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    Nh h2 dev_plan_041012 Nh h2 dev_plan_041012 Document Transcript

    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20121NEW HAMPSHIREHydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan – “Roadmap” CollaborativeParticipantsClean Energy States AllianceAnne Margolis – Project DirectorValerie Stori – Assistant Project DirectorProject Management and Plan DevelopmentNortheast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster:Joel M. Rinebold – Program DirectorPaul Aresta – Project ManagerAlexander C. Barton – Energy SpecialistAdam J. Brzozowski – Energy SpecialistThomas Wolak – Energy InternNathan Bruce – GIS Mapping InternAgenciesUnited States Department of EnergyUnited States Small Business AdministrationManchester skyline – “Manchester Panorama”, WMUR9 New Hampshire, http://ulocal.wmur.com/_manchester-panorama/photo/9945386/63455.html, September, 2011Circuit Board – “Electronics and computer Technician”, Western Dakota Tech, http://www.wdt.edu/electech.aspx?id=232,September 2011Mount Washington Hotel – “Strategic HR New England”, Law Publishers, http://www.mainehr.com/StrategicHRNE/,September, 2011University of New Hampshire – “University of New Hampshire Congreve Hall”, 360 Cities, http://www.360cities.net/image/unh-durham-congreve#358.70,-11.10,70.0, September, 2011Welding – “MIG Welding”, Gooden’s Portable Welding, http://joeystechservice.com/goodenswelding/WeldingTechniques.php,October, 2011Blueprint construction – “Contruction1”, The MoHawk Construction Group LLC., http://mohawkcg.com/, October, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20122NEW HAMPSHIREEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThere is the potential to generate approximately 378,000 megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annuallyfrom hydrogen fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the State of New Hampshire, through thedevelopment of 48 – 64 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell generation capacity. The state and federalgovernment has incentives to facilitate the development and use of renewable energy. The decision onwhether or not to deploy hydrogen or fuel cell technology at a given location depends largely on theeconomic value, compared to other conventional or alternative/renewable technologies. Consequently,while many sites may be technically viable for the application of fuel cell technology, this plan providesfocus for fuel cell applications that are both technically and economically viable.Favorable locations for the development of renewable energy generation through fuel cell technologyinclude energy intensive commercial buildings (education, food sales, food services, inpatient healthcare,lodging, and public order and safety), energy intensive industries, wastewater treatment plants, landfills,wireless telecommunications sites, federal/state-owned buildings, and airport facilities with a substantialamount of air traffic.Currently, New Hampshire has at least 25 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cellindustry supply chain in the Northeast region. Based on a recent study, these companies making up theNew Hampshire hydrogen and fuel cell industry are estimated to have realized over $6 million inrevenue and investment, contributed approximately $337,000 in state and local tax revenue, andgenerated over $8.5 million in gross state product from their participation in this regional energy clusterin 2010.Hydrogen and fuel cell projects are becoming increasingly popular throughout the Northeast region.These technologies are viable solutions that can meet the demand for renewable energy in NewHampshire. In addition, the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology would reduce thedependence on oil, improve environmental performance, and increase the number of jobs within the state.This plan provides links to relevant information to help assess, plan, and initiate hydrogen or fuel cellprojects to help meet the energy, economic, and environmental goals of the State.Developing policies and incentives that support hydrogen and fuel cell technology will increasedeployment at sites that would benefit from on-site generation. Increased demand for hydrogen and fuelcell technology will increase production and create jobs throughout the supply chain. As deploymentincreases, manufacturing costs will decline and hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be in a position tothen compete in a global market without incentives. These policies and incentives can be coordinatedregionally to maintain the regional economic cluster as a global exporter for long-term growth andeconomic development.
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20123NEW HAMPSHIRETABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................2INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................5DRIVERS............................................................................................................................................6ECONOMIC IMPACT ...........................................................................................................................8POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETS ...................................................................................................9Education ............................................................................................................................................11Food Sales...........................................................................................................................................11Food Service .......................................................................................................................................12Inpatient Healthcare............................................................................................................................13Lodging...............................................................................................................................................14Public Order and Safety......................................................................................................................14Energy Intensive Industries.....................................................................................................................15Government Owned Buildings................................................................................................................16Wireless Telecommunication Sites.........................................................................................................16Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) ................................................................................................16Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)........................................................................................17Airports...................................................................................................................................................18Military ...................................................................................................................................................19POTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETS .........................................................................................20Alternative Fueling Stations................................................................................................................21Bus Transit..........................................................................................................................................22Material Handling...............................................................................................................................22Ground Support Equipment ................................................................................................................23CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................24APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................26
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20124NEW HAMPSHIREIndex of TablesTable 1 - New Hampshire Economic Data 2011 ..........................................................................................8Table 2 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector ..............................................................15Table 3 - New Hampshire Top Airports Enplanement Count....................................................................18Table 4 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge).............................20Table 5 - Summary of Potential Fuel Cell Applications ............................................................................24Index of FiguresFigure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector....................................................................................................9Figure 2 - Electric Power Generation by Primary Energy Source................................................................9Figure 3 - New Hampshire Electrical Consumption per Sector..................................................................11Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption ..........................................................................................14
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20125NEW HAMPSHIREINTRODUCTIONA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Development Plan was created for each state in the Northeast region(New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and NewJersey), with support from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to increase awarenessand facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. The intent of this guidance documentis to make available information regarding the economic value and deployment opportunities forhydrogen and fuel cell technology.1A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or a hydrogen-rich fuel such as natural gas) and oxygen tocreate an electric current. The amount of power produced by a fuel cell depends on several factors,including fuel cell type, stack size, operating temperature, and the pressure at which the gases aresupplied to the cell. Fuel cells are classified primarily by the type of electrolyte they employ, whichdetermines the type of chemical reactions that take place in the cell, the temperature range in which thecell operates, the fuel required, and other factors. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications forwhich these cells are most suitable. There are several types of fuel cells currently in use or underdevelopment, each with its own advantages, limitations, and potential applications. These technologiesand applications are identified in Appendix VI.Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) in vehicles and providepower for stationary and portable power applications. Fuel cells are in commercial service as distributedpower plants in stationary applications throughout the world, providing thermal power and electricity topower homes and businesses. Fuel cells are also used in transportation applications, such as automobiles,trucks, buses, and other equipment. Fuel cells for portable applications, which are currently indevelopment, and can provide power for laptop computers and cell phones.Fuel cells are cleaner and more efficient than traditional combustion-based engines and power plants;therefore, less energy is needed to provide the same amount of power. Typically, stationary fuel cellpower plants are fueled with natural gas or other hydrogen rich fuel. Natural gas is widely availablethroughout the northeast, is relatively inexpensive, and is primarily a domestic energy supply.Consequently, natural gas shows the greatest potential to serve as a transitional fuel for the near futurehydrogen economy. Stationary fuel cells use a fuel reformer to reform the natural gas to near purehydrogen for the fuel cell stack. Because hydrogen can be produced using a wide variety of resourcesfound here in the U.S., including natural gas, biomass material, and through electrolysis using electricityproduced from indigenous sources, energy provided from a fuel cell can be considered renewable and willreduce dependence on imported fuel. 2,When pure hydrogen is used to power a fuel cell, the only by-products are water and heat; no pollutants or greenhouse gases (GHG) are produced.1Key stakeholders are identified in Appendix III2Electrolysis is the process of using an electric current to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20126NEW HAMPSHIREDRIVERSThe Northeast hydrogen and fuel cell industry, while still emerging, currently has an economic impact ofover $1 Billion of total revenue and investment. New Hampshire benefits from secondary impacts ofindirect and induced employment and revenue.3Furthermore, New Hampshire has a definitive andattractive economic development opportunity to greatly increase its economic participation in thehydrogen and fuel cell industry within the Northeast region and worldwide. An economic “SWOT”assessment for New Hampshire is provided in Appendix VII.Industries in the Northeast, including those in New Hampshire, are facing increased pressure to reducecosts, fuel consumption, and emissions that may be contributing to climate change. Currently, NewHampshire’s businesses pay $0.143 per kWh for electricity on average; this is the sixth highest cost ofelectricity in the U.S.4New Hampshire’s relative proximity to major load centers, the high cost ofelectricity, concerns over regional air quality, available federal tax incentives, and legislative mandates inNew Hampshire and neighboring states have resulted in renewed interest in the development of efficientrenewable energy. Incentives designed to assist individuals and organizations in energy conservation andthe development of renewable energy are currently offered within the state. Appendix IV contains anoutline of New Hampshire’s incentives and renewable energy programs. Some specific factors that aredriving the market for hydrogen and fuel cell technology in New Hampshire include the following:The current Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) recognizes fuel cells that utilize biogas or otherrenewable sources of hydrogen as a “Class I” renewable energy source, and calls for an increasein renewable energy used in the state from its current level of approximately nine percent toapproximately 24 percent by 2025 5– promotes stationary power applications.Net Metering requires all electric utilities to provide, upon request, net metering to customers whogenerate electricity using renewable energy systems with a maximum capacity of 100 kWs, whichwas increased from one kW in June 20106– promotes stationary power applications.The Sustainable Energy Division was created in 2008 to assist the New Hampshire PublicUtilities Commission in implementing specific state legislative initiatives focused on promotingrenewable energy and energy efficiency and advancing the goals of energy sustainability,affordability, and security7– promotes stationary power applications.New Hampshire is one of the states in the 10-state region that is part of the Regional GreenhouseGas Initiative (RGGI); the nation’s first mandatory market-based program to reduce emissions ofcarbon dioxide (CO2). RGGIs goals are to stabilize and cap emissions at 188 million tonsannually from 2009-2014 and to reduce CO2-emissions by 2.5 percent per year from 2015-2018.8– promotes stationary power and transportation applications.3New Hampshire does not have any original equipment manufacturers (OEM) of hydrogen/fuel cell systems so it has no “direct”economic impact.4EIA, Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_a.html5DSIRE, “New Hampshire Renewable Portfolio Standards”,www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=NH09R&re=1&ee=1, April 8, 20076DSIRE, “Rules, Regulations and Policies”,www.dsireusa.org/incentives/index.cfm?re=1&ee=1&spv=0&st=0&srp=1&state=NH , April 8, 20077State of New Hampshire, http://www.puc.nh.gov/Sustainable%20Energy/SustainableEnergy.htm8Seacoastonline.come, “RGGI: Quietly setting a standard”,http://www.seacoastonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090920/NEWS/909200341/-1/NEWSMAP, September 20, 2009
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20127NEW HAMPSHIREThe Energy Efficiency Standards for State Government Buildings requires a ten percent increasein energy efficiency in state-occupied buildings. New construction and major renovations of stategovernment buildings are required to exceed the state energy code by at least 20 percent9–promotes stationary power applications.Through School District Emissions Reduction Policies, school districts must develop andimplement a policy to minimize or eliminate emissions from buses, cars, delivery vehicles,maintenance vehicles, and other motor vehicles used on school properties10– promotestransportation applications.Idle Reduction and Fuel-Efficient, Low Emission Vehicle Acquisition Requirements requires NewHampshire state agencies and departments to implement a “Clean Fleets Program” in accordancewith the recommendation of the Energy Efficiency in State Government Steering Committee 11–promotes transportation applications.9OpenEnergyInfo, “Energy Efficiency Standards for State Government Building (New Hampshire)”,http://en.openei.org/wiki/Energy_Efficiency_Standards_for_State_Government_Buildings_(New_Hampshire), April 20, 201110DOE, “School District Emissions Reduction Policies”, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/NH/8800, April 27, 201011DSIRE, “Rules, Regulations and Policies”,www.dsireusa.org/incentives/index.cfm?re=1&ee=1&spv=0&st=0&srp=1&state=NH , April 8, 2007
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20128NEW HAMPSHIREECONOMIC IMPACTThe hydrogen and fuel cell industry has direct, indirect, and induced impacts on local and regionaleconomies. 12A new hydrogen and/or fuel cell project directly affects the area’s economy through thepurchase of goods and services, generation of land use revenue, taxes or payments in lieu of taxes, andemployment. Secondary effects include both indirect and induced economic effects resulting from thecirculation of the initial spending through the local economy, economic diversification, changes inproperty values, and the use of indigenous resources.New Hampshire is home to at least 25 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cellindustry supply chain in the Northeast region. Appendix V lists the hydrogen and fuel cell industrysupply chain companies in New Hampshire. Realizing over $6 million in revenue and investment fromtheir participation in this regional cluster in 2010, these companies include manufacturing, partsdistributing, supplying of industrial gas, engineering based research and development (R&D), coatingapplications, and managing of venture capital funds. 13Furthermore, the hydrogen and fuel cell industry isestimated to have contributed approximately $337,000 in state and local tax revenue, and over $8.5million in gross state product. Table 1 shows New Hampshire’s impact in the Northeast region’shydrogen and fuel cell industry as of April 2011.Table 1 - New Hampshire Economic Data 2011New Hampshire Economic DataSupply Chain Members 25Indirect Rev ($M) 6.32Indirect Jobs 27Indirect Labor Income ($M) 1.85Induced Revenue ($M) 2.33Induced Jobs 18Induced Labor Income ($M) 0.792Total Revenue ($M) 8.65Total Jobs 45Total Labor Income ($M) 2.64In addition, there are over 118,000 people employed across 3,500 companies within the Northeastregistered as part of the motor vehicle industry. Approximately 3,000 of these individuals and 140 ofthese companies are located in New Hampshire. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technologywere to gain momentum within the transportation sector, the estimated employment rate for the hydrogenand fuel cell industry could grow significantly in the region.1412Indirect impacts are the estimated output (i.e., revenue), employment and labor income in other business (i.e., not-OEMs) thatare associated with the purchases made by hydrogen and fuel cell OEMs, as well as other companies in the sector’s supply chain.Induced impacts are the estimated output, employment and labor income in other businesses (i.e., non-OEMs) that are associatedwith the purchases by workers related to the hydrogen and fuel cell industry.13Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, April 8,201114NAICS Codes: Motor Vehicle – 33611, Motor Vehicle Parts – 3363
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20129NEW HAMPSHIREResidential29%Commercial23%Industrial13%Transportation35%POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETSIn 2009, New Hampshire consumed the equivalent of 88.78 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of energyamongst the transportation, residential, industrial, and commercial sectors.15Electricity consumption inNew Hampshire was approximately 10.7 million MWh, and is forecasted to grow at a rate of 1.2 percentannually over the next decade. Figure 1 illustrates the percent of total energy consumed by each sector inNew Hampshire. A more detailed breakout of energy use is provided in Appendix II.This demand represents approximately nine percent of the population in New England and nine percent ofthe region’s total electricity consumption. The state relies on both in-state resources and imports ofpower over the region’s transmission system to serve electricity to customers Net electrical demand inNew Hampshire was 1,221 MW in 2009 and is projected to increase by approximately 80 MW by 2015.The state’s overall electricity demand is forecasted to grow at a rate of 1.2 percent (1.8 percent peaksummer demand growth) annually over the next decade. Demand for new electric capacity as well as areplacement of older less efficient base-load generation facilities is expected. With approximately 4,100MW in total capacity of generation plants, New Hampshire represents 13 percent of the total capacity inNew England. 16As shown in Figure 2, natural gas was the second most used energy source for electricityconsumed in New Hampshire for 2009. 1715U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), “State Energy Data System”,“http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/rank_use.html”, August 201116ISO New England, “New Hampshire 2011 State Profile”, www.iso-ne.com/nwsiss/grid_mkts/key_facts/nh_01-2011_profile.pdf, January, 201117EIA, “Electric Power Annual 2010 – State Data Tables”, www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January, 2011Figure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector Figure 2 - Electric Power Generation byPrimary Energy SourceCoal, 13.9%Petroleum0.3%Natural Gas24.2%Nuclear49.2%Hydroelectric6.7% OtherRenewables5.6%Other 3.0%
