Ny h2 dev_plan_041012
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Ny h2 dev_plan_041012

on

  • 676 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
676
Views on SlideShare
663
Embed Views
13

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

2 Embeds 13

http://www.linkedin.com 12
https://www.linkedin.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Ny h2 dev_plan_041012 Document Transcript

  • 1. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20121NEW YORKHydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan – “Roadmap” CollaborativeParticipantsNew Energy New York /Energy & Environmental Technology Application Center (E2TAC)Pradeep Halder – Program DirectorEmily Behnke – Program Assistant DirectorProject Management and Plan DevelopmentNortheast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster:Joel M. Rinebold – Program DirectorPaul Aresta – Project ManagerAlexander C. Barton – Energy SpecialistAdam J. Brzozowski – Energy SpecialistThomas Wolak – Energy InternNathan Bruce – GIS Mapping InternAgenciesUnited States Department of EnergyUnited States Small Business AdministrationNYC skyline – “Midtown Manhattan Skyline”, RFC Graphics, 2010, September, 2011,http://www.pbase.com/rfcd100/image/121260213/largeTime square – “Time Square at Dusk”, Randy Kosek, 2010, September, 2011,http://www.360cities.net/map#lat=40.75916&lng=-73.98505&name=times-square-at-dusk&zoom=20Coca-Cola fuel cell – “Coca-Cola Refreshments in Elmsford, NY”, UTC Power, September 2011,http://www.utcpower.com/files/FL0120_Stationary_Fuel_Cells.pdfGM – “Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell Vehicles Picture”, General Motors Corporation, September, 2011,http://www.insideline.com/chevrolet/equinox-fuel-cell/photos/chevrolet_equinox-fuel-cell_group_ns_31710.htmlForklift refueling –“H2 Fueling”, Plug Power, September, 2011,http://www.plugpower.com/Solutions/Technology/FeaturesBenefits.aspxForklifts – “Fuel Cell Forklifts”, Plug Power, September, 2011, http://www.plugpower.com/AboutUs.aspx
  • 2. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20122NEW YORKEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThere is the potential to generate approximately 3.89 million megawatt hours (MWh) of electricityannually from hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the State of New York,through the development of 494 – 659 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell generation capacity. The state andfederal government have incentives to facilitate the development and use of renewable energy. Thedecision on whether or not to deploy hydrogen or fuel cell technology at a given location depends largelyon the economic value, compared to other conventional or alternative/renewable technologies.Consequently, while many sites may be technically viable for the application of fuel cell technology, thisplan provides focus for fuel cell applications that are both technically and economically viable.Favorable locations for the development of renewable energy generation through fuel cell technologyinclude energy intensive commercial buildings (education, food sales, food services, inpatient healthcare,lodging, and public order and safety), energy intensive industries, wastewater treatment plants, landfills,wireless telecommunications sites, federal/state-owned buildings, and airport facilities with a substantialamount of air traffic.Currently, New York has more than 180 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cellindustry supply chain in the Northeast region. Based on a recent study, these companies making up theNew York hydrogen and fuel cell industry are estimated to have realized approximately $292 million inrevenue and investment, contributed over $18 million in state and local tax revenue, and generatedover $166 million in gross state product from their participation in this regional energy cluster in 2010.Eight of these companies are original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of hydrogen and/or fuelcell systems, and were responsible for supplying 808 direct jobs and $119 million in direct revenueand investment in 2010.Hydrogen and fuel cell projects are becoming increasingly popular throughout the Northeast region.These technologies are viable solutions that can meet the demand for renewable energy in New York. Inaddition, the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology would reduce the dependence on oil,improve environmental performance, and increase the number of jobs within the state. This plan provideslinks to relevant information to help assess, plan, and initiate hydrogen or fuel cell projects to help meetthe energy, economic, and environmental goals of the State.Developing policies and incentives that support hydrogen and fuel cell technology will increasedeployment at sites that would benefit from on-site generation. Increased demand for hydrogen and fuelcell technology will increase production and create jobs throughout the supply. As deployment increases,manufacturing costs will decline and hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be in a position to thencompete in a global market without incentives. These policies and incentives can be coordinatedregionally to maintain the regional economic cluster as a global exporter for long-term growth andeconomic development.
  • 3. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20123NEW YORKTABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................2INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................5DRIVERS............................................................................................................................................6ECONOMIC IMPACT ...........................................................................................................................8POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETS ...................................................................................................9Education ............................................................................................................................................11Food Sales...........................................................................................................................................12Food Service .......................................................................................................................................12Inpatient Healthcare............................................................................................................................13Lodging...............................................................................................................................................14Public Order and Safety......................................................................................................................14Energy Intensive Industries.....................................................................................................................15Government Owned Buildings................................................................................................................16Wireless Telecommunication Sites.........................................................................................................16Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) ................................................................................................17Airports...................................................................................................................................................18Military ...................................................................................................................................................19POTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETS .........................................................................................21Alternative Fueling Stations................................................................................................................22Bus Transit..........................................................................................................................................23Material Handling...............................................................................................................................23Ground Support Equipment ................................................................................................................24Ports ....................................................................................................................................................24CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................25APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................27
  • 4. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20124NEW YORKIndex of TablesTable 1 - New York Economic Data 2011....................................................................................................8Table 2 - Education Data Breakdown.........................................................................................................12Table 3 - Food Sales Data Breakdown........................................................................................................12Table 4 - Food Services Data Breakdown ..................................................................................................13Table 5 -Inpatient Healthcare Data Breakdown..........................................................................................13Table 6 - Lodging Data Breakdown............................................................................................................14Table 7 - Public Order and Safety Data Breakdown...................................................................................15Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector ..............................................................16Table 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data Breakdown................................................................................16Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data Breakdown........................................................................16Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunications Data Breakdown.......................................................................17Table 12 - Wireless Telecommunication Date Breakdown ........................................................................17Table 13 -Landfill Data Breakdown ...........................................................................................................18Table 14 – New York Top Airports Enplanement Count...........................................................................19Table 15 - Airport Data Breakdown ...........................................................................................................19Table 16 - Military Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................20Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge)...........................21Table 18- Ports Data Breakdown................................................................................................................24Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell Applications ...........................................................................25Index of FiguresFigure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector....................................................................................................9Figure 2 - Electric Power Generation by Primary Energy Source................................................................9Figure 3 - New York Electrical Consumption per Sector...........................................................................11Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption ..........................................................................................14
