption generally applies to the totalvalue of the qualifying renewable energy system and can be applied to residential, commercial, andindustrial real and personal property.http://www.revermont.org/main/vermont-solar-consumer-guide/incentive-types/Rebate amount: ►VariesFor further information, please visit:http://www.revermont.org/main/vermont-solar-consumer-guide/incentive-types/Source:Vermont Public Utilities Commission “Incentive Types”, August, 2011DSIRE “Local Option – Property Tax Exemption”; August, 2011
  • 42. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201242Funding Source: Renewable Energy VermontProgram Title: Renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax ExemptionApplicable Energies/Technologies: Solar Water Heat, Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaic,Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, CHP/Cogeneration, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells usingRenewable FuelsSummary: Vermonts sales tax exemption for renewable-energy systems, originally enacted as partof the Miscellaneous Tax Reduction Act of 1999 (H. 0548), initially applied only to net-meteredsystems. The exemption now generally applies to systems up to 250 kilowatts (kW) in capacity thatgenerate electricity using eligible "renewable energy" resourcesRestrictions: Must fall under the definition of “renewable energy” as defined under 30 V.S.A. §8002 as "energy produced using a technology that relies on a resource that is being consumed at aharvest rate at or below its natural regeneration rate." Biogas from sewage-treatment plants andlandfills, and anaerobic digestion of agricultural products, byproducts and wastes are explicitlyincluded.Timing: CurrentMaximum Size:250 kWsRequirements:http://www.revermont.org/main/vermont-solar-consumer-guide/incentive-types/Rebate amount:► 100% of sales tax for purchaseFor further information, please visit:http://www.revermont.org/main/vermont-solar-consumer-guide/incentive-types/Source:Vermont Public Utilities Commission “Incentive Types”, August, 2011DSIRE “renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax Incentive”; August, 2011
  • 43. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201243Appendix V – Partial List of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Supply Chain Companies in Vermont97Organization Name Product or Service Category1 K & E Plastics Plastic fabrication2 Concepts NREC Engineering/Design Services3 Dynapower Equipment4 L.N. Consulting Inc. FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint. Services5Downs Rachlin MartinPLLCConsulting/Legal/Financial Services97Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, August 11, 2011
  • 44. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201244Appendix VI – Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies98Fuel CellTypeCommonElectrolyteOperatingTemperatureTypicalStackSizeEfficiency Applications Advantages DisadvantagesPolymerElectrolyteMembrane(PEM)Perfluoro sulfonicacid50-100°C122-212°typically80°C< 1 kW –1 MW99>kW 60%transportation35%stationary• Backup power• Portable power• Distributed generation• Transportation• Specialty vehicle• Solid electrolyte reducescorrosion & electrolytemanagement problems• Low temperature• Quick start-up• Expensive catalysts• Sensitive to fuelimpurities• Low temperature wasteheatAlkaline(AFC)Aqueous solutionof potassiumhydroxide soakedin a matrix90-100°C194-212°F10 – 100kW60%• Military• Space• Cathode reaction fasterin alkaline electrolyte,leads to high performance• Low cost components• Sensitive to CO2in fuel and air• ElectrolytemanagementPhosphoricAcid(PAFC)Phosphoric acidsoaked in a matrix150-200°C302-392°F400 kW100 kWmodule40% • Distributed generation• Higher temperature enablesCHP• Increased tolerance to fuelimpurities• Pt catalyst• Long start up time• Low current and powerMoltenCarbonate(MCFC)Solution of lithium,sodium and/orpotassiumcarbonates, soakedin a matrix600-700°C1112-1292°F300k W- 3 MW300 kWmodule45 – 50%• Electric utility• Distributed generation• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Suitable for CHP• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• Long start up time• Low power densitySolid Oxide(SOFC)Yttria