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201210NEW HAMPSHIREFuel cell systems have many advantages over other conventional technologies, including:High fuel-to-electricity efficiency (> 40 percent) utilizing hydrocarbon fuels;Overall system efficiency of 85 to 93 percent;Reduction of noise pollution;Reduction of air pollution;Often do not require new transmission;Siting is not controversial; andIf near point of use, waste heat can be captured and used. Combined heat and power (CHP)systems are more efficient and can reduce facility energy costs over applications that use separateheat and central station power systems.18Fuel cells can be deployed as a CHP technology that provides both power and thermal energy, and cannearly double energy efficiency at a customer site, typically from 35 to 50 percent. The value of CHPincludes reduced transmission and distribution costs, reduced fuel use and associated emissions.19Basedon the targets identified within this plan, there is the potential to develop at least approximately 48 MWsof stationary fuel cell generation capacity in New Hampshire, which would provide the followingbenefits, annually:Production of approximately 378,000 MWh of electricityProduction of approximately 1.02 million MMBTUs of thermal energyReduction of CO2 emissions of approximately 42,000 tons (electric generation only)20For the purpose of this plan, potential applications have been explored with a focus on fuel cells that havea capacity between 300 kW to 400 kW. However, smaller fuel cells are potentially viable for specificapplications. Facilities that have electrical and thermal requirements that closely match the output of thefuel cells potentially provide the best opportunity for the application of a fuel cell. Facilities that may begood candidates for the application of a fuel cell include commercial buildings with potentially highelectricity consumption, selected government buildings, public works facilities, and energy intensiveindustries.Commercial building types with high electricity consumption have been identified as potential locationsfor on-site generation and CHP application based on data from the Energy Information Administration’s(EIA) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). These selected building typesmaking up the CBECS subcategory within the commercial industry include:EducationFood SalesFood ServicesInpatient HealthcareLodgingPublic Order & Safety2118FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell Basics”, www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html, July, 201119“Distributed Generation Market Potential: 2004 Update Connecticut and Southwest Connecticut”, ISE, Joel M. Rinebold,ECSU, March 15, 200420Replacement of conventional fossil fuel generating capacity with methane fuel cells could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions by between approximately 100 and 600 lb/MWh: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); eGRID2010 Version1.1 Year 2007 GHG Annual Output Emission Rates, Annual non-baseload output emission rates (NPCC New England); FuelCellEnergy; DFC 300 Product sheet, http://www.fuelcellenergy.com/files/FCE%20300%20Product%20Sheet-lo-rez%20FINAL.pdf,UTC Power, PureCell Model 400 System Performance Characteristics, http://www.utcpower.com/products/purecell400
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201211NEW HAMPSHIREThe commercial building types identified above represent top principal building activity classificationsthat reported the highest value for electricity consumption on a per building basis and have a potentiallyhigh load factor for the application of CHP. Appendix II further defines New Hampshire’s estimatedelectrical consumption per each sector. As illustrated in Figure 3, these selected building types within thecommercial sector are estimated to account for approximately 14 percent of New Hampshire’s totalelectrical consumption. Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Figure 3 – New Hampshire Electrical Consumption per SectorEducationThere are approximately 306 non-public schools and 475 public schools (78 of which are considered highschools) in New Hampshire.22,23High schools operate for a longer period of time daily due toextracurricular after school activities, such as clubs and athletics. Furthermore, two of these schools haveswimming pools, which may make these sites especially attractive because it would increase theutilization of both the electrical and thermal output offered by a fuel cell. There are also 32 colleges anduniversities in New Hampshire, including 20 public and 12 private institutions.24Colleges anduniversities have facilities for students, faculty, administration, and maintenance crews that typicallyinclude dormitories, cafeterias, gyms, libraries, and athletic departments – some with swimming pools.Of these 110 locations (78 high schools and 32 colleges), 56 are located in communities serviced bynatural gas (Appendix I – Figure 1: Education).Educational establishments in other states such as Connecticut and New York have shown interest in fuelcell technology. Examples of existing or planned fuel cell applications include South Windsor HighSchool (CT), Liverpool High School (NY), Rochester Institute of Technology, Yale University,University of Connecticut, and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science andForestry.21As defined by CBECS, Public Order & Safety facilities are: buildings used for the preservation of law and order or publicsafety. Although these sites are usually described as government facilities they are referred to as commercial buildings becausetheir similarities in energy usage with the other building sites making up the CBECS data.22EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html23Public schools are classified as magnets, charters, alternative schools and special facilities24New Hampshire State Department of Education, www.education.nh.gov/aboutus/details.htm
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201212NEW HAMPSHIRETable 2 - Education Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)813(4)56(3)34(5)10(5)80,417(5)216,589(5)8,926(2)Food SalesThere are over 1,500 businesses in New Hampshire known to be engaged in the retail sale of food. Foodsales establishments are potentially good candidates for fuel cells based on their electrical demand andthermal requirements for heating and refrigeration. Approximately 61 of these sites are considered largerfood sales businesses with approximately 60 or more employees at their site. 25Of these 61 large foodsales businesses, 50 are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 2: FoodSales). 26The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at a small convenience store may not beeconomically viable based on the electric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuelcell may be appropriate.Popular grocery chains such as Price Chopper, Supervalu, Whole foods, and Stop and Shop have showninterest in powering their stores with fuel cells in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York.27Inaddition, food distribution centers, such as Poultry Products Co. in Hooksett, New Hampshire are primetargets for the application of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for both stationary power and materialhandling equipment.Table 3 - Food Sales Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)1,500(3)50(4)50(4)15,0(4)118,260(4)318,514(4)13,127(2)Food ServiceThere are over 2,000 businesses in New Hampshire that can be classified as food service establishmentsused for the preparation and sale of food and beverages for consumption.28Approximately 11 of thesesites are considered larger restaurant businesses with approximately 130 or more employees at their siteand are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 3: Food Services).29Theapplication of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at smaller restaurants with less than 130 workers may not beeconomically viable based on the electric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuelcell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate to meet hot water and space heating requirements. A significant portion(18 percent) of the energy consumed in a commercial food service operation can be attributed to thedomestic hot water heating load.30In other parts of the U.S., popular chains, such as McDonalds, are25On average, food sale facilities consume 43,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. When compared to currentfuel cell technology (>300 kW), which satisfies annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh,calculations show food sales facilities employing more than 61 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the applicationof a larger fuel cell.26EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html27Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA), “Fuel Cells for Supermarkets – Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat andPower Systems”, Benny Smith, www.cleanenergystates.org/assets/Uploads/BlakeFuelCellsSupermarketsFB.pdf28EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html29On average, food service facilities consume 20,300 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel celltechnology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations showfood service facilities employing more than 130 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuelcell.30“Case Studies in Restaurant Water Heating”, Fisher, Donald, http://eec.ucdavis.edu/ACEEE/2008/data/papers/9_243.pdf, 2008
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201213NEW HAMPSHIREbeginning to show an interest in the smaller sized fuel cell units for the provision of electricity andthermal energy, including domestic water heating at food service establishments.31Table 4 - Food Services Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)2,000(3)11(3)11(3)3.3(3)26,017(3)70,073(3)2,888(1)Inpatient HealthcareThere are over 149 inpatient healthcare facilities in New Hampshire; 32 of which are classified ashospitals.32Of these 32 locations, 10 are located in communities serviced by natural gas and contain 100or more beds onsite (Appendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare). Hospitals represent an excellentopportunity for the application of fuel cells because they require a high availability factor of electricity forlifesaving medical devices and operate 24/7 with a relatively flat load curve. Furthermore, medicalequipment, patient rooms, sterilized/operating rooms, data centers, and kitchen areas within thesefacilities are often required to be in operational conditions at all times which maximizes the use ofelectricity and thermal energy from a fuel cell. Nationally, hospital energy costs have increased 56percent from $3.89 per square foot in 2003 to $6.07 per square foot for 2010, partially due to theincreased cost of energy.33Examples of healthcare facilities with planned or operational fuel cells include St. Francis, Stamford, andWaterbury hospitals in Connecticut, and North Central Bronx Hospital in New York.Table 5 -Inpatient Healthcare Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)149(4)10(2)10(2)3.0(2)23,652(2)63,703(522,625(1)31Sustainable business Oregon, “ClearEdge sustains brisk growth”,http://www.sustainablebusinessoregon.com/articles/2010/01/clearedge_sustains_brisk_growth.html, May 8, 201132EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html33BetterBricks, “http://www.betterbricks.com/graphics/assets/documents/BB_Article_EthicalandBusinessCase.pdf”, Page 1,August 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201214NEW HAMPSHIREOfficeEquipment, 4%Ventilation, 4%Refrigeration, 3%Lighting, 11%Cooling, 13%Space Heating ,33%Water Heating ,18%Cooking, 5% Other, 9%LodgingThere are over 420 establishments specializing intravel/lodging accommodations that include hotels,motels, or inns in New Hampshire. Approximately30 of these establishments have 150 or more roomsonsite, and can be classified as “larger sized”lodging that may have additional attributes, such asheated pools, exercise facilities, and/or restaurants. 34Of these 30 locations, 13 employ more than 94workers and are located in communities serviced bynatural gas. 35As shown in Figure 4, more than 60percent of total energy use at a typical lodgingfacility is due to lighting, space heating, and waterheating. 36The application of a large fuel cell (>300kW) at hotel/resort facilities with less than 94employees may not be economically viable based onthe electrical demand and operational requirement;however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may beappropriate. Popular hotel chains such as the Hiltonand Starwood Hotels have shown interest inpowering their establishments with fuel cells in NewJersey and New York.New Hampshire also has 80 facilities identified as convalescent homes, nine of which have bed capacitiesgreater than, or equal to 150 units and are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I –Figure 5: Lodging). 37Table 6 - Lodging Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)500(6)22(3)22(3)6.6(3)52,034(3)140,146(3)5,776(1)Public Order and SafetyThere are approximately 211 facilities in New Hampshire that can be classified as public order and safety;these include 86 fire stations, 114 police stations, six state police stations, and five prisons. 