  • 5. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20125NEW YORKINTRODUCTIONA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Development Plan was created for each state in the Northeast region(New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maine, and NewJersey), with support from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to increase awarenessand facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. The intent of this guidance documentis to make available information regarding the economic value and deployment opportunities forhydrogen and fuel cell technology.1A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or a hydrogen-rich fuel such as natural gas) and oxygen tocreate an electric current. The amount of power produced by a fuel cell depends on several factors,including fuel cell type, stack size, operating temperature, and the pressure at which the gases aresupplied to the cell. Fuel cells are classified primarily by the type of electrolyte they employ, whichdetermines the type of chemical reactions that take place in the cell, the temperature range in which thecell operates, the fuel required, and other factors. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications forwhich these cells are most suitable. There are several types of fuel cells currently in use or underdevelopment, each with its own advantages, limitations, and potential applications. These technologiesand applications are identified in Appendix VII.Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) in vehicles and providepower for stationary and portable power applications. Fuel cells are in commercial service as distributedpower plants in stationary applications throughout the world, providing thermal energy and electricity topower homes and businesses. Fuel cells are also used in transportation applications, such as automobiles,trucks, buses, and other equipment. Fuel cells for portable applications, which are currently indevelopment, can provide power for laptop computers and cell phones.Fuel cells are cleaner and more efficient than traditional combustion-based engines and power plants;therefore, less energy is needed to provide the same amount of power. Typically, stationary fuel cellpower plants are fueled with natural gas or other hydrogen rich fuel. Natural gas is widely availablethroughout the northeast, is relatively inexpensive, and is primarily a domestic energy supply.Consequently, natural gas shows the greatest potential to serve as a transitional fuel for the near futurehydrogen economy. 2Stationary fuel cells use a fuel reformer to convert the natural gas to near purehydrogen for the fuel cell stack. Because hydrogen can be produced using a wide variety of resourcesfound here in the U.S., including natural gas, biomass material, and through electrolysis using electricityproduced from indigenous sources, energy produced from a fuel cell can be considered renewable andwill reduce dependence on imported fuel. 3,4When pure hydrogen is used to power a fuel cell, the onlyby-products are water and heat—no pollutants or greenhouse gases (GHG) are produced.1Key stakeholders are identified in Appendix III2EIA,”Commercial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2009”,http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/sum_pr_com.html, August 20113Electrolysis is the process of using an electric current to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.4U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/, August 2011
  • 6. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20126NEW YORKDRIVERSThe Northeast hydrogen and fuel cell industry, while still emerging, currently has an economic impact ofover $1 Billion of total revenue and investment. New York has eight original equipment manufacturers(OEM) of hydrogen/fuel cell systems, giving the state a significant direct economic impact, in addition tobenefiting from secondary impacts of indirect and induced employment and revenue.5Furthermore, NewYork has a definitive and attractive economic development opportunity to greatly increase its economicparticipation in the hydrogen and fuel cell industry within the Northeast region and worldwide. Aneconomic “SWOT” assessment for New York is provided in Appendix VIII.Industries in the Northeast, including those in New York, are facing increased pressure to reduce costs,fuel consumption, and emissions that may be contributing to climate change. Currently, New York’sbusinesses pay $0.146 per kWh for electricity on average; this is the fourth highest cost of electricity inthe U.S.6New York’s has major load centers, the high cost of electricity, concerns over regional airquality, available federal tax incentives, and legislative mandates in New York and neighboring stateshave resulted in renewed interest in the development of efficient renewable energy. Incentives designedto assist individuals and organizations in energy conservation and the development of renewable energyare currently offered within the state. Appendix IV contains outlines of New York’s incentives andrenewable energy programs. Some specific factors that are driving the market for hydrogen and fuel celltechnology in New York include the following:The New York Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted a Renewable Portfolio Standard(RPS) in September 2004 and issued implementation rules in April 2005. As originally designed,New Yorks RPS had a renewables target of 25 percent of state electricity consumption by 2013,but was expanded in January 2010 to 30 percent by 2015 by order of the PSC. Of this 30 percent,approximately 20.7 percent of the target will be derived from existing renewable energy facilitiesand one percent (1 percent) of the target is expected to be met through voluntary green powersales in 2015. – promotes stationary power and transportation applications.7New York is one of the states in the ten-state region that is part of the Regional Greenhouse GasInitiative (RGGI), the nation’s first mandatory market-based program to reduce emissions ofcarbon dioxide (CO2). RGGIs goals are to stabilize and cap emissions at 188 million tonsannually from 2009-2014 and to reduce CO2-emissions by 2.5 percent per year from 2015-2018.8– promotes stationary power and transportation applications.New York Governor George Pataki signed Executive Order No. 111 to promote “Green andClean” State Buildings and Vehicles on June 10, 2001. The Renewable- Power Procurementcomponent (which recognizes fuel cells and fuel cells using renewable fuels) of this order5There are now nine total OEMs in New York, however data within this plan reflects the eight OEMs originally used within themodel. Nine OEMs will increase the impact of the cluster and will be used when the model is run for the next year.6EIA, Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_a.html7DSIRE, “Renewable Portfolio Standards,”http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=NY03R&re=1&ee=1, September, 20118Seacoastonline.come, “RGGI: Quietly setting a standard”,http://www.seacoastonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090920/NEWS/909200341/-1/NEWSMAP, September 20, 2009
  • 7. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20127NEW YORKcommits the state government to purchase a portion of its electric power from renewable energyresources – promotes stationary power applications.9Net Metering is available on a first-come, first-served basis to customers of the states majorinvestor-owned utilities, subject to technology, system size and aggregate capacity limitations –promotes stationary power applications.10The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) administersthe Clean Fueled Bus Program, which provides funds to New York state and local transitagencies, municipalities, and schools for up to 100 percent of the incremental cost of purchasingnew alternative fuel buses and associated infrastructure – promotes transportation applications.11Through NYSERDA, financial incentives are available to support the installation and operationof continuous duty fuel cell systems in New York State, with up to $1 million available for fuelcell systems rated larger than 25 kW and $50,000 available for fuel cell systems rated at 25 kW orless. Funding is on a first-come, first-served basis until December 31, 2015, or until all fundinghas been fully committed.12– promotes stationary power applications.NYSERDA administers the New York State Clean Cities Challenge, which awards funds to NewYork Clean Cities Coalition members that acquire alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) or install AFVfueling or charging infrastructure. Funds are awarded on a competitive basis and may be used tocost-share up to 75 percent of the proposed project, including the incremental cost of purchasingAFVs, fueling and charging equipment installation costs, and the incremental costs associatedwith bulk alternative fuel purchases – promotes transportation applications.13NYSERDA manages the New York State Clean Cities Sharing Network (Network), whichprovides technical, policy, and program information about AFVs, including information about taxincentives, fueling stations, case studies, and contact information for the Clean Cities programand other industry leaders. The Network also organizes and sponsors technical workshops –promotes transportation applications.149DSIRE, “New York – Renewable Procurement Policy”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=NY08R&re=1&ee=1, September, 201110DSIRE, “New York – Net Metering,”http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=NY05R&re=1&ee=1, September, 201111EERE, “Alternative Fuel Bus and Infrastructure Funding”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/NY/5318, September,201112NYSERDA, “RPS Customer-sited tier fuel cell program”, http://www.nyserda.org/funding/2157pon.asp, November, 201113EERE, “Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding ”,http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/NY/5321, September 10, 201114EERE, “Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Technical Assistance ”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/NY/5322,September, 2011
  • 8. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20128NEW YORKECONOMIC IMPACTThe hydrogen and fuel cell industry has direct, indirect, and induced impacts on local and regionaleconomies. 15A new hydrogen and/or fuel cell project directly affects the area’s economy through thepurchase of goods and services, generation of land use revenue, taxes or payments in lieu of taxes, andemployment. Secondary effects include both indirect and induced economic effects resulting from thecirculation of the initial spending through the local economy, economic diversification, changes inproperty values, and the use of indigenous resources.New York is home to approximately 180 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cellindustry supply chain in the Northeast region. Appendices V and VI list the hydrogen and fuel cellsupply chain companies and OEMs in New York. Realizing over $292 million in revenue and investmentfrom their participation in this regional cluster in 2010, these companies include manufacturing, partsdistributing, supplying of industrial gas, engineering based research and development (R&D), coatingapplications, managing of venture capital funds, etc. 16Furthermore, the hydrogen and fuel cell industry isestimated to have contributed over $18 million in state and local tax revenue, and over $166 million ingross state product. Table 1 shows New York’s impact in the Northeast region’s hydrogen and fuel cellindustry as of April 2011.Table 1 - New York Economic Data 2011New York Economic DataSupply Chain Members 182Direct Rev ($M) 119.13Direct Jobs 808Direct Labor Income ($M) 65.4Indirect Rev ($M) 78.34Indirect Jobs 330Indirect Labor Income ($M) 27.2Induced Revenue ($M) 93.07Induced Jobs 583Induced Labor Income ($M) 32.6Total Revenue ($M) 290.53Total Jobs 1,721Total Labor Income ($M) 125.23In addition, there are over 118,000 people employed across 3,500 companies within the Northeastregistered as part of the motor vehicle industry. Approximately 54,280 of these individuals and 1,470 ofthese companies are located in New York. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology were togain momentum within the transportation sector, the estimated employment rate for the hydrogen and fuelcell industry could grow significantly in the region.1715Indirect impacts are the estimated output (i.e., revenue), employment and labor income in other business (i.e., not-OEMs) thatare associated with the purchases made by hydrogen and fuel cell OEMs, as well as other companies in the sector’s supply chain.Induced impacts are the estimated output, employment and labor income in other businesses (i.e., non-OEMs) that are associatedwith the purchases by workers related to the hydrogen and fuel cell industry.16Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1,September, 201117NAICS Codes: Motor Vehicle – 33611, Motor Vehicle Parts – 3363