stabilizedzirconia700-1000°C1202-1832°F1 kW – 2MW60%• Auxiliary power• Electric utility• Distributed generation• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Solid electrolyte• Suitable f o r CHP & CHHP• Hybrid/GT cycle• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• High temperatureoperation requires longstart uptime and limitsPolymer Electrolyte is no longer a single category row. Data shown does not take into account High Temperature PEM which operates in the range of 160oC to 180oC. It solvesvirtually all of the disadvantages listed under PEM. It is not sensitive to impurities. It has usable heat. Stack efficiencies of 52% on the high side are realized. HTPEM is not aPAFC fuel cell and should not be confused with one.98U.S. department of Energy, Fuel Cells Technology Program, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/pdfs/fc_comparison_chart.pdf, August 5, 201199Ballard, “CLEARgen Multi-MY Systems”, http://www.ballard.com/fuel-cell-products/cleargen-multi-mw-systems.aspx, November, 2011
  • 45. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201245Appendix VII –Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats for VermontStrengthsStationary Power – Strong market drivers (elect cost,environmental factors, critical power)Transportation Power - Strong market drivers (appeal to market,environmental factors, high gasoline prices, long commutingdistance, lack of public transportation options)WeaknessesStationary Power – No fuel cell technology/industrial base at theOEM level, fuel cells only considered statutorily “renewable” ifpowered by renewable fuel, lack ofinstallations/familiarity/comfort level with technologyTransportation Power – No technology/industrial base at the OEMlevelEconomic Development Factors – limited state incentivesOpportunitiesStationary Power – More opportunity as a “early adopter market”,some supply chain buildup opportunities such as supermarketsand larger hotel chains around the deploymentTransportation Power – Same as stationary power.Economic Development Factors – Once the region determines itsfocus within the hydrogen/fuel cell space, a modest amount ofstate support is likely to show reasonable results, then replicate inthe next targeted sector(s).Implementation of RPS/modification of RPS to include fuel cellsin preferred resource tier (for stationary power); or modification ofRE definition to include FCs powered by natural gas and allowedresource for net metering.Strong regional emphasis on efficiency, FCs could play a roleInfrastructure exists in many location to capture methane fromlandfills – more knowledge of options to substitute FCs forgenerators could prove fruitfulThreatsStationary Power – The region’s favorable market characteristicsand needs will be met by other distributed and “truly” generationtechnologies, such as solar, wind, geothermalTransportation Power – The region’s favorable marketcharacteristics and needs will be met by electric vehicles,particularly in the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure or,alternatively, customers remaining with efficient gas-poweredvehicles that can handle our unique clime/terrain/commutingdistance needEconomic Development Factors – competition from otherstates/regionsIf states provide incentives, smaller & less-consistent clean energyfunds may not provide market the support & assurance it needs
  • 46. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201246Appendix VIII – Partial Fuel Cell Deployment in the Northeast regionManufacturer Site Name Site LocationYearInstalledPlug Power T-Mobile cell tower Storrs CT 2008Plug Power Albany International Airport Albany NY 2004FuelCell Energy Pepperidge Farms Plant Bloomfield CT 2005FuelCell Energy Peabody Museum New Haven CT 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers Manhattan NY 2004FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Edison NJ 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Parsippany NJ 2003UTC Power Cabelas Sporting Goods East Hartford CT 2008UTC Power Whole Foods Market Glastonbury CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Science Center Hartford CT 2009UTC Power St. Francis Hospital Hartford CT 2003UTC Power Middletown High School Middletown CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Juvenile Training School Middletown CT 2001UTC Power 360 State Street Apartment Building New Haven CT 2010UTC Power South Windsor High School South Windsor CT 2002UTC Power Mohegan Sun Casino Hotel Uncasville CT 2002UTC Power CTTransit: Fuel Cell Bus Hartford CT 2007UTC Power Whole Foods Market Dedham MA 2009UTC Power Bronx Zoo Bronx NY 2008UTC Power North Central Bronx Hospital Bronx NY 2000UTC Power Hunts Point Water Pollution Control Plant Bronx NY 2005UTC Power Price Chopper Supermarket Colonie NY 2010UTC Power East Rochester High School East Rochester NY 2007UTC Power Coca-Cola Refreshments Production Facility Elmsford NY 2010UTC Power Verizon Call Center and Communications Building Garden City NY 2005UTC Power State Office Building Hauppauge NY 2009UTC Power Liverpool High School Liverpool NY 2000UTC Power New York Hilton Hotel New York City NY 2007UTC Power Central Park Police Station New York City NY 1999UTC Power Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester NY 1993UTC Power NYPA office building White Plains NY 2010UTC Power Wastewater treatment plant Yonkers NY 1997UTC Power The Octagon Roosevelt Island NY 2011UTC Power Johnson & Johnson World Headquarters New Brunswick NJ 2003UTC Power CTTRANSIT (Fuel Cell Powered Buses) Hartford CT2007 -Present
  • 47. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201247Appendix IX – Partial list of Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America100Company City/Town State SiteYearDeployedFuel CellManufacturer# offorkliftsCoca-ColaSan Leandro CABottling anddistribution center2011 Plug Power 37Charlotte NC Bottling facility 2011 Plug Power 40EARPDistributionKansas City KS Distribution center 2011 Oorja Protonics 24Golden StateFoodsLemont IL Distribution facility 2011 Oorja Protonics 20Kroger Co. Compton CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 161SyscoRiverside CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 80Boston MA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 160Long Island NY Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 42San Antonio TX Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 113Front Royal VARedistributionfacility2011 Plug Power 100Baldor SpecialtyFoodsBronx NY FacilityPlannedin 2012Oorja Protonics 50BMWManufacturingCo.Spartanburg SC Manufacturing plant 2010 Plug Power 86DefenseLogisticsAgency, U.S.Department ofDefenseSan Joaquin CA Distribution facility 2011 Plug Power 20Fort Lewis WA Distribution depot 2011 Plug Power 19WarnerRobinsGA Distribution depot 2010 Hydrogenics 20Susquehanna PA Distribution depot2010 Plug Power 152009 Nuvera 40Martin-Brower Stockton CAFood distributioncenter2010 Oorja Protonics 15United NaturalFoods Inc.(UNFI)Sarasota FL Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 65Wal-MartBalzacAl,CanadaRefrigerateddistribution center2010 Plug Power 80WashingtonCourt HouseOHFood distributioncenter2007 Plug Power 55Wegmans Pottsville PA Warehouse 2010 Plug Power 136Whole FoodsMarketLandover MD Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 61100FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America”, http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/forklifts.pdf, November, 2011
  • 48. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201248Appendix X – Comparison of PEM Fuel Cell and Battery-Powered Material Handling Equipment3 kW PEM Fuel Cell-PoweredPallet Trucks3 kW Battery-powered(2 batteries per truck)Total Fuel Cycle Energy Use(total energy consumed/kWhdelivered to the wheels)-12,000 Btu/kWh 14,000 Btu/kWhFuel Cycle GHG Emissions(in g CO2 equivalent 820 g/kWh 1200 g/kWhEstimated Product Life 8-10 years 4-5 yearsNo Emissions at Point of Use  Quiet Operation  Wide Ambient OperatingTemperature range Constant Power Availableover ShiftRoutine Maintenance Costs($/YR)$1,250 - $1,500/year $2,000/yearTime for Refueling/ChangingBatteries 4 – 8 min./day45-60 min/day (for battery change-outs)8 hours (for battery recharging & cooling)Cost of Fuel/Electricity $6,000/year $1,300/yearLabor Cost ofrefueling/Recharging$1,100/year $8,750/yearNet Present Value of CapitalCost$12,600($18,000 w/o incentive)$14,000Net Present Value of O&Mcosts (including fuel)$52,000 $128,000