38,39Approximately eight of these locations employ more than 210 workers and are located in communitiesserviced by natural gas.40,41These applications may represent favorable opportunities for the application34EPA, “CHP in the Hotel and Casino Market Sector”, www.epa.gov/chp/documents/hotel_casino_analysis.pdf, December, 200535On average lodging facilities consume 28,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel cell technology(>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations show lodgingfacilities employing more than 94 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.36National Grid, “Managing Energy Costs in Full-Service Hotels”,www.nationalgridus.com/non_html/shared_energyeff_hotels.pdf, 200437Assisted-Living-List, “List of 82 Nursing Homes in New Hampshire (NH)”, http://assisted-living-list.com/nh-nursing-homes/,May 9, 201138EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html39USACOPS – The Nations Law Enforcement Site, www.usacops.com/me/40CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 2011Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201215NEW HAMPSHIREof a larger fuel cell (>300 kW), which could provide heat and uninterrupted power.42The sites identified(Appendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety) will have special value to provide increased reliability tomission critical facilities associated with public safety and emergency response during grid outages. Theapplication of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at public order and safety facilities with less than 210employees may not be economically viable based on the electrical demand and operational requirement;however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate. Central Park Police Station in New York City,New York is presently powered by a 200 kW fuel cell system.Table 7 - Public Order and Safety Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)211(6)8(3)8(3)2.4(3)18,922(3)50,962(3)2,100(1)Energy Intensive IndustriesAs shown in Table 2, energy intensive industries with high electricity consumption (which on average is4.8 percent of annual operating costs) have been identified as potential locations for the application of afuel cell.43In New Hampshire, there are approximately 182 of these industrial facilities that are involvedin the manufacture of aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, petroleum, coalproducts or steel and employ 25 or more employees.44Of these 182 locations, 108 are located incommunities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries).Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector45NAICS Code Sector Energy Consumption per Dollar Value of Shipments (kWh)325 Chemical manufacturing 2.49322 Pulp and Paper 4.46324110 Petroleum Refining 4.72311 Food manufacturing 0.76331111 Iron and steel 8.15321 Wood Products 1.233313 Alumina and aluminum 3.58327310 Cement 16.4133611 Motor vehicle manufacturing 0.213315 Metal casting 1.64336811 Shipbuilding and ship repair 2.053363 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing 2.05Companies such as Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, and Pepperidge Farms in Connecticut, New Jersey,and New York have installed fuel cells to help supply energy to their facilities.41On average public order and safety facilities consume 12,400 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuelcell technology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculationsshow public order and safety facilities employing more than 212 workers may represent favorable opportunities for theapplication of a larger fuel cell.42CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201143EIA, “Electricity Generation Capability”, 1999 CBECS, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/pba99/comparegener.html44Proprietary market data45EPA, “Energy Trends in Selected Manufacturing Sectors”, www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/energy/ch2.pdf, March 2007
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201216NEW HAMPSHIRETable 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)182(4)18(4)18(4)5.4(4)42,574(4)114,665(4)4,726(2)Government Owned BuildingsBuildings operated by the federal government can be found at 57 locations in New Hampshire; three ofthese properties are actively owned, rather than leased, by the federal government and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings).There are also a number of buildings owned and operated by the State of New Hampshire. Theapplication of fuel cell technology at government owned buildings would assist in balancing loadrequirements at these sites and offer a unique value for active and passive public education associatedwith the high usage of these public buildings.Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)57(5)3(3)3(3)0.9(3)7,096(3)19,111(3)788(2)Wireless Telecommunication SitesThe telecommunications industry in New Hampshire is an $800 million industry.46Telecommunicationscompanies rely on electricity to run call centers, cell phone towers, and other vital equipment. In NewHampshire, there are more than 247 telecommunications and/or wireless company tower sites (Appendix I– Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites). Any loss of power at these locations may result in a loss of serviceto customers; thus, having reliable power is critical. Each individual site represents an opportunity toprovide back-up power for continuous operation through the application of on-site back-up generationpowered by hydrogen and fuel cell technology. It is an industry standard to install units capable ofsupplying 48-72 hours of backup power; this is typically accomplished with batteries or conventionalemergency generators.47The deployment of fuel cells at selected telecommunication sites will havespecial value to provide increased reliability to critical sites associated with emergency communicationsand homeland security. An example of a telecommunication site that utilizes fuel cell technology toprovide back-up power is a T-Mobile facility located in Storrs, Connecticut.Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)247(6)25(6)N/A N/A N/A N/A N/AWastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs)There are 65 WWTPs in New Hampshire that have design flows ranging from 78,000 gallons per day(GPD) to 36 million gallons per day (MGD); nine of these facilities average between 3 – 36 MGD.46NHPUC, “Telecom”, www.puc.nh.gov/telecom/telecom.htm, July 7, 201147ReliOn, Hydrogen Fuel Cell: Wireless Applications”, www.relion-inc.com/pdf/ReliOn_AppsWireless_2010.pdf, May 4, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201217NEW HAMPSHIREWWTPs typically operate 24/7 and may be able to utilize the thermal energy from the fuel cell to processfats, oils, and grease.48WWTPs account for approximately three percent of the electric load in the U.S.49Digester gas produced at WWTP’s, which is usually 60 percent methane, can serve as a fuel substitute fornatural gas to power fuel cells. Anaerobic digesters generally require a wastewater flow greater thanthree MGD for an economy of scale to collect and use the methane.50Most facilities currently represent alost opportunity to capture and use the digestion of methane emissions created from their operations(Appendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites).51,52A 200 kW fuel cell power plant in Yonkers, New York, was the world’s first commercial fuel cell to runon a waste gas created at a wastewater treatment plant. The fuel cell generates about 1,600 MWh ofelectricity a year, and reduces methane emissions released to the environment.53A 200 kW fuel cellpower plant was also installed at the Water Pollution Control Authority’s WWTP in New Haven,Connecticut, and produces 10 – 15 percent of the facility’s electricity, reducing energy costs by almost$13,000 a year.54Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plant Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)65(11)1(6)1(6)0.3(6)2,365(6)6,370(6)263(3)Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)There are 27 landfills in New Hampshire identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)through their LMOP program: seven of which are operational, three are candidates, and 17 are consideredpotential sites for the production and recovery of methane gas. 55,56The amount of methane emissionsreleased by a given site is dependent upon the amount of material in the landfill and the amount of timethe material has been in place. Similar to WWTPs, methane emissions from landfills could be capturedand used as a fuel to power a fuel cell system. In 2009, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills wereresponsible for producing approximately 17 percent of human-related methane emissions in the nation.These locations could produce renewable energy and help manage the release of methane (Appendix I –Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites).48“Beyond Zero Net Energy: Case Studies of Wastewater Treatment for Energy and Resource Production”, Toffey, Bill,September 2010, http://www.awra-pmas.memberlodge.org/Resources/Documents/Beyond_NZE_WWT-Toffey-9-16-2010.pdf49EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, “Introduction”, July, 200650EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, July, 201151“GHG Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Management”, Beecher, Ned, November 20, 2009,www.des.state.nh.us/organization/divisions/water/wmb/rivers/watershed_conference/documents/2009_fri_climate_2.pdf52EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, May 4, 201153NYPA, “WHAT WE DO – Fuel Cells”, www.nypa.gov/services/fuelcells.htm, August 8, 201154Conntact.com, “City to Install Fuel Cell”,http://www.conntact.com/archive_index/archive_pages/4472_Business_New_Haven.html, August 15, 200355Due to size, individual sites may have more than one potential, candidate, or operational project.56LMOP defines a candidate landfill as “one that is accepting waste or has been closed for five years or less, has atleast one million tons of waste, and does not have an operational or, under-construction project.”EPA, “LandfillMethane Outreach Program”, www.epa.gov/lmop/basic-info/index.html, April 7, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201218NEW HAMPSHIRETable 13 - Landfill Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)25(12)1(6)1(6)0.3(6)2,365(6)6,370(6)263(4)AirportsDuring peak air travel times in the U.S., there are approximately 50,000 airplanes in the sky each day.Ensuring safe operations of commercial and private aircrafts are the responsibility of air trafficcontrollers. Modern software, host computers, voice communication systems, and instituted full scaleglide path angle capabilities assist air traffic controllers in tracking and communicating with aircrafts;consequently, reliable electricity is extremely important and present an opportunity for a fuel cell powerapplication. 