  • 9. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20129NEW YORKPOTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETSIn 2009, New York consumed the equivalent of 1,118.8 million megawatt-hours of energy amongst thetransportation, residential, industrial, and commercial sectors.18Electricity consumption in New Yorkwas approximately 140 million MWh, and is forecasted to grow at a rate of 0.83 percent annually over thenext decade. 19;20Figure 1 illustrates the percent of total energy consumed by each sector in New York.A more detailed breakout of energy use is provided in Appendix II.This demand relies on both in-state resources and imports of power over the region’s transmission systemto serve electricity to customers. Net electrical demand in New York was approximately 16,000 MW in2009 and is projected to increase by approximately 800 MW by 2015. The state’s overall electric demandis forecasted to grow at a rate of 0.83 percent annually over the next decade. Demand for new electriccapacity as well as a replacement of older less efficient base-load generation facilities is expected. 21Asshown in Figure 2, natural gas was the second most used energy source for electricity consumed in NewYork for 2009.2218U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), “State Energy Data System”,“http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/rank_use.html”, August 201119EIA, “Electric Power Annual 2009 – State Data Tables”, www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January, 201120ISO New York, “2011 ICAP – RLGF Summary”,http://www.nyiso.com/public/webdocs/committees/bic_icapwg_lftf/meeting_materials/2010-12-09/2011_ICAP_-_RLGF_Summary_V3.pdf, December 9, 201021ISO New York, “Power Trends 2011”,http://www.nyiso.com/public/webdocs/newsroom/power_trends/Power_Trends_2011.pdf, January, 201122EIA, “New York Electricity Profile 2010”, http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/new_york.html, October, 2011Figure 1 - Energy Consumption bySectorFigure 2 - Electric Power Generationby Primary Energy SourceResidential29%Commercial32%Industrial10%Transportation29%Coal9.9%Petroleum1.5%Natural Gas35.6%Nuclear30.5%Hydroelectric18.5%OtherRenewables3.5%Other0.6%
  • 10. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201210NEW YORKFuel cell systems have many advantages over other conventional technologies, including:High fuel-to-electricity efficiency (> 40 percent) utilizing hydrocarbon fuels;Overall system efficiency of 85 to 93 percent;Reduction of noise pollution;Reduction of air pollution;Often do not require new transmission;Siting is not controversial; andIf near point of use, waste heat can be captured and used. Combined heat and power (CHP)systems are more efficient and can reduce facility energy costs over applications that use separateheat and central station power systems.23Fuel cells can be deployed as a CHP technology that provides both power and thermal energy, and cannearly double energy efficiency at a customer site, typically from 35 to 50 percent. The value of CHPincludes reduced transmission and distribution costs, reduced fuel use and associated emissions.24Basedon the targets identified within this plan, there is the potential to develop at least approximately 494 MWsof stationary fuel cell generation capacity in New York, which would provide the following benefits,annually:Production of approximately 3.89 million MWh of electricityProduction of approximately 10.49 million MMBTUs of thermal energyReduction of CO2 emissions of approximately 1.40 million (electric generation only)25For the purpose of this plan, potential applications have been explored with a focus on fuel cells that havea capacity between 300 kW to 400 kW. However, smaller fuel cells are potentially viable for specificapplications. Facilities that have electrical and thermal requirements that closely match the output of thefuel cells potentially provide the best opportunity for the application of a fuel cell. Facilities that may begood candidates for the application of a fuel cell include commercial buildings with potentially highelectricity consumption, selected government buildings, public works facilities, and energy intensiveindustries.Commercial building types with high electricity consumption have been identified as potential locationsfor on-site generation and CHP application based on data from the Energy Information Administration’s(EIA) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). These selected building typesmaking up the CBECS subcategory within the commercial industry include:EducationFood SalesFood ServicesInpatient HealthcareLodgingPublic Order & Safety2623FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell Basics”, www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html, July, 201124“Distributed Generation Market Potential: 2004 Update Connecticut and Southwest Connecticut”, ISE, Joel M. Rinebold,ECSU, March 15, 200425Replacement of conventional fossil fuel generating capacity with methane fuel cells could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions by between approximately 100 and 600 lb/MWh: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), eGRID2010 Version1.1 Year 2007 GHG Annual Output Emission Rates, Annual non-baseload output emission rates (NPCC New England); FuelCellEnergy, DFC 300 Product sheet, http://www.fuelcellenergy.com/files/FCE%20300%20Product%20Sheet-lo-rez%20FINAL.pdf;UTC Power, PureCell Model 400 System Performance Characteristics, http://www.utcpower.com/products/purecell400
  • 11. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201211NEW YORKThe commercial building types identified above represent top principal building activity classificationsthat reported the highest value for electricity consumption on a per building basis and have a potentiallyhigh load factor for the application of CHP. Appendix II further defines New York’s estimated electricalconsumption per each sector. As illustrated in Figure 3, these selected building types within thecommercial sector are estimated to account for approximately 18 percent of New York’s total electricalconsumption. Graphical representations of potential targets identified are depicted in Appendix I.Figure 3 – New York Electrical Consumption per SectorEducationThere are approximately 1,990 non-public schools and 5,001 public schools (327 of which are consideredhigh schools with 100 or more students enrolled) in New York.27,28High schools operate for a longerperiod of time daily due to extracurricular after school activities, such as clubs and athletics.Furthermore, five of these schools have swimming pools, which may make these sites especiallyattractive because it would increase the utilization of both the electrical and thermal output offered by afuel cell. There are also 279 colleges and universities in New York. Colleges and universities havefacilities for students, faculty, administration, and maintenance crews that typically include dormitories,cafeterias, gyms, libraries, and athletic departments – some with swimming pools. Of these 606 locations(327 high schools and 279 colleges), 541 are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I– Figure 1: Education).Educational establishments in New York have already shown interest in fuel cell technology. Examplesof existing or planned fuel cell applications in the state include high schools in Liverpool and EastRochester, and colleges such as Rochester Institute of Technology and the State University of New YorkCollege of Environmental Science and Forestry.26As defined by CBECS, Public Order & Safety facilities are buildings used for the preservation of law and order or publicsafety. Although these sites are usually described as government facilities they are referred to as commercial buildings becausetheir similarities in energy usage with the other building sites making up the CBECS data.27EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html28Public schools are classified as magnets, charters, alternative schools and special facilities
  • 12. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201212NEW YORKTable 2 - Education Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)6,991(38)541(25)250(36)75.0(36)591,300(36)1,592,568(36)150,782(35)Food SalesThere are over 25,000 businesses in New York known to be engaged in the retail sale of food. Food salesestablishments are potentially good candidates for fuel cells based on their electrical demand and thermalrequirements for heating and refrigeration. Approximately 485 of these sites are considered larger foodsales businesses with approximately 60 or more employees at their site.29Of these 485 businesses, 415are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales).30The applicationof a large fuel cell (>300) at a small convenience store may not be economically viable based on theelectric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate.Popular grocery chains such as Price Chopper, Supervalu, Wholefoods, and Stop and Shop have showninterest in powering their stores with fuel cells in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York.31PriceChopper, located in Glenville, New York, is a location where a fuel cell power plant has been installed.In addition, grocery distribution centers, such as Wal-Mart’s distribution center in Sharon Springs, NewYork, or Rite Aid’s distribution center, in Liverpool, New York, are prime targets for the application ofhydrogen and fuel cell technology for both stationary power and material handling equipment.Table 3 - Food Sales Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)25,000(49)415(35)415(35)124.5(35)981,558(35)2,643,663(35)250,297(39)Food ServiceThere are over 30,000 businesses in New York that can be classified as food service establishmentsbecause they are used for the preparation and sale of food and beverages for consumption.32Approximately 170 of these sites are considered larger restaurant businesses with approximately 130 ormore employees at their site and are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure3: Food Services).33The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at smaller restaurants with less than130 workers may not be economically viable based on the electric demand and operational requirements;however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate to meet hot water and space heating29On average, food sale facilities consume 43,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel cell technology(>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations show food salesfacilities employing more than 61 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.30EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html31Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA), “Fuel Cells for Supermarkets – Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat andPower Systems”, Benny Smith, www.cleanenergystates.org/assets/Uploads/BlakeFuelCellsSupermarketsFB.pdf32EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html33On average, food service facilities consume 20,300 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel celltechnology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations showfood service facilities employing more than 130 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuelcell.
  • 13. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201213NEW YORKrequirements. A significant portion (18 percent) of the energy consumed in a commercial food serviceoperation can be attributed to the domestic hot water heating load.34In other parts of the U.S., popularchains, such as McDonalds, are beginning to show an interest in the smaller sized fuel cell units for theprovision of electricity and thermal energy, including domestic water heating.35Table 4 - Food Services Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)30,000(46)170(44)170(44)51(44)402,084(44)1,082,946(44)102,531(44)Inpatient HealthcareThere are over 1,600 inpatient healthcare facilities in New York; 250 of which are classified ashospitals.36Of these 250 locations, 165 are located in communities serviced by natural gas and contain100 or more beds onsite (Appendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare). Hospitals represent an excellentopportunity for the application of fuel cells because they require a high availability factor of electricity forlifesaving medical devices and operate 24/7 with a relatively flat load curve. Furthermore, medicalequipment, patient rooms, sterilized/operating rooms, data centers, and kitchen areas within thesefacilities are often required to be in operational conditions at all times which maximizes the use ofelectricity and thermal energy from the fuel cell. Nationally, hospital energy costs have increased 56percent from $3.89 per square foot in 2003 to $6.07 per square foot for 2010, partially due to theincreased cost of energy.37Examples of healthcare facilities with planned or operational fuel cells include St. Francis, Stamford, andWaterbury Hospitals in Connecticut, and North Central Bronx Hospital in New York.Table 5 -Inpatient Healthcare Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)1,609(40)165(39)165(39)49.5(39)390,258(39)1,051,095(39)99,516(43)34“Case Studies in Restaurant Water Heating”, Fisher, Donald, http://eec.ucdavis.edu/ACEEE/2008/data/papers/9_243.pdf, 200835Sustainable business Oregon, “ClearEdge sustains brisk growth”,http://www.sustainablebusinessoregon.com/articles/2010/01/clearedge_sustains_brisk_growth.html, May 8, 201136EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html37BetterBricks, “http://www.betterbricks.com/graphics/assets/documents/BB_Article_EthicalandBusinessCase.pdf”, Page 1,August 2011
  • 14. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201214NEW YORKOfficeEquipment, 4%Ventilation, 4%Refrigeration, 3%Lighting, 11%Cooling, 13%Space Heating ,33%Water Heating ,18%Cooking, 5% Other, 9%LodgingThere are over 1,922 establishments specializingin travel/lodging accommodations that includehotels, motels, or inns in New York.Approximately 347 of these establishments have150 or more rooms onsite, and can be classified as“larger sized” lodging that may have additionalattributes, such as heated pools, exercise facilities,and/or restaurants. 38Of these 347 locations, 199employ more than 94 workers and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas. 39As shownin Figure 4, more than 60 percent of total energyuse at a typical lodging facility is due to lighting,space heating, and water heating. 40Theapplication of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) athotel/resort facilities with less than 94 employeesmay not be economically viable based on theelectrical demand and operational requirement;however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may beappropriate. Popular hotel chains such as theHilton and Starwood Hotels have shown interest inpowering their establishments with fuel cells inNew Jersey and New York.New York also has 636 facilities identified as convalescent homes, 58 of which have a bed capacitiesgreater than, or equal to 150 units, and are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I –Figure 5: Lodging). 41Table 6 - Lodging Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)2,558(32)76(9)76(9)22.8(9)607,856(9)1,637,160(9)155,003(32)Public Order and SafetyThere are approximately 1,045 facilities in New York that can be classified as public order and safety;these include 334 fire stations, 445 police stations, 198 state police stations, and 83 prisons. 42,43Approximately, 173 of these locations employ more than 210 workers and are located in communities38EPA, “CHP in the Hotel and Casino Market Sector”, www.epa.gov/chp/documents/hotel_casino_analysis.pdf, December, 200539On average lodging facilities consume 28,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel cell technology(>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations show lodgingfacilities employing more than 94 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.40National Grid, “Managing Energy Costs in Full-Service Hotels”,www.nationalgridus.com/non_html/shared_energyeff_hotels.pdf, 200441Assisted-Living-List, “List of 675 Nursing Homes in New York (NY)”, http://assisted-living-list.com/ny--nursing-homes/,September, 201142EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html43USACOPS – The Nations Law Enforcement Site, www.usacops.com/me/Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption
  • 15. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201215NEW YORKserviced by natural gas.44,45These applications may represent favorable opportunities for the applicationof a larger fuel cell (>300 kW), which could provide heat and uninterrupted power. 46,47The sitesidentified (Appendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety) will have special value to provide increasedreliability to mission critical facilities associated with public safety and emergency response during gridoutages. The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at public order and safety facilities with less than210 employees may not be economically viable based on the electrical demand and operationalrequirement; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate. Central Park Police Station inNew York City, New York is presently powered by a 200 kW fuel cell system.Table 7 - Public Order and Safety Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)1,045(32)173(55)173(55)51.9(55)409,180(55)1,102,057(5)104,341(58)Energy Intensive IndustriesAs shown in Table 2, energy intensive industries with high electricity consumption (which on average is4.8 percent of annual operating costs) have been identified as potential locations for the application of afuel cell.48In New York, there are approximately 1,647 of these industrial facilities that are involved inthe manufacture of aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, petroleum, coal productsor steel and employ 25 or more employees.49Of these 1,647 locations, 1,401 are located in communitiesserviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries).44CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201145On average, public order and safety facilities consume 12,400 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuelcell technology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculationsshow public order and safety facilities employing more than 212 workers may represent favorable opportunities for theapplication of a larger fuel cell.45EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html462,628,000 / 12,400 = 211.9447CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201148EIA, “Electricity Generation Capability”, 1999 CBECS, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/pba99/comparegener.html49Proprietary market data
  • 16. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201216NEW YORKTable 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector50NAICS Code Sector Energy Consumption per Dollar Value of Shipments (kWh)325 Chemical manufacturing 2.49322 Pulp and Paper 4.46324110 Petroleum Refining 4.72311 Food manufacturing 0.76331111 Iron and steel 8.15321 Wood Products 1.233313 Alumina and aluminum 3.58327310 Cement 16.4133611 Motor vehicle manufacturing 0.213315 Metal casting 1.64336811 Shipbuilding and ship repair 2.053363 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing 2.05Companies such as Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, and Pepperidge Farms in Connecticut, New Jersey,and New York have installed fuel cells to help supply energy to their facilities.Table 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)1,647(35)140(33)140(33)42(33)331,128(33)891,838(33)84,438(38)Government Owned BuildingsBuildings operated by the federal government can be found at 502 locations in New York; 41 of theseproperties are actively owned, rather than leased, by the federal government and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings).There are also a number of buildings owned and operated by the State of New York. The application offuel cell technology at government owned buildings would assist in balancing load requirements at thesesites and offer a unique value for active and passive public education associated with the high usage ofthese public buildings.Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)502(40)41(46)41(46)12.3(46)16,556(46)261,181(46)24,728(50)Wireless Telecommunication SitesTelecommunications companies rely on electricity to run call centers, cell phone towers, and other vitalequipment. In New York, there are approximately 1,514 telecommunications and/or wireless companytower sites (Appendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites). Any loss of power at these locations may50EPA, “Energy Trends in Selected Manufacturing Sectors”, www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/energy/ch2.pdf, March 2007
  • 17. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201217NEW YORKresult in a loss of service to customers; thus, having reliable power is critical. Each individual siterepresents an opportunity to provide back-up power for continuous operation through the application ofon-site back-up generation powered by hydrogen and fuel cell technology. It is an industry standard toinstall units capable of supplying 48-72 hours of backup power, which is typically accomplished withbatteries or conventional emergency generators.51The deployment of fuel cells at selectedtelecommunication sites will have special value to provide increased reliability to critical sites associatedwith emergency communications and homeland security. An example of a telecommunication site thatutilizes fuel cell technology to provide backup power is a T-Mobile facility located in Storrs, Connecticut.Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunications Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)1,514(38)151(38)N/A N/A N/A N/A N/AWastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs)There are 84 WWTPs in New York that have design flows ranging from 2,600 gallons per day (GPD) to88 million gallons per day (MGD); 14 of these facilities average between 3 – 88 MGD. WWTPstypically operate 24/7 and may be able to utilize the thermal energy from the fuel cell to process fats, oils,and grease.52WWTPs account for approximately three percent of the electric load in the U.S.53Digestergas produced at WWTP’s, which is usually 60 percent methane, can serve as a fuel substitute for naturalgas to power fuel cells. Anaerobic digesters generally require a wastewater flow greater than three MGDfor an economy of scale to collect and use the methane.54Most facilities currently represent a lostopportunity to capture and use the digestion of methane emissions created from their operations(Appendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites). 55,56A 200 kW fuel cell power plant in Yonkers, New York, was the world’s first commercial fuel cell to runon waste gas created at a wastewater treatment plant. The fuel cell generates about 1,600 MWh ofelectricity a year, and reduces methane emissions released to the environment.57Table 12 - Wireless Telecommunication Date BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)84(15)2(13)2(13)0.6(13)4,730(13)12,741(13)1,206(14)51ReliOn, Hydrogen Fuel Cell: Wireless Applications”, www.relion-inc.com/pdf/ReliOn_AppsWireless_2010.pdf, May 4, 201152“Beyond Zero Net Energy: Case Studies of Wastewater Treatment for Energy and Resource Production”, Toffey, Bill,September 2010, http://www.awra-pmas.memberlodge.org/Resources/Documents/Beyond_NZE_WWT-Toffey-9-16-2010.pdf53EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, “Introduction”, July, 200654EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, July, 200655“GHG Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Management”, Beecher, Ned, November 20, 2009,www.des.state.nh.us/organization/divisions/water/wmb/rivers/watershed_conference/documents/2009_fri_climate_2.pdf56EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, May 4, 201157NYPA, “WHAT WE DO – Fuel Cells”, www.nypa.gov/services/fuelcells.htm, August 8, 2011
  • 18. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201218NEW YORKLandfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)There are 83 landfills in New York identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) throughtheir LMOP program: 40 of which are operational, six are candidates, and 45 are considered potentialsites for the production and recovery of methane gas. 58,59The amount of methane emissions released by agiven site is dependent upon the amount of material in the landfill and the amount of time the material hasbeen in place. Similar to WWTPs, methane emissions from landfills could be captured and used as a fuelto power a fuel cell system. In 2009, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills were responsible forproducing approximately 17 percent of human-related methane emissions in the nation. These locationscould produce renewable energy and help manage the release of methane (Appendix I – Figure 10: Solidand Liquid Waste Sites).Table 13 -Landfill Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)83(39)5(33)5(33)1.5(33)11,826(33)31,851(33)3,016(41)AirportsDuring peak air travel times in the U.S., there are approximately 50,000 airplanes in the sky each day.Ensuring safe operations of commercial and private aircrafts are the responsibility of air trafficcontrollers. Modern software, host computers, voice communication systems, and instituted full scaleglide path angle capabilities assist air traffic controllers in tracking and communicating with aircrafts;consequently, reliable electricity is extremely important.60There are approximately 395 airports in New York, including 147 that are open to the public and havescheduled services. Of those 147 airports, 19 (Table 3) have 2,500 or more passengers enplaned eachyear and are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 11: CommercialAirports). An example, of an airport currently hosting a fuel cell power plant to provide backup power isAlbany International Airport located in Albany, New York.58Due to size, individual sites may have more than one potential, candidate, or operational project.59LMOP defines a candidate landfill as “one that is accepting waste or has been closed for five years or less, has at least onemillion tons of waste, and does not have an operational or, under-construction project.”EPA, “Landfill Methane OutreachProgram”, www.epa.gov/lmop/basic-info/index.html, April 7, 201160Howstuffworks.com, “How Air Traffic Control Works”, Craig, Freudenrich,http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/air-traffic-control5.htm, May 4, 2011