57There are approximately 51 airports in New Hampshire, including 26 that are open to the public and havescheduled services. Of those 26 airports, three (Table 3) have 2,500 or more passengers enplaned eachyear, two of these three facilities are located in communities serviced by natural gas (See Appendix I –Figure 11: Commercial Airports). An example of an airport currently hosting a fuel cell power plant toprovide backup power is Albany International Airport located in Albany, New York. (Appendix I –Figure 11: Commercial Airports).Table 14 – New Hampshire Top Airports Enplanement CountAirport58Total Enplanement in 2000Manchester 1,568,860Pease International Tradeport 37,786Lebanon Municipal 15,156Concord Airport (CON) and Pease International Airport (PSM) are considered “Joint-Use” airports inNew Hampshire. Joint-Use facilities are establishments where the military department authorizes use ofthe military runway for public airport services. Army Aviation Support Facilities (AASF), located at thesesites are used by the Army to provide aircraft and equipment readiness, train and utilize militarypersonnel, conduct flight training and operations, and perform field level maintenance. Concord Airportand Pease International Airport represents favorable opportunities for the application of uninterruptiblepower for necessary services associated with national defense and emergency response and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports).Table 15 - Airport Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)NH(% of Region)51(6)3(2)(1)2(1)0.9(1)7,096(1)19,111(1)788(8)57Howstuffworks.com, “How Air Traffic Control Works”, Craig, Freudenrich,http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/air-traffic-control5.htm, May 4, 201158Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “New Hampshire Transportation Profile”,www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics/new_hampshire/pdf/entire.pdf, March 30, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201219NEW HAMPSHIREMilitaryThe U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is the largest funding organization in terms of supporting fuelcell activities for military applications in the world. DOD is using fuel cells for:Stationary units for power supply in bases.Fuel cell units in transport applications.Portable units for equipping individual soldiers or group of soldiers.In a collaborative partnership with the DOE, the DOD plans to install and operate 18 fuel cell backuppower systems at eight of its military installations, two of which are located within the Northeast region(New York and New Jersey).5959Fuel Cell Today, “US DoD to Install Fuel cell Backup Power Systems at Eight Military Installations”,http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/online/news/articles/2011-07/US-DOD-FC-Backup-Power-Systems, July 20, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201220NEW HAMPSHIREPOTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETSTransportation is responsible for one-fourth of the total global GHG emissions and consumes 75 percentof the world’s oil production. In 2010, the U.S. used 21 million barrels of non-renewable petroleum eachday. Roughly 35 percent of New Hampshire’s energy consumption is due to demands of thetransportation sector, including gasoline and on-highway diesel petroleum for automobiles, cars, trucks,and buses. A small percent of non-renewable petroleum is used for jet and ship fuel.60The current economy in the U.S. is dependent on hydrocarbon energy sources and any disruption orshortage of this energy supply will severely affect many energy related activities, includingtransportation. As oil and other non-sustainable hydrocarbon energy resources become scarce, energyprices will increase and the reliability of supply will be reduced. Government and industry are nowinvestigating the use of hydrogen and renewable energy as a replacement of hydrocarbon fuels.Hydrogen-fueled fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have many advantages over conventionaltechnology, including:Quiet operation;Near zero emissions of controlled pollutants such as nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide,hydrocarbon gases or particulates;Substantial (30 to 50 percent) reduction in GHG emissions on a well-to-wheel basis compared toconventional gasoline or gasoline-hybrid vehicles when the hydrogen is produced byconventional methods such as natural gas; and 100 percent when hydrogen is produced from aclean energy source;Ability to fuel vehicles with indigenous energy sources which reduces dependence on importedenergy and adds to energy security; andHigher efficiency than conventional vehicles (See Table 4).61,62Table 16 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge63)Passenger Car Light Truck Transit BusHydrogen Gasoline Hybrid Gasoline Hydrogen Gasoline Hydrogen Fuel Cell Diesel52 50 29.3 49.2 21.5 5.4 3.9FCEVs can reduce price volatility, dependence on oil, improve environmental performance, and providegreater efficiencies than conventional transportation technologies, as follows:Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual CO2 emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately10,170, 15,770, and 182,984 pounds per year, respectively.6460“US Oil Consumption to BP Spill”, http://applesfromoranges.com/2010/05/us-oil-consumption-to-bp-spill/, May31, 201061“Challenges for Sustainable Mobility and Development of Fuel Cell Vehicles”, Masatami Takimoto, Executive Vice President,Toyota Motor Corporation, January 26, 2006. Presentation at the 2ndInternational Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Expo TechnicalConference Tokyo, Japan62“Twenty Hydrogen Myths”, Amory B. Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute, June 20, 200363Miles per Gallon Equivalent64Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008, Calculations based upon average annual mileage of 12,500miles for passenger car and 14,000 miles for light trucks (U.S. EPA) and 37,000 average miles/year per bus (U.S. DOT FTA,2007)
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201221NEW HAMPSHIREReplacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual energy savings (per vehicle) of approximately 230gallons of gasoline (passenger vehicle), 485 gallons of gasoline (light duty truck) and 4,390gallons of diesel (bus).Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual fuel cost savings of approximately $885 per passengervehicle, $1,866 per light duty truck, and $17,560 per bus.65Automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, General Motors, Honda, Daimler AG, and Hyundai haveprojected that models of their FCEVs will begin to roll out in larger numbers by 2015. Longer term, theU.S. DOE has projected that between 15.1 million and 23.9 million light duty FCEVs may be sold eachyear by 2050 and between 144 million and 347 million light duty FCEVs may be in use by 2050 with atransition to a hydrogen economy. These estimates could be accelerated if political, economic, energysecurity or environmental polices prompt a rapid advancement in alternative fuels.66Strategic targets for the application of hydrogen for transportation include alternative fueling stations;New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) refueling stations; bus transits operations;government, public, and privately owned fleets; and material handling and airport ground supportequipment (GSE). Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Alternative Fueling StationsThere are approximately 800 retail fueling stations in New Hampshire;67however, only 23 public and/orprivate stations within the state provide alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, compressed natural gas,propane, or electricity for alternative-fueled vehicles.68There are also approximately 123 refuelingstations owned and operated by NHDOT that can be used by authorities operating federal and state safetyvehicles, state transit vehicles, and employees of universities that operate fleet vehicles on a regularbasis.69Development of hydrogen fueling at alternative fuel stations and at selected locations owned andoperated by NHDOT would help facilitate the deployment of FCEVs within the state (See Appendix I –Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations). Currently, there are approximately 18 existing or plannedtransportation fueling stations in the Northeast region where hydrogen is provided as an alternativefuel.70,71,7265U.S. EIA, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices: gasoline - $3.847 and diesel – 4.00,www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_a_epm0r_pte_dpgal_w.htm66Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States: Report to Congress,http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/congress_reports.html, August 201167“Public retail gasoline stations state year” www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/data/docs/gasoline_stations_state.xls, May 5, 201168Alternative Fuels Data Center, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/69EPA, “Government UST Noncompliance Report-2007”, www.epa.gov/oust/docs/NH%20Compliance%20Report.pdf70Alternative Fuels Data Center, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/71Hyride, “About the fueling station”, http://www.hyride.org/html-about_hyride/About_Fueling.html72CTTransit, “Hartford Bus Facility Site Work (Phase 1)”,www.cttransit.com/Procurements/Display.asp?ProcurementID={8752CA67-AB1F-4D88-BCEC-4B82AC8A2542}, March, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201222NEW HAMPSHIREFleetsThere are over 2,000 fleet vehicles (excluding state and federal vehicles) classified as non-leasing orcompany owned vehicles in New Hampshire. 73Fleet vehicles typically account for more than twice theamount of mileage, and therefore twice the fuel consumption and emissions, compared to personalvehicles on a per vehicle basis. There is an additional 2,120 passenger automobiles and/or light dutytrucks in New Hampshire, owned by state and federal agencies (excluding state police) that traveled acombined 23,278,904 miles in 2010, while releasing 3,431 metrics tons of CO2.74Conversion of fleetvehicles from conventional fossil fuels to FCEVs could significantly reduce petroleum consumption andGHG emissions. Fleet vehicle hubs may be good candidates for hydrogen refueling and conversion toFCEVs because they mostly operate on fixed routes or within fixed districts and are fueled from acentralized station.Bus TransitThere are approximately 79 directly operated buses that provide public transportation services in NewHampshire.75As discussed above, replacement of a conventional diesel transit bus with fuel cell transitbus would result in the reduction of CO2 emissions (estimated at approximately 183,000 pounds per year),and reduction of diesel fuel (estimated at approximately 4,390 gallons per year).76Although theefficiency of conventional diesel buses has increased, conventional diesel buses, which typically achievefuel economy performance levels of 3.9 miles per gallon, have the greatest potential for energy savings byusing high efficiency fuel cells. Other states such as California, Connecticut, South Carolina, and Mainehave also begun the transition of fueling transit buses with alternative fuels to improve efficiency andenvironmental performance.Material HandlingMaterial handling equipment such as forklifts are used by a variety of industries, includingmanufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, food, retailers, and wholesale trade to move goodswithin a facility or to load goods for shipping to another site. Material handling equipment is usuallybattery, propane or diesel powered. Batteries that currently power material handling equipment are heavyand take up significant storage space while only providing up to 6 hours of run time. Fuel cells canensure constant power delivery and performance, eliminating the reduction in voltage output that occursas batteries discharge. Fuel cell powered material handling equipment last more than twice as long (12-14 hours) and also eliminate the need for battery storage and charging rooms, leaving more space forproducts. In addition, fueling time only takes two to three minutes by the operator compared to least 20minutes or more for each battery replacement (assuming one is available), which saves the operatorvaluable time and increases warehouse productivity.Fuel cell powered material handling equipment has significant cost advantages, compared to batteries,such as:1.5 times lower maintenance cost;8 times lower refueling/recharging labor cost;2 times lower net present value of total operations and management (O&M) system cost.73Fleet.com, “2009-My Registration”, www.automotive-fleet.com/Statistics/StatsViewer.aspx?file=http%3a%2f%2fwww.automotive-fleet.com%2ffc_resources%2fstats%2fAFFB10-16-top10-state.pdf&channel74State of New Hampshire, “Energy Management Annual Report for State-Owned Buildings Fiscal Year 2010”,http://admin.state.nh.us/EnergyManagement/Documents/AnnualEnergyReport2010.pdf, November, 201075NTD Date, “TS2.2 - Service Data and Operating Expenses Time-Series by System”,http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm, December 201176Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008.