  • 19. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201219NEW YORKTable 14 – New York Top Airports Enplanement CountAirport61Total Enplanement in 2000John F. Kennedy International 16,155,437LaGuardia 12,697,208Buffalo Niagara International 2,140,002Albany International 1,407,092Great Rochester International 1,218,403Long Island MacArthur 1,120,686Syracuse Hancock International 1,060,746Westchester County 507,145Stewart International 274,126Binghamton Regional, Edwin A. Link Field 128,827Elmira/Corning Regional 112,866Tompkins County 99,861Chautauqua County / Jamestown 18,298Clinton County 9,126Duchess County 7,508Oneida County 4,774Adirondack Regional 4,342Massena International, Richards Field 3,715Watertown International 2,710Seven of New York’s 395 airports are considered “Joint-Use” airports. Albany International (ALB),Stewart International (SWF), Niagara Falls International (IAG), Schenectady County (SCH), SyracuseHancock International (SYR), Francis S Gabreski (FOK) and Westchester County (HPN) are facilitieswhere the military department authorizes use of the military runway for public airport services. ArmyAviation Support Facilities (AASF), located at these sites are used by the Army to provide aircraft andequipment readiness, train and utilize military personnel, conduct flight training and operations, andperform field level maintenance. These locations represent favorable opportunities for the application ofuninterruptible power for necessary services associated with national defense and emergency response.Furthermore, all of these sites are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure11: Commercial Airports).Table 15 - Airport Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)395(47)22 (7)(44)22(44)6.6(44)52,034(44)140,146(44)13,269(42)61Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “New York Transportation Profile”,www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics/new_york/pdf/entire.pdf, September, 2011
  • 20. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201220NEW YORKMilitaryThe U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is the largest funding organization in terms of supporting fuelcell activities for military applications in the world. DOD is using fuel cells for:Stationary units for power supply in bases.Fuel cell units in transport applications.Portable units for equipping individual soldiers or group of soldiers.In a collaborative partnership with the DOE, the DOD plans to install and operate 18 fuel cell backuppower systems at eight of its military installations, two of which are located within the Northeast region(New York and New Jersey).62In addition, Fort Drum, Fort Hamilton, and Watervliet Arsenal arepotential sites for the application of hydrogen and fuel cell technology (Appendix I – Figure 11:Commercial Airports).63Table 16 - Military Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)3(21)3(21)3(21)0.9(21)7,096(21)19,111(21)1,809(25)62Fuel Cell Today, “US DoD to Install Fuel cell Backup Power Systems at Eight Military Installations”,http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/online/news/articles/2011-07/US-DOD-FC-Backup-Power-Systems, July 20, 201163Naval Submarine Base New London, “New London Acreage and Buildings”,http://www.cnic.navy.mil/NewLondon/About/AcreageandBuildings/index.htm, September 2011
  • 21. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201221NEW YORKPOTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETSTransportation is responsible for one-fourth of the total global GHG emissions and consumes 75 percentof the world’s oil production. In 2010, the U.S. used 21 million barrels of non-renewable petroleum eachday. Roughly 29 percent of New York’s energy consumption is due to demands of the transportationsector, including gasoline and on-highway diesel petroleum for automobiles, cars, trucks, and buses. Asmall percent of non-renewable petroleum is used for jet and ship fuel.64The current economy in the U.S. is dependent on hydrocarbon energy sources and any disruption orshortage of this energy supply will severely affect many energy related activities, includingtransportation. As oil and other non-sustainable hydrocarbon energy resources become scarce, energyprices will increase and the reliability of supply will be reduced. Government and industry are nowinvestigating the use of hydrogen and renewable energy as a replacement of hydrocarbon fuels.Hydrogen-fueled fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have many advantages over conventionaltechnology, including:Quiet operation;Near zero emissions of controlled pollutants such as nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide,hydrocarbon gases or particulates;Substantial (30 to 50 percent) reduction in GHG emissions on a well-to-wheel basis compared toconventional gasoline or gasoline-hybrid vehicles when the hydrogen is produced byconventional methods such as natural gas; and 100 percent when hydrogen is produced from aclean energy source;Ability to fuel vehicles with indigenous energy sources which reduces dependence on importedenergy and adds to energy security; andHigher efficiency than conventional vehicles (See Table 4).65,66Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge67)Passenger Car Light Truck Transit BusHydrogen Gasoline Hybrid Gasoline Hydrogen Gasoline Hydrogen Fuel Cell Diesel52 50 29.3 49.2 21.5 5.4 3.9FCEVs can reduce price volatility, dependence on oil, improve environmental performance, and providegreater efficiencies than conventional transportation technologies, as follows:Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual CO2 emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately10,170, 15,770, and 182,984 pounds per year, respectively.6864“US Oil Consumption to BP Spill”, http://applesfromoranges.com/2010/05/us-oil-consumption-to-bp-spill/, May31, 201065“Challenges for Sustainable Mobility and Development of Fuel Cell Vehicles”, Masatami Takimoto, Executive Vice President,Toyota Motor Corporation, January 26, 2006. Presentation at the 2ndInternational Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Expo TechnicalConference Tokyo, Japan66“Twenty Hydrogen Myths”, Amory B. Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute, June 20, 200367Miles per Gallon Equivalent68Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008, Calculations based upon average annual mileage of 12,500
  • 22. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201222NEW YORKReplacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual energy savings (per vehicle) of approximately 230gallons of gasoline (passenger vehicle), 485 gallons of gasoline (light duty truck) and 4,390gallons of diesel (bus).Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual fuel cost savings of approximately $885 per passengervehicle, $1,866 per light duty truck, and $17,560 per bus.69Automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, General Motors, Honda, Daimler AG, and Hyundai haveprojected that models of their FCEVs will begin to roll out in larger numbers by 2015. Longer term, theU.S. DOE has projected that between 15.1 million and 23.9 million light duty FCEVs may be sold eachyear by 2050 and between 144 million and 347 million light duty FCEVs may be in use by 2050 with atransition to a hydrogen economy. These estimates could be accelerated if political, economic, energysecurity or environmental polices prompt a rapid advancement in alternative fuels.70Strategic targets for the application of hydrogen for transportation include alternative fueling stations;New York Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) refueling stations; bus transits operations;government, public, and privately owned fleets; and material handling and airport ground supportequipment (GSE). Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Alternative Fueling StationsThere are over 7,000 retail fueling stations in New York;71however, only 240 public and/or privatestations within the state provide alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, compressed natural gas, propane,and/or electricity for alternative-fueled vehicles.72Development of hydrogen fueling at alternative fuelstations and at selected locations owned and operated by NYSDOT would help facilitate the deploymentof FCEVs within the state. (See Appendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations). There areapproximately 16 existing or planned transportation fueling stations in the Northeast region wherehydrogen is provided as an alternative fuel.73,74,75FleetsThere are over 18,700 fleet vehicles (excluding state and federal vehicles) classified as non-leasing orcompany owned vehicles in New York.76Fleet vehicles typically account for more than twice the amountof mileage, and therefore twice the fuel consumption and emissions, compared to personal vehicles on aper vehicle basis. There is an additional 20,963 passenger automobiles and/or light duty trucks in NewYork, owned by state and federal agencies (excluding state police) that traveled a combined 172,555,800miles for passenger car and 14,000 miles for light trucks (U.S. EPA) and 37,000 average miles/year per bus (U.S. DOT FTA,2007)69U.S. EIA, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices: gasoline - $3.847 and diesel – 4.00,www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_a_epm0r_pte_dpgal_w.htm70Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States: Report to Congress,http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/congress_reports.html, August 201171“Public retail gasoline stations state year” www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/data/docs/gasoline_stations_state.xls, May 5, 201172Alternative Fuels Data Center, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/73Alternative Fuels Data Center; http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/74Hyride, “About the fueling station”, http://www.hyride.org/html-about_hyride/About_Fueling.html75CTTransit, “Hartford Bus Facility Site Work (Phase 1)”,www.cttransit.com/Procurements/Display.asp?ProcurementID={8752CA67-AB1F-4D88-BCEC-4B82AC8A2542}, March, 201176Fleet.com, “2009-My Registration”, http://www.automotive-fleet.com/Statistics/StatsViewer.aspx?file=http%3a%2f%2fwww.automotive-fleet.com%2ffc_resources%2fstats%2fAFFB10-16-top10-state.pdf&channel
  • 23. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201223NEW YORKmiles in 2010, while releasing 12,370 metrics tons of CO2. 77Conversion of fleet vehicles fromconventional fossil fuels to FCEVs could significantly reduce petroleum consumption and GHGemissions. Fleet vehicle hubs may be good candidates for hydrogen refueling and conversion to FCEVsbecause they mostly operate on fixed routes or within fixed districts and are fueled from a centralizedstation.Bus TransitThere are approximately 7,780 directly operated buses that provide public transportation services in NewYork.78As discussed above, replacement of a conventional diesel transit bus with fuel cell transit buswould result in the reduction of CO2 emissions (estimated at approximately 183,000 pounds per year), andreduction of diesel fuel (estimated at approximately 4,390 gallons per year).79Although the efficiency ofconventional diesel buses has increased, conventional diesel buses, which typically achieve fuel economyperformance levels of 3.9 miles per gallon, have the greatest potential for energy savings by using highefficiency fuel cells. In addition to New York, other states have also begun the transition of fueling transitbuses with alternative fuels to improve efficiency and environmental performance.Material HandlingMaterial handling equipment such as forklifts are used by a variety of industries, includingmanufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, food, retailers, and wholesale trade to move goodswithin a facility or to load goods for shipping to another site. Material handling equipment is usuallybattery, propane or diesel powered. Batteries that currently power material handling equipment are heavyand take up significant storage space while only providing up to 6 hours of run time. Fuel cells canensure constant power delivery and performance, eliminating the reduction in voltage output that occursas batteries discharge. Fuel cell powered material handling equipment last more than twice as long (12-14 hours) and also eliminate the need for battery storage and charging rooms, leaving more space forproducts. In addition, fueling time only takes two to three minutes by the operator compared to least 20minutes or more for each battery replacement, which saves the operator valuable time and increaseswarehouse productivity.Fuel cell powered material handling equipment has significant cost advantages, compared to batteries,such as:1.5 times lower maintenance cost;8 times lower refueling/recharging labor cost;2 times lower net present value of total operations and management (O&M) system cost.63 percent less emissions of GHG (Appendix XI provides a comparison of PEM fuel cell andbattery-powered material handling equipment and Ports).Fuel cell powered material handling equipment is already in use at dozens of warehouses, distributioncenters, and manufacturing plants in North America.80Large corporations that are currently using orplanning to use fuel cell powered material handling equipment include CVS, Coca-Cola, BMW, CentralGrocers, and Wal-Mart (Refer to Appendix X for a partial list of companies in North America that use77U.S. General Services Administration, “GSA 2010 2010 Fleet Reports”, Table 4-2,78NTD Date, “TS2.2 - Service Data and Operating Expenses Time-Series by System”,http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm, December 201179Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008.80DOE EERE, “Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment”,www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/pdfs/early_markets_forklifts.pdf, February 2011
  • 24. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201224NEW YORKfuel cell powered forklifts).81There are approximately 80 distribution center/warehouse sites that havebeen identified in New York and may benefit from the use of fuel cell powered material handlingequipment (Appendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports).Ground Support EquipmentGround support equipment (GSE) such as catering trucks, deicers, and airport tugs can be batteryoperated or more commonly run on diesel or gasoline. As an alternative, hydrogen-powered tugs arebeing developed for both military and commercial applications. While their performance is similar to thatof other battery-powered equipment, a fuel cell-powered GSE remains fully charged (provided there ishydrogen fuel available) and does not experience performance lag at the end of a shift like battery-powered GSE.82Potential large end-users of GSE that serve New York’s largest airports include AirCanada, Delta Airlines, Continental, JetBlue, United, and US Airways (Appendix I – Figure 11:Commercial Airports).83PortsPorts in New York/New Jersey, which service large vessels, such as container ships, tankers, bulkcarriers, and cruise ships, may be candidates for improved energy management. New York’s largest port,the Port of New York/New Jersey handles cargo such as, roll on-roll off automobiles, liquid and dry bulk,break-bulk and specialized project cargo.84With a daily average of 9,799 in twenty-foot equivalent units(TEU) the Port of New York/New Jersey ranked 22ndon the list of the world’s top container ports and 3rdin the United States.85The cruise industry in New York also provides $600 million in economic activityand approximately 3,300 jobs for the City.In one year, a single large container ship can emit pollutants equivalent to that of 50 million cars. Thelow grade bunker fuel used by the worlds 90,000 cargo ships contains up to 2,000 times the amount ofsulfur compared to diesel fuel used in automobiles.86While docked, vessels shut off their main enginesbut use auxiliary diesel and steam engines to power refrigeration, lights, pumps, and other functions, aprocess called “cold-ironing”. An estimated one-third of ship emissions occur while they are idling atberth. Replacing auxiliary engines with on-shore electric power could significantly reduce emissions.The applications of fuel cell technology at ports may also provide electrical and thermal energy forimproving energy management at warehouses, and equipment operated between terminals (Appendix I –Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports).87Table 18- Ports Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NY(% of Region)26(22)3(16)3(16)0.9(16)7,096(16)19,111(16)1,809(18)81Plug Power, “Plug Power Celebrates Successful year for Company’s Manufacturing and Sales Activity”,www.plugpower.com, January 4, 201182Battelle, “Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets”,April 2007, www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/pemfc_econ_2006_report_final_0407.pdf83JFK International, “Airlines”, http://www.panynj.gov/airports/jfk-airlines.html, October, 201184Panynj.gov/port, http://www.panynj.gov/port/, September 201185Bts.gov, “America’s Container Ports, Page 17”,http://www.bts.gov/publications/americas_container_ports/2011/pdf/entire.pdf, January, 201186“Big polluters: one massive container ship equals 50 million cars”, Paul, Evans; http://www.gizmag.com/shipping-pollution/11526/, April 23,200987Savemayportvillage.net, “Cruise Ship Pollution”, http://www.savemayportvillage.net/id20.html, October, 2011
  • 25. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201225NEW YORKCONCLUSIONHydrogen and fuel cell technology offers significant opportunities for improved energy reliability, energyefficiency, and emission reductions. Large fuel cell units (>300 kW) may be appropriate for applicationsthat serve large electric and thermal loads. Smaller fuel cell units (< 300 kW) may provide back-up powerfor telecommunication sites, restaurants/fast food outlets, and smaller sized public facilities at this time.Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell ApplicationsCategory Total SitesPotentialSitesNumber of FuelCells< 300 kWNumber ofFuel Cells>300 kWCBECSDataEducation 6,991 54188291 250Food Sales 25,000+ 41589415Food Services 30,000+ 17090170Inpatient Healthcare 1,609 16591165Lodging 2,558 25792257Public Order & Safety 1,045 17393173Energy Intensive Industries 1,647 14094140Government OperatedBuildings502 419541WirelessTelecommunicationTowers1,5149615197151WWTPs 84 2982Landfills 83 5995Airports (w/ AASF) 395 22 (7) 10022Military 3 3 3Ports 26 3 3Total 71,457 2,088 442 1,646As shown in Table 5, the analysis provided here estimates that there are approximately 2,088 potentiallocations, which may be favorable candidates for the application of a fuel cell to provide heat and power.Assuming the demand for electricity was uniform throughout the year, approximately 1,236 to 1,646 fuel88541 high schools and/or college and universities located in communities serviced by natural gas89415 food sale facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas90Ten percent of the 3,025 food service facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas91165 Hospitals located in communities serviced by natural gas and occupying 100 or more beds onsite92321 hotel facilities with 100+ rooms onsite and 58 convalescent homes with 150+ bed onsite located in communities servicedby natural gas93Correctional facilities and/or other public order and safety facilities with 212 workers or more.94Ten percent of the 1,401 energy intensive industry facilities located in communities with natural gas.95Three actively owned federal government operated building located in communities serviced by natural gas96The Federal Communications Commission regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire,satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.97Ten percent of the 1,514 wireless telecommunication sites in New York targeted for back-up PEM fuel cell deployment98Ten percent of New York WWTP with average flows of 3.0+ MGD99Ten percent of the landfills targeted based on LMOP data100Airport facilities with 2,500+ annual Enplanement Counts and/or AASF
  • 26. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201226NEW YORKcell units, with a capacity of 300 – 400 kW, could be deployed for a total fuel cell capacity of 494 to 659MWs.If all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations with 300 kW, a minimum of 3.89 millionMWh electric and 10.49 million MMBTUs (equivalent to 3.07 million MWh) of thermal energy would beproduced, which could reduce CO2 emissions by at least 993,147 tons per year.101New York can also benefit from the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation such aspassenger fleets, transit district fleets, municipal fleets and state department fleets. The application ofhydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation would reduce the dependence on oil, improveenvironmental performance and provide greater efficiencies than conventional transportationtechnologies.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled passenger vehicle with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately 10,170 pounds, annual energy savings of 230gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $885.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled light duty truck with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per light duty truck) of approximately 15,770 pounds, annual energy savingsof 485 gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $1866.• Replacement of a diesel-fueled transit bus with a fuel cell powered bus could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per bus) of approximately 182,984 pounds, annual energy savings of 4,390gallons of fuel, and annual fuel cost savings of $17,560.Hydrogen and fuel cell technology also provides significant opportunities for job creation and/oreconomic development. Realizing approximately $292 million in revenue and investment, the hydrogenand fuel cell industry in New York is estimated to have contributed approximately $18 million in stateand local tax revenue, and over $166 million in gross state product. Currently, there are approximately180 New York companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in theNortheast region. Eight of these companies are defined as hydrogen system or fuel stack or systemOEMs, and were responsible for supplying 808 direct jobs and $119 million in direct revenue andinvestment in 2010. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology were to gain momentum, thenumber of companies and employment for the industry could grow substantially.101If all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations with 400 kW, a minimum of 5.48 million MWh electric and25.73 million MMBTUs (equivalent to 7.54 million MWh) of thermal energy would be produced, which could reduce CO2emissions by at least 1.40 million tons per year.
  • 27. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201227NEW YORKAPPENDICES
  • 28. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201228NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 1: Education
  • 29. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201229NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales
  • 30. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201230NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 3: Food Services
  • 31. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201231NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare
  • 32. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201232NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 5: LodgingAppendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety
  • 33. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201233NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries
  • 34. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201234NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings
  • 35. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201235NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites
  • 36. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201236NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 10: Municipal Waste Sites
  • 37. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201237NEW YORK
  • 38. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201238NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 11: Commercial AirportsAppendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations
  • 39. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201239NEW YORKAppendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports
  • 40. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201240NEW YORK
  • 41. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201241NEW YORKAppendix II – New York Estimated Electrical Consumption per SectorCategory Total SiteElectric Consumption perBuilding (1000 kWh)102kWh Consumed per SectorMid AtlanticEducation 7,270 548.529 3,987,805,830Food Sales 25,000+ 226.142 5,653,550,000Food Services 30,000+ 121.041 3,631,230,000Inpatient Healthcare 1,609 10,472.33 16,849,985,406Lodging 2,558 457.97 1,171,484,702Public Order & Safety 1,332 243.328 324,112,896Total 67,769 31,618,168,834Residential10350,532,000,000Industrial 19,946,000,000Commercial 76,821,000,000Other Commercial 31,618,168,834102EIA, Electricity consumption and expenditure intensities for Non-Mall Building 2003103DOE EERE, “Electric Power and Renewable Energy in New York”;http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/electricity.cfm/state=NY; October, 2011