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201223NEW HAMPSHIRE63 percent less emissions of GHG. Appendix X provides a comparison of PEM fuel cell andbattery-powered material handling equipment.77Fuel cell powered material handling equipment is already in use at dozens of warehouses, distributioncenters, and manufacturing plants in North America.78Large corporations that are currently or planningto utilize fuel cell powered material handling equipment include CVS, Coca-Cola, BMW, CentralGrocers, and Wal-Mart. (Refer to Appendix IX for a partial list of companies in North America that usingfuel cell powered forklifts)79There are approximately 12 distribution center/warehouse sites that havebeen identified in New Hampshire that may benefit from the use of fuel cell powered material handlingequipment. (Appendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses)Ground Support EquipmentGround support equipment (GSE) such as catering trucks, deicers, and airport tugs can be batteryoperated or more commonly run on diesel or gasoline. As an alternative, hydrogen-powered tugs arebeing developed for both military and commercial applications. While their performance is similar to thatof other battery-powered equipment, a fuel cell-powered GSE remains fully charged (provided there ishydrogen fuel available) and do not experience performance lag at the end of a shift like battery-poweredGSEs.80Potential large end-users of GSE that serve New Hampshire’s largest airports include AirCanada, Delta Airlines, Continental, Southwest Airlines, United, and US Airways. (Appendix I – Figure11: Commercial Airports).8178DOE EERE, “Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment”,www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/pdfs/early_markets_forklifts.pdf, February 201179Plug Power, “Plug Power Celebrates Successful year for Company’s Manufacturing and Sales Activity”,www.plugpower.com, January 4, 201180Battelle, “Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets”,April 2007, www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/pemfc_econ_2006_report_final_0407.pdf81MHT, “Airline Serving MHT”, www.flymanchester.com/airlines/serving.php, May 4, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201224NEW HAMPSHIRECONCLUSIONHydrogen and fuel cell technology offers significant opportunities for improved energy reliability, energyefficiency, and emission reductions. Large fuel cell units (>300 kW) may be appropriate for applicationsthat serve large electric and thermal loads. Smaller fuel cell units (< 300 kW) may provide back-up powerfor telecommunication sites, restaurants/fast food outlets, and smaller sized public facilities at this time.Table 17 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell ApplicationsCategory Total Sites PotentialSitesNumber of FuelCells< 300 kWNumber ofFuel Cells>300 kWCBECSDataEducation 813 568222 34Food Sales 1,500+ 508350Food Services 2,000+ 118411Inpatient Healthcare 149 108510Lodging 500 228622Public Order & Safety 211 8878Energy Intensive Industries 182 188818Government OperatedBuildings57 3893WirelessTelecommunicationTowers24790259125WWTPs 65 1921Landfills 25 1931Airports (w/ AASF) 51 3 (2) 943Total 5,800 208 47 161As shown in Table 5, the analysis provided here estimates that there are approximately 208 potentiallocations with potentially high electricity consumption, which may be favorable candidates for theapplication of a fuel cell to provide heat and power. Assuming the demand for electricity is uniformthroughout the year, approximately 120 to 161 fuel cell units, with a capacity of 300 – 400 kW, could bedeployed for a total fuel cell capacity of 48 to 64 MWs.8256 high schools and/or college and universities located in communities serviced by natural gas8344 food sale facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas84Ten percent of the 115 food service facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas85Ten Hospitals located in communities serviced by natural gas and occupying 100 or more beds onsite8617 hotel facilities with 100+ rooms onsite and nine convalescent homes with 150+ bed onsite located in communities servicedby natural gas87Correctional facilities and/or other public order and safety facilities with 212 workers or more.88Ten percent of 108 energy intensive industry facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas89Three actively owned federal government operated building located in communities serviced by natural gas90The Federal Communications Commission regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire,satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories91Ten percent of the 247 wireless telecommunication sites in New Hampshire’s targeted for back-up PEM fuel cell deployment92Ten percent of New Hampshire WWTP with average flows of 3.0+ MGD93Ten percent of the Landfills targeted based on LMOP data94Airport facilities with 2,500+ annual Enplanement Counts and/or with AASF
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201225NEW HAMPSHIREIf all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations 300 kW units, a minimum of 378,432MWh electric and 1.02 MMBTUs (equivalent to 298,723 MWh) of thermal energy would be produced,which could reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 42,006 tons per year.95New Hampshire can also benefit from the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportationsuch as passenger fleets, transit district fleets, municipal fleets and state department fleets. Theapplication of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation would reduce the dependence on oil,improve environmental performance and provide greater efficiencies than conventional transportationtechnologies.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled passenger vehicle with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately 10,170 pounds, annual energy savings of 230gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $885.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled light duty truck with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per light duty truck) of approximately 15,770 pounds, annual energy savingsof 485 gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $1866.• Replacement of a diesel-fueled transit bus with a fuel cell powered bus could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per bus) of approximately 182,984 pounds, annual energy savings of 4,390gallons of fuel, and annual fuel cost savings of $17,560.Hydrogen and fuel cell technology also provides significant opportunities for job creation and/oreconomic development. Realizing over $6 million in revenue and investment in 2010, the hydrogen andfuel cell industry in New Hampshire is estimated to have contributed approximately $337,000 in state andlocal tax revenue, and over $8.5 million in gross state product. Currently, there are at least 25 NewHampshire companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in theNortheast region. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology were to gain momentum, thenumber of companies and employment for the industry could grow substantially.95If all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations with 400 kW units, a minimum of 532,608 MWh electric and2.5 million MMBTUs (equivalent to 732,102 MWh) of thermal energy would be produced, which could reduce CO2 emissionsby at least 59,119 tons per year
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201226NEW HAMPSHIREAPPENDICES
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201227NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 1: Education
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201228NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201229NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 3: Food Services
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201230NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201231NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 5: Lodging
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201232NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201233NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201234NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201235NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201236NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201237NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201238NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201239NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers & Warehouses