  • 42. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201242NEW YORKAppendix III – Key StakeholdersOrganization City/Town State WebsiteNew Energy New York Albany NY http://www.neny.org/New York State EnergyResearch and Developmentclean energy R&DAlbany NY http://www.nyserda.org/Committee on Environmentand Public WorkNew YorkCityNY http://epw.senate.govCapital District CleanCommunities (Clean Cities)Albany NY http://www.afdc.energy.gov/cleancities/coalition/albanyGreater Long Island CleanCities CoalitionStony BrookNY http://www.gliccc.org/NYCLHVCCNew YorkCityNY http://nyclhvcc.org/about/Genesee Region CleanCommunities (Clean Cities)GeneseeNY http://www.grcc.us/New York Power Authority(NYPA)White Plains NY http://www.nypa.gov/Long Island Power Authority(LIPA)UniondaleNY http://www.lipower.org/STS/Public Policy, RochesterInstitute of TechnologyRochester NY http://www.rit.edu/Building DepartmentAdministratorsRiverheadNY http://www.gcexpediting.comNew York City EconomicDevelopment Corp.New YorkCityNY http://www.nycedc.com/Pages/HomePage.aspxMayors office ofEnvironmental CoordinationNew YorkCityNY http://www.nyc.govNew York State PublicService Commission Augusta NY http://www.dps.state.ny.us/Utility CompaniesNational Grid http://www.nationalgridus.com/Central Hudson Gas & Electric http://www.cenhud.com/National Fuel Gas Distribution http://www.natfuel.com/NYSEG http://www.nyseg.com/St. Lawrence Gas Co. http://www.stlawrencegas.com/about.shtml
  • 43. Appendix IV – New York Incentives and ProgramsFunding Source: NYSERDAProgram Title: Local Option – Municipal Sustainable Energy ProgramApplicable Energies/Technologies: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar ThermalProcess Heat, Photovoltaics, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal Electric, Fuel Cells, GeothermalHeat Pumps, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Geothermal Direct-UseSummary: Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property ownersto borrow money to pay for energy improvements. The amount borrowed is typically repaid via aspecial assessment on the property over a period of years.Restrictions: In order to qualify for a loan, energy audits or renewable energy feasibility studiesmust be performed by a contractor certified according to standards set by the New York StateEnergy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) or by a local government understandards at least as stringent as those developed by NYSERDA. Energy efficiency improvementsmust meet cost-effectiveness criteria also established by NYSERDA. Please see the program website above for information on the status of the development of these standards.Timing: To speak with a NYSERDA representative about collaborating with these existingprograms, please send us an email at standards@nyserda.org.Maximum Size:Loan amounts may not exceed 10% of the appraised real property value or cost of the qualifiedimprovements; other terms locally determinedRequirements: **The Standards are currently under development and will be posted as they arecompleted. Please check our website frequently for updates**http://www.nyserda.org/About/energy_services_standards.aspRebate amount: Depends on projectFor further information, please visit:http://www.nyserda.org/About/energy_services_standards.aspSource:NYSERDA; “Standards for Providing Energy Services in New York”;http://www.nyserda.org/About/energy_services_standards.asp; September, 2011DSIRE USA; “Local Option – Municipal Sustainable Energy Program”;http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=NY68F&re=1&ee=1; September 2011
  • 44. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201244Funding Source: RPS surchargeProgram Title: Fuel Cell Rebate and Performance IncentiveApplicable Energies/Technologies: Fuel Cells, Fuel Cells using Renewable FuelsSummary: The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) offersincentives for the purchase, installation, and operation of customer sited tier (CST, also called"behind the meter") fuel cell systems used for electricity productionRestrictions: Incentive levels and limitations vary by system size. Bonus capacity incentives areavailable for large projects that provide secure/standalone capability at sites of Essential PublicServices.Timing: 12/31/2015 (or until funds are exhausted)Maximum Size:►Total Incentives:Large systems (larger than 25 kW): $1 millionSmall systems (up to 25 kW): $50,000►Capacity Incentives:Large systems only (larger than 25 kW): $200,000 for basic capacity incentive, $100,000 for bonuscapacity incentive►Performance Incentives:Large systems (greater than 25 kW): $300,000 per year per project siteSmall systems (up to 25 kW): $20,000 per year per project siteRequirements: http://www.nyserda.org/funding/2157pon.aspRebate amount:►Capacity Incentives:Large systems only (larger than 25 kW): Basic incentive of $1,000/kW + possible $500/kW bonus for systemsthat provide standalone capability to serve essential services►Performance Incentives:All systems: $0.15/net kWhFor further information, please visit: http://www.nyserda.org/funding/2157pon.aspSources:NYSERDA “RPS Customer-Sited Tier Fuel Cell Program” – September 27, 2011DSIRE “NYSERDA – Fuel Cell rebate and Performance Incentive”, September 27, 2011
  • 45. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201245Appendix V – Partial list of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Supply Chain Companies in New York104Organization Name Product or Service Category1 AWS Truepower LLC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services2 Bergmann Associates P.C. Engineering/Design Services3 Blasch Precision Ceramics Inc. Components4 CG Power Solutions Inc. Equipment5 Clough Harbour & Associates LLP Engineering/Design Services6 College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at SUNY Albany Research & Development7 E2TAC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services8 Einhorn Yaffee Prescott Architecture & Engineering P.C. Engineering/Design Services9 Environmental Advocates of New York Consulting/Legal/Financial Services10 Heslin Rothenberg Farley Mesiti P.C. Consulting/Legal/Financial Services11 Hoffman Warnick LLC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services12 Intertek Lab or Test Equipment/Services13 MTI Instruments Inc. Components14 MTI Micro Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM15 National Grid Other16 New York Energy Research and Development Authority Research & Development17 New York State Office of Science, Technology and Innovation Research & Development18 New York Thruway Authority Other19 NY-BEST (New York Battery and Energy Storage) Other20 NYSERDA Other21 OBrien & Gere Engineers Inc. Consulting/Legal/Financial Services22 Research Foundation of SUNY Research & Development23 Suburban Propane Partners LP Fuel24 SUNY Albany Research & Development25 Tyco Electronics Components26 Whiteman Osterman & Hanna LLP Consulting/Legal/Financial Services27 Alfred University Research & Development28 Stearns & Wheeler GHD Consulting/Legal/Financial Services29 Power Management Concepts LLC Engineering/Design Services30 SUNY Binghamton Research & Development31 Axiom Consulting Partners LLC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services32 Nextek Power Systems Inc. FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services33 Lee Spring Company Equipment34 Caplugs (Protective Industries Inc.) Equipment35 Cobey Inc. Equipment36 Conax Technologies LLC Components37 Continental Fan Mfg. Inc. Components38 ENrG Inc. Components39 G-Tec Equipment40 SUNY Buffalo Research & Development41 Subgard International Equipment42 CDH Energy Corporation Engineering/Design Services104Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, August 11, 2011
  • 46. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201246Organization Name Product or Service Category43 The Linde Group Fuel44 Bren-Tronics Inc. Components45 Corning Inc. Components46 PCB Piezotronics Inc. Components47 SRA International Consulting/Legal/Financial Services48 AES Greenidge LLC Other49 Sabin Metal Corporation Materials50 Island Pump & Tank Corp. Fuel51 Weico Wire & Cable Inc. Equipment52 AEYCH LLC Engineering/Design Services53 PAETEC Holding Corp. Engineering/Design Services54 Torrey Pines Research Research & Development55 Xactiv Inc. Consulting/Legal/Financial Services56 American Aerospace Controls Inc. Components57 SUNY Farmingdale Research & Development58 Air Liquide Fuel59 Zicar Zirconia Inc. Materials60 Burnham Polymeric Materials61 Exergy LLC Components62 Hobart and William Smith Colleges Research & Development63 Air Products and Chemicals Inc. Fuel64 Clean Harbors Other65 The Raymond Corporation FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services66 Mercury Aircraft Inc. Manufacturing Services67 eVionyx Inc. FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services68 Hofstra University Research & Development69 Delphi Automotive LLP Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM70 Sitron-USA Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services71 General Motors Battery and Fuel Cell Research Center Hydrogen System OEM72 MicroPen Technologies Corporation Materials73 Oak-Mitsui Technologies Components74 EmPowerCES LLC Other75 Alloys International Inc. Materials76 J B Nottingham Co. Inc. (Duraline) Components77 Advanced Plastic and Material Testing Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services78 Cornell Fuel Cell Institute Research & Development79 Primet Precisions Materials Inc. Materials80 Widetronix Inc. Components81 Capital Express International Inc. Transportation/Packing Services & Supplies82 Water Cooling Corporation (The Pump Warehouse) Equipment83 Tech City Properties Consulting/Legal/Financial Services84 AVOX Systems Inc. Equipment85 Harper International Components86 IMR Test Labs Lab or Test Equipment/Services87 Atlantic Detroit Diesel-Allison LLC Equipment88 H2 Pump LLC Hydrogen System OEM89 Plug Power Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM
  • 47. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201247Organization Name Product or Service Category90 Barton & Loguidice P.C. Engineering/Design Services91 Diversified Manufacturing Inc. Manufacturing Services92 Hardware Specialty Co. Inc. Components93 Piller USA Inc. Equipment94 Curtis Instruments Inc. Components95 AECOM Technology Corporation Engineering/Design Services96 American Wind Power and Hydrogen LLC Hydrogen System OEM97 Arotech Corporation Equipment98 CH2M Hill Inc. Consulting/Legal/Financial Services99 City University of New York Research & Development100 Columbia University Research & Development101 Consolidated Edison Company of New York Inc. Other102 Direct Energy Other103 FXFOWLE Architects LLP Engineering/Design Services104 General Electric Manufacturing Services105 Hunter College Research & Development106 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. Manufacturing Services107 Mitsui & Co. Inc. Transportation/Packing Services & Supplies108 Pred Materials International Inc. Materials109 Sendyne Corp. Components110 Sojitz Corporation of America Transportation/Packing Services & Supplies111 Solid Cell Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM112 Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. Fuel113 Tradition Energy (TFS Energy) Consulting/Legal/Financial Services114 Verizon Communications Inc. Other115 WilmerHale LLP Consulting/Legal/Financial Services116 SiGNA Chemistry, Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM117 IEC Electronics Corp. Manufacturing Services118 Ultralife Corporation Manufacturing Services119 Upstate Refractory Services Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services120 Precision Process Equipment Inc. Equipment121 GE Global Research Research & Development122 Custom Electronics Inc. Components123 Ioxus Inc. Components124 HARBEC Plastics Inc. Manufacturing Services125 Flow Safe Inc. Equipment126 Tecknowledgey Inc. Components127 Global Equipment Company Inc. (Systemax Inc.) Equipment128 WATT Fuel Cell Corp. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM129 Clarkson University Research & Development130 Axio Power Inc. Consulting/Legal/Financial Services131 CH Energy Group Inc. Other132 Hitachi Metals America Ltd. Materials133 The Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Letter Other134 Airflow Catalyst Systems Components135 American Aerogel Corporation Materials136 AMETEK Power Systems & Instruments Components
  • 48. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201248Organization Name Product or Service Category137 Applied Coatings Group Inc. Materials138 Cerion Enterprises LLC Components139 Eastman Kodak Company Materials140 Eldre Corporation Equipment141 Impact Technologies LLC Engineering/Design Services142 MWI Inc. Materials143 PEKO Precision Products Inc. Manufacturing Services144 Precision Design Systems Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services145 RocCera LLC Materials146 Rochester Institute of Technology Research & Development147 University of Rochester Research & Development148 Viewpoint Systems Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services149 KNF Clean Room Products Corporation Lab or Test Equipment/Services150 Vacuum Instrument Corp. Lab or Test Equipment/Services151 Precision Flow Technologies Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services152 DiGesare Mechanical Inc. FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services153 SuperPower Inc. Research & Development154 Amphenol Corporation Components155 SUNY Stony Brook Research & Development156 Fluid Metering Inc. Equipment157 C & S Companies Engineering/Design Services158 Carrier Corp. Other159 Cooper Industries Inc. Components160 Evans Analytical Group Research & Development161 Marjama Muldoon Blasiak & Sullivan LLP Consulting/Legal/Financial Services162 SUNY Center for Sustainable & Renewable Energy Research & Development163 901 D LLC Components164 e2v Inc. Components165 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Research & Development166 T & J Electrical Corporation FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services167 The Paper Battery Company Other168 Long Island Power Authority Other169 Brookhaven National Laboratory Research & Development170 Applied Mechanical Technologies Inc. Engineering/Design Services171 Progressive Machine and Design Manufacturing Services172 Praxair Inc. Fuel173 Chem-Tainer Industries Inc. Equipment174 United States Military Academy at West Point Research & Development175 Electro Industries/GaugeTech Equipment176 New York Power Authority Other177 Pace Energy and Climate Center Other178 Pearlman Public Relations LLC Other179 Tech Air Inc. Fuel180 Poly Lam Products Corp. Other181 Cosa Instrument Corporation Equipment182 Markinter Co. Materials
  • 49. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201249Appendix VI – Partial list of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell OEM Companies in New York105Organization Name Product or Service Category Website Address1 MTI Micro Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.mtimicrofuelcells.com/2 Delphi Automotive LLP Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.delphi.com/3 General Motors Battery and Fuel Cell Research Center Hydrogen System OEM http://www.gm.com/4 H2 Pump LLC Hydrogen System OEM http://www.h2pumpllc.com/index.html5 Plug Power Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.plugpower.com/6 American Wind Power and Hydrogen LLC Hydrogen System OEM http://www.windpowerandhydrogen.com/index.html7 Solid Cell Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.solidcell.com/index.htm8 WATT Fuel Cell Corp. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM www.wattfuelcell.com105Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, August 11, 2011
  • 50. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201250Appendix VII – Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies106Fuel CellTypeCommonElectrolyteOperatingTemperatureTypicalStackSizeEfficiency Applications Advantages DisadvantagesPolymerElectrolyteMembrane(PEM)Perfluoro sulfonicacid50-100°C122-212°typically80°C< 1 kW – 1MW107>kW 60%transportation35%stationary• Backup power• Portable power• Distributedgeneration• Transportation• Specialty vehicle• Solid electrolyte reducescorrosion & electrolytemanagement problems• Low temperature• Quick start-up• Expensive catalysts• Sensitive to fuelimpurities• Low temperature wasteheatAlkaline(AFC)Aqueous solutionof potassiumhydroxide soakedin a matrix90-100°C194-212°F10 – 100kW60%• Military• Space• Cathode reaction fasterin alkaline electrolyte,leads to high performance• Low cost components• Sensitive to CO2in fuel and air• Electrolyte managementPhosphoricAcid(PAFC)Phosphoric acidsoaked in a matrix150-200°C302-392°F400 kW100 kWmodule40%• Distributedgeneration• Higher temperature enablesCHP• Increased tolerance to fuelimpurities• Pt catalyst• Long start up time• Low current and powerMoltenCarbonate(MCFC)Solution of lithium,sodium and/orpotassiumcarbonates, soakedin a matrix600-700°C1112-1292°F300k W- 3 MW300 kWmodule45 – 50%• Electric utility• Distributedgeneration• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Suitable for CHP• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• Long start up time• Low power densitySolid Oxide(SOFC)Yttria stabilizedzirconia700-1000°C1202-1832°F1 kW – 2MW60%• Auxiliary power• Electric utility• Distributedgeneration• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Solid electrolyte• Suitable f o r CHP & CHHP• Hybrid/GT cycle• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• High temperatureoperation requires longstart uptime and limitsPolymer Electrolyte is no longer a single category row. Data shown does not take into account High Temperature PEM which operates in the range of 160oC to 180oC. It solvesvirtually all of the disadvantages listed under PEM. It is not sensitive to impurities. It has usable heat. Stack efficiencies of 52% on the high side are realized. HTPEM is not aPAFC fuel cell and should not be confused with one.106U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cells Technology Program, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/pdfs/fc_comparison_chart.pdf, August 5, 2011107Ballard, “CLEARgen Multi-MY Systems”, http://www.ballard.com/fuel-cell-products/cleargen-multi-mw-systems.aspx, November, 2011
  • 51. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201251Appendix VIII –Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats for New YorkStrengthsStationary Power – Strong market drivers (elect cost,environmental factors, critical power), some PEMFCtechnology and H2/FC industrial base availableTransportation Power - Strong market drivers (appeal tomarket, environmental factors), strong indigenous technologyand industrial base in PEMFC industrial applications, SOFCAPU’s, FCV’s, H2Gen, H2 infrastructure plans, noticeabletraction in early hydrogen refueling stationsPortable Power – Some DMFC technology/industry baseEconomic Development Factors – Supportive state policiestowards transportation and stationary power, large funding andprogram management agency in NYSERDA, active efforts torecruit tech companies to NY, technically trained workforce,strong academic resourcesWeaknessesStationary Power – cost/performance improvements requiredacross industryTransportation Power – hydrogen infrastructure build out, pluscost/performance improvements required across industryPortable Power – not in the “mainstream” ofenergy/environmental activity, somewhat disconnected to thestationary power and transportation OEM’s/developersEconomic Development Factors – State incentives need to belonger term to induce real market penetrationOpportunitiesStationary Power – NY has several small SOFC technologydevelopers.Transportation Power – As home to a leading fuel cell vehiclesupplier, NY will benefit significantly with generalH2/transportation growthPortable Power – With some existing technology base, andexcellent research/academic resources, NY can recruit moreportable fuel cell developersEconomic Development Factors – strong export opportunities,also NY can leverage its significant nanotechnologycommitment to help grow its hydrogen/fuel cell industryThreatsStationary Power – General impatience in both investor andgovernment communities towards long SOFC developmenttimeframes. Progress and stronger government support ofother renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind,geothermalTransportation Power – Electric vehicles are both a threat, inthat they “raise the bar” from traditional internal combustion,and an opportunity as an automotive platform that canaccommodate fuel cells as the next phaseEconomic Development Factors – competition from otherstates/regions and other technologies, notably solar PV
  • 52. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201252Appendix IX – Partial Fuel Cell Deployment in the Northeast regionManufacturer Site Name Site LocationYearInstalledPlug Power T-Mobile cell tower Storrs CT 2008Plug Power Albany International Airport Albany NY 2004FuelCell Energy Pepperidge Farms Plant Bloomfield CT 2005FuelCell Energy Peabody Museum New Haven CT 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers Manhattan NY 2004FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Edison NJ 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Parsippany NJ 2003UTC Power Cabelas Sporting Goods East Hartford CT 2008UTC Power Whole Foods Market Glastonbury CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Science Center Hartford CT 2009UTC Power St. Francis Hospital Hartford CT 2003UTC Power Middletown High School Middletown CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Juvenile Training School Middletown CT 2001UTC Power 360 State Street Apartment Building New Haven CT 2010UTC Power South Windsor High School South Windsor CT 2002UTC Power Mohegan Sun Casino Hotel Uncasville CT 2002UTC Power CTTransit: Fuel Cell Bus Hartford CT 2007UTC Power Whole Foods Market Dedham MA 2009UTC Power Bronx Zoo Bronx NY 2008UTC Power North Central Bronx Hospital Bronx NY 2000UTC Power Hunts Point Water Pollution Control Plant Bronx NY 2005UTC Power Price Chopper Supermarket Colonie NY 2010UTC Power East Rochester High School East Rochester NY 2007UTC Power Coca-Cola Refreshments Production Facility Elmsford NY 2010UTC Power Verizon Call Center and Communications Building Garden City NY 2005UTC Power State Office Building Hauppauge NY 2009UTC Power Liverpool High School Liverpool NY 2000UTC Power New York Hilton Hotel New York City NY 2007UTC Power Central Park Police Station New York City NY 1999UTC Power Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester NY 1993UTC Power NYPA office building White Plains NY 2010UTC Power Wastewater treatment plant Yonkers NY 1997UTC Power The Octagon Roosevelt Island NY 2011UTC Power Johnson & Johnson World Headquarters New Brunswick NJ 2003UTC Power CTTRANSIT (Fuel Cell Powered Buses) Hartford CT2007 -Present
  • 53. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201253Appendix X – Partial list of Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America108Company City/Town State SiteYearDeployedFuel CellManufacturer# offorkliftsCoca-ColaSan Leandro CABottling anddistribution center2011 Plug Power 37Charlotte NC Bottling facility 2011 Plug Power 40EARPDistributionKansas City KS Distribution center 2011 Oorja Protonics 24Golden StateFoodsLemont IL Distribution facility 2011 Oorja Protonics 20Kroger Co. Compton CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 161SyscoRiverside CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 80Boston MA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 160Long Island NY Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 42San Antonio TX Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 113Front Royal VARedistributionfacility2011 Plug Power 100Baldor SpecialtyFoodsBronx NY FacilityPlannedin 2012Oorja Protonics 50BMWManufacturingCo.Spartanburg SC Manufacturing plant 2010 Plug Power 86DefenseLogisticsAgency, U.S.Department ofDefenseSan Joaquin CA Distribution facility 2011 Plug Power 20Fort Lewis WA Distribution depot 2011 Plug Power 19WarnerRobinsGA Distribution depot 2010 Hydrogenics 20Susquehanna PA Distribution depot2010 Plug Power 152009 Nuvera 40Martin-Brower Stockton CAFood distributioncenter2010 Oorja Protonics 15United NaturalFoods Inc.(UNFI)Sarasota FL Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 65Wal-MartBalzacAl,CanadaRefrigerateddistribution center2010 Plug Power 80WashingtonCourt HouseOHFood distributioncenter2007 Plug Power 55Wegmans Pottsville PA Warehouse 2010 Plug Power 136Whole FoodsMarketLandover MD Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 61108FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America”, http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/forklifts.pdf, November, 2011
  • 54. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201254Appendix XI – Comparison of PEM Fuel Cell and Battery-Powered Material Handling Equipment3 kW PEM Fuel Cell-PoweredPallet Trucks3 kW Battery-powered(2 batteries per truck)Total Fuel Cycle Energy Use(total energy consumed/kWhdelivered to the wheels)-12,000 Btu/kWh 14,000 Btu/kWhFuel Cycle GHG Emissions(in g CO2 equivalent 820 g/kWh 1200 g/kWhEstimated Product Life 8-10 years 4-5 yearsNo Emissions at Point of Use  Quiet Operation  Wide Ambient OperatingTemperature range Constant Power Availableover ShiftRoutine Maintenance Costs($/YR)$1,250 - $1,500/year $2,000/yearTime for Refueling/ChangingBatteries 4 – 8 min./day45-60 min/day (for battery change-outs)8 hours (for battery recharging & cooling)Cost of Fuel/Electricity $6,000/year $1,300/yearLabor Cost ofrefueling/Recharging$1,100/year $8,750/yearNet Present Value of CapitalCost$12,600($18,000 w/o incentive)$14,000Net Present Value of O&Mcosts (including fuel)$52,000 $128,000