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201240NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix II – New Hampshire Estimated Electrical Consumption per SectorCategory Total SiteElectric Consumption per Building(1000 kWh)96kWh Consumed per SectorNew EnglandEducation 813 161.844 131,579,172Food Sales 1,500 319.821 479,731,500Food Services 2,000 128 256,380,000Inpatient Healthcare 90 6,038.63 543,476,250Lodging 500 213.12 106,559,000Public Order & Safety 271 77.855 21,098,705Total 5,174 1,538,824,627Residential974,595,000,000Industrial 2,173,000,000Commercial 4,475,000,000Other Commercial 2,936,175,37396EIA, Electricity consumption and expenditure intensities for Non-Mall Building 200397DOE EERE, “Electric Power and Renewable Energy in New Hampshire”,http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/electricity.cfm/state=NH, August 3, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201241NEW HAMPSHIREAppendix III – Key StakeholdersOrganization Town State WebsiteCentral New Hampshireregional PlanningCommissionConcord NH http://www.cnhrpc.org/Clean Energy StatesAllianceMontpelier VT http://www.cleanenergystates.org/New Hampshire Energy &Climate CollaborativeNHhttp://www.nhcollaborative.org/New Hampshire MunicipalManagement AssociationConcord NH http://www.nhmanagers.org/The Office of Energy andPlanningConcord NH http://www.nh.gov/oep/New HampshireDepartment ofEnvironmental ServicesConcord NH http://des.nh.gov/New HampshireDepartment ofTransportationConcord NH http://www.nh.gov/dot/NHPUC Energy Efficiency& Sustainable EnergyBoardConcord NH http://www.puc.nh.gov/eese.htmNH Homeland Security andEmergency ManagementRelay NH http://www.nh.gov/safety/divisions/hsem/NH Department of Safety Relay NH http://www.nh.gov/safety/NH Department ofEmployment SecurityManchester NH http://www.nh.gov/nhes/UtilitiesNew Hampshire Electric Cooperative Inc. http://www.nhec.com/Public Service Company of New Hampshire http://www.psnh.com/For-My-Home.aspxUnitil Energy Systems Inc. http://www.unitil.com/National Grid New Hampshire https://www.nationalgridus.comNortheast Utilities Inc. http://www.nu.com/
    • Appendix IV – New Hampshire Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Based Incentives and ProgamsFunding Source: Commercial Development Finance Authority (CDFA)Program Title: Enterprise Energy FundApplicable Energies/Technologies: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Photovoltaic, Wind,Biomass, Not specified, Other Distributed Generation TechnologiesSummary: Through the Enterprise Energy Fund, CDFA offers low-interest loan and grant programsto businesses and nonprofit organizations to help finance energy improvements and renewableenergy projects in their buildings. Goals consist of reducing energy costs and consumption, as wellas promoting of economic recovery and job creation. Funding source is The American Recovery andReinvestment Act (ARRA) State Energy Program (SEP).Restrictions:Activities will include, but are not limited to, the following:Improvements to the building’s envelope, including air sealing and insulation in the walls,attics, and foundations;Improvements to HVAC equipment and air exchange;Installation of renewable energy systems;Improvements to lighting, equipment, and other electrical systems; andConduction of comprehensive, fuel-blind energy audits.Timing: The application period is currently open and applicants must submit initial inquiries via theCDFA grants management website. There is no application deadline; however, funding is availableon a first-come, first-served basis.Maximum Size:No distinct size is addressed. Each application will be accesses based on the individual proposal.Requirements:See New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority “Enterprise Energy FundOverview”http://www.nhcdfa.org/web/erp/eef/eef_overview.htmlRebate amount:►Loans will range from $10,000 to $500,000.For further information, please visit:http://www.nhcdfa.org/web/erp/eef/eef_overview.htmlSource:New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority “Enterprise Energy Fund Overview”, August11, 2011DSIRE “Community Development Finance Authority - Enterprise Energy Fund (Grant)”, August 11, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201243Funding Source: Commercial Development Finance Authority (CDFA)Program Title: Municipal Energy Reduction FundApplicable Energies/Technologies: CHP/Cogeneration, Other Distributed GenerationTechnologies98Summary: Through the Municipal Energy Reduction Fund CDFA aims to help municipalitiesimprove the energy efficiency of their municipal buildings, street lighting, water and sewertreatment facilities, and where appropriate, electrical distribution systems. Goals consist of reducingenergy usage as well as costs. Funding source is New Hampshire’s Greenhouse Gas EmissionsReduction Fund.Restrictions:Activities will include, but are not limited to:Improvements to the buildings envelope including air sealing and insulation in the walls,attics, and foundations;Improvements to HVAC equipment inside conditioned space;Installation of sealed combustion, high efficiency condensing boilers with AFUE>97%Hydronic Systems or other high efficiency systems; andInstallation of alternative energy sources.Timing: The application period is currently open and applicants must submit initial inquiries via theCDFA grants management website. There is no application deadline; however, funding is availableon a first-come, first-served basis.Maximum Size:Typically, loans will be structured so that the payments will be made with money saved by theenergy improvements.Requirements:See New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority “Municipal Energy ReductionFund Overview”http://www.nhcdfa.org/web/erp/merf/merf_overview.htmlRebate amount:►Loans will range from $5,000 to $400,000.For further information, please visit:http://www.nhcdfa.org/web/erp/merf/merf_overview.htmlSource:New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority “Municipal Energy Reduction Fund Overview”,August 11, 2011DSIRE “Community Development Finance Authority - Municipal Energy Reduction Fund ”, August11, 201198“Other Distributed Generation Technologies” include Fuel Cells
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201244Funding Source: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Fund (GHGERF)Program Title: Pay for Performance ProgramApplicable Energies/Technologies: CHP/Cogeneration, Comprehensive Measures/WholeBuilding, Custom/Others pending approvalSummary: Through the Pay for Performance Program, GHGERF carefully the energy efficiencyneeds of the New Hampshire commercial and industry sector by working with developers buildingowners and their representative. The main goal is to improve energy efficiency of commercial andindustrial buildings including hotels, large office buildings, multi-family buildings, supermarkets,manufacturing facilities, schools, shopping malls, and restaurants.Restrictions: Existing commercial, industrial and institutional buildings with a peak demand over100 kW for any of the preceding twelve months are eligible to participate. To be eligible forincentive payments, the projects comprehensive energy improvements must result in a minimum15% reduction in total facility source energy consumption. At least two energy efficiency measuresmust be included in the project.Timing: Start Date of this program occurred 02/28/2011 and no expiration date is givenMaximum Size:The comprehensive project must result in a minimum 15% reduction in total facility source energyconsumption.Requirements:The comprehensive project must result in a minimum 15% reduction in total facility source energyconsumption. Participants must work with one of the Program Partners. To participate, projects mustcomplete an Energy Reduction Plan and must benchmark the project using EPAs PortfolioManager.Rebate amount:► Incentive 1: $0.10/sq. ft. (up to $40,000)► Incentive 2: $0.19/kWh saved and $20.00/MMBTU saved (up to $200,000 or 50%)► Incentive 3: $0.05/kWh saved and $5.00/MMBTU saved (up to $200,000 or 50%)► Incentive Max.: $500,000 per entity cap.For further information, please visit:http://www.nhp4p.com/Source:Pay for Performance Program “Overview”, August 11, 2011DSIRE “New Hampshire - Pay for Performance Program”, August 11, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201245Appendix V – Partial list of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Supply Chain Companies in New Hampshire99Organization Name Product or Service Category1 Zeta Electronic Design Inc. FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maintenance Services2Westinghouse ElectricCorporationEquipment3 Welch Fluorocarbon Materials4Vaupell Molding & Tooling,Inc.Manufacturing Services5The Switch Converters andInvertersEquipment6 Specialty Coating Systems Other7 SG WATER, USA Equipment8 RoboTech Center Other9 Renewable Energy World Other10 Prototek Manufacturing Manufacturing Services11 Prospeed.net Inc. Other12 Process Instrumentation Inc Components13Pfeiffer Vacuum Inc. ServiceCenterLab or Test Equipment/Services14 Oztec Corporation Equipment15 Lydall Filtration Materials16 Kelvin Technology, Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services17 Fluent, Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services18Filters Water &Instrumentation, Inc.Equipment19 Eptam Plastics Components20 Creare, Inc. Engineering/Design Services21 COGEBI Inc. Materials22 Betterway Industrial Gases Materials23 Beswick Engineering Components24 Arete Corporation Consulting/Legal/Financial Services25 Airgas East Lab or Test Equipment/Services99Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, August 11, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201246Appendix VI – Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies100Fuel CellTypeCommonElectrolyteOperatingTemperatureTypicalStackSizeEfficiency Applications Advantages DisadvantagesPolymerElectrolyteMembrane(PEM)Perfluoro sulfonicacid50-100°C122-212°typically80°C< 1 kW – 1MW101kW 60%transportation35%stationary• Backup power• Portable power• Distributed generation• Transportation• Specialty vehicle• Solid electrolyte reducescorrosion & electrolytemanagement problems• Low temperature• Quick start-up• Expensive catalysts• Sensitive to fuelimpurities• Low temperature wasteheatAlkaline(AFC)Aqueous solutionof potassiumhydroxide soakedin a matrix90-100°C194-212°F10 – 100kW60%• Military• Space• Cathode reaction fasterin alkaline electrolyte,leads to high performance• Low cost components• Sensitive to CO2in fuel and air• Electrolyte managementPhosphoricAcid(PAFC)Phosphoric acidsoaked in a matrix150-200°C302-392°F400 kW100 kWmodule40% • Distributed generation• Higher temperatureenables CHP• Increased tolerance to fuelimpurities• Pt catalyst• Long start up time• Low current and powerMoltenCarbonate(MCFC)Solution of lithium,sodium and/orpotassiumcarbonates, soakedin a matrix600-700°C1112-1292°F300k W- 3 MW300 kWmodule45 – 50%• Electric utility• Distributed generation• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety ofcatalysts• Suitable for CHP• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• Long start up time• Low power densitySolid Oxide(SOFC)Yttria stabilizedzirconia700-1000°C1202-1832°F1 kW – 2MW60%• Auxiliary power• Electric utility• Distributed generation• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety ofcatalysts• Solid electrolyte• Suitable f o r CHP &CHHP• Hybrid/GT cycle• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• High temperatureoperation requires longstart uptime and limitsPolymer Electrolyte is no longer a single category row. Data shown does not take into account High Temperature PEM which operates in the range of 160oC to 180oC. It solvesvirtually all of the disadvantages listed under PEM. It is not sensitive to impurities. It has usable heat. Stack efficiencies of 52% on the high side are realized. HTPEM is not aPAFC fuel cell and should not be confused with one.100U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cells Technology Program, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/pdfs/fc_comparison_chart.pdf, August 5, 2011101Ballard, “CLEARgen Multi-MY Systems”, http://www.ballard.com/fuel-cell-products/cleargen-multi-mw-systems.aspx, November, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201247Appendix VII –Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats for New HampshireStrengthsStationary Power – Strong market drivers (elect cost,environmental factors, critical power)Transportation Power - Strong market drivers (appeal to market,environmental factors, high gasoline prices, long commutingdistance, lack of public transportation options)WeaknessesStationary Power – No fuel cell technology/industrial base at theOEM level, fuel cells only considered statutorily “renewable” ifpowered by renewable fuel, lack ofinstallations/familiarity/comfort level with technologyTransportation Power – No technology/industrial base at the OEMlevelEconomic Development Factors – limited state incentivesOpportunitiesStationary Power – More opportunity as a “early adoptor market”,some supply chain buildup opportunities such as supermarketsand larger hotel chains around the deploymentTransportation Power – Same as stationary power.Economic Development Factors – Once the region determines itsfocus within the hydrogen/fuel cell space, a modest amount ofstate support is likely to show reasonable results, then replicate inthe next targeted sector(s).Implementation of RPS/modification of RPS to include fuel cellsin preferred resource tier (for stationary power); or modification ofRE definition to include FCs powered by natural gas and allowedresource for net metering.Strong regional emphasis on efficiency, FCs could play a roleInfrastructure exists in many location to capture methane fromlandfills – more knowledge of options to substitute FCs forgenerators could prove fruitfulThreatsStationary Power – The region’s favorable market characteristicsand needs will be met by other distributed and “truly” generationtechnologies, such as solar, wind, geothermalTransportation Power – The region’s favorable marketcharacteristics and needs will be met by electric vehicles,particularly in the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure or,alternatively, customers remaining with efficient gas-poweredvehicles that can handle our unique clime/terrain/commutingdistance needEconomic Development Factors – competition from otherstates/regionsIf states provide incentives, smaller & less-consistent clean energyfunds may not provide market the support & assurance it needs
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201248Appendix VIII – Partial Fuel Cell Deployment in the Northeast regionManufacturer Site Name Site LocationYearInstalledPlug Power T-Mobile cell tower Storrs CT 2008Plug Power Albany International Airport Albany NY 2004FuelCell Energy Pepperidge Farms Plant Bloomfield CT 2005FuelCell Energy Peabody Museum New Haven CT 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers Manhattan NY 2004FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Edison NJ 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Parsippany NJ 2003UTC Power Cabelas Sporting Goods East Hartford CT 2008UTC Power Whole Foods Market Glastonbury CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Science Center Hartford CT 2009UTC Power St. Francis Hospital Hartford CT 2003UTC Power Middletown High School Middletown CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Juvenile Training School Middletown CT 2001UTC Power 360 State Street Apartment Building New Haven CT 2010UTC Power South Windsor High School South Windsor CT 2002UTC Power Mohegan Sun Casino Hotel Uncasville CT 2002UTC Power CTTransit: Fuel Cell Bus Hartford CT 2007UTC Power Whole Foods Market Dedham MA 2009UTC Power Bronx Zoo Bronx NY 2008UTC Power North Central Bronx Hospital Bronx NY 2000UTC Power Hunts Point Water Pollution Control Plant Bronx NY 2005UTC Power Price Chopper Supermarket Colonie NY 2010UTC Power East Rochester High School East Rochester NY 2007UTC Power Coca-Cola Refreshments Production Facility Elmsford NY 2010UTC Power Verizon Call Center and Communications Building Garden City NY 2005UTC Power State Office Building Hauppauge NY 2009UTC Power Liverpool High School Liverpool NY 2000UTC Power New York Hilton Hotel New York City NY 2007UTC Power Central Park Police Station New York City NY 1999UTC Power Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester NY 1993UTC Power NYPA office building White Plains NY 2010UTC Power Wastewater treatment plant Yonkers NY 1997UTC Power The Octagon Roosevelt Island NY 2011UTC Power Johnson & Johnson World Headquarters New Brunswick NJ 2003UTC Power CTTRANSIT (Fuel Cell Powered Buses) Hartford CT2007 -Present
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201249Appendix IX – Partial list of Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America102Company City/Town State SiteYearDeployedFuel CellManufacturer# offorkliftsCoca-ColaSan Leandro CABottling anddistribution center2011 Plug Power 37Charlotte NC Bottling facility 2011 Plug Power 40EARPDistributionKansas City KS Distribution center 2011OorjaProtonics24Golden StateFoodsLemont IL Distribution facility 2011OorjaProtonics20Kroger Co. Compton CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 161SyscoRiverside CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 80Boston MA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 160Long Island NY Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 42San Antonio TX Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 113Front Royal VARedistributionfacility2011 Plug Power 100BaldorSpecialty FoodsBronx NY FacilityPlannedin 2012OorjaProtonics50BMWManufacturingCo.Spartanburg SCManufacturingplant2010 Plug Power 86DefenseLogisticsAgency, U.S.Department ofDefenseSan Joaquin CA Distribution facility 2011 Plug Power 20Fort Lewis WA Distribution depot 2011 Plug Power 19WarnerRobinsGA Distribution depot 2010 Hydrogenics 20Susquehanna PA Distribution depot2010 Plug Power 152009 Nuvera 40Martin-Brower Stockton CAFood distributioncenter2010OorjaProtonics15United NaturalFoods Inc.(UNFI)Sarasota FL Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 65Wal-MartBalzacAl,CanadaRefrigerateddistribution center2010 Plug Power 80WashingtonCourt HouseOHFood distributioncenter2007 Plug Power 55Wegmans Pottsville PA Warehouse 2010 Plug Power 136Whole FoodsMarketLandover MD Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 61102FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America”, http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/forklifts.pdf, November, 2011
    • HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201250Appendix X – Comparison of PEM Fuel Cell and Battery-Powered Material Handling Equipment3 kW PEM Fuel Cell-PoweredPallet Trucks3 kW Battery-powered(2 batteries per truck)Total Fuel Cycle Energy Use(total energy consumed/kWhdelivered to the wheels)-12,000 Btu/kWh 14,000 Btu/kWhFuel Cycle GHG Emissions(in g CO2 equivalent820 g/kWh 1200 g/kWhEstimated Product Life 8-10 years 4-5 yearsNo Emissions at Point of UseQuiet OperationWide Ambient OperatingTemperature rangeConstant Power Availableover ShiftRoutine Maintenance Costs($/YR)$1,250 - $1,500/year $2,000/yearTime for Refueling/ChangingBatteries4 – 8 min./day 45-60 min/day (for battery change-outs)8 hours (for battery recharging & cooling)Cost of Fuel/Electricity $6,000/year $1,300/yearLabor Cost ofrefueling/Recharging$1,100/year $8,750/yearNet Present Value of CapitalCost$12,600($18,000 w/o incentive)$14,000Net Present Value of O&Mcosts (including fuel)$52,000 $128,000