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Me h2 dev_plan_041012
Me h2 dev_plan_041012
Me h2 dev_plan_041012
Me h2 dev_plan_041012
Me h2 dev_plan_041012
Me h2 dev_plan_041012
Me h2 dev_plan_041012
Me h2 dev_plan_041012
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  • 1. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20121MAINEHydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan – “Roadmap” CollaborativeParticipantsHydrogen Energy CenterRichard Smith – PresidentGary Higginbottom – Program DirectorProject Management and Plan DevelopmentNortheast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster:Joel M. Rinebold – Program DirectorPaul Aresta – Project ManagerAlexander C. Barton – Energy SpecialistAdam J. Brzozowski – Energy SpecialistThomas Wolak – Energy InternNathan Bruce – GIS Mapping InternAgenciesUnited States Department of EnergyUnited States Small Business AdministrationPortland skyline – Hydrogen Energy Center (HEC); Gary Higginbottom; January, 2012Shipyard – “Installation Overview - -Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS)”,http://usmilitary.about.com/od/navybasesunits/ss/pns.htm, October 2011Welding – “MIG Welding”, Gooden’s Portable Welding, http://joeystechservice.com/goodenswelding/WeldingTechniques.php,October, 2011Blueprint construction – “Contruction1”, The MoHawk Construction Group LLC., http://mohawkcg.com/, October, 2011
  • 2. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20122MAINEEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThere is the potential to generate at least 473,000 megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annually fromhydrogen and fuel cell technologies at host sites in the State of Maine through the development of 58 – 77megawatts (MW) of fuel cell generation capacity. The state and federal government have incentives tofacilitate the development and use of renewable energy. The decision whether or not to deploy hydrogenor fuel cell technology at a given location depends largely on their economic value, compared to otherconventional or alternative/renewable technologies. Consequently, while many sites may be technicallyviable for the application of fuel cell technology, this plan focuses on fuel cell applications that are bothtechnically and economically viable.Locations that are both technically and economically viable include a wide range of private, state andfederal buildings used for education, food sales and services, in-patient healthcare and public order andsafety. Similarly, viable sites include energy intensive industries, wastewater treatment plants, landfills,telecommunication site, seaports and high-traffic airports.Currently, Maine has at least 28 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industrysupply chain in the Northeast region. Based on a recent study, these companies making up Maine’shydrogen and fuel cell industry are estimated to have realized approximately $2 million in revenue andinvestment, contributed more than $113,000 in state and local tax revenue, and generated over $2.9million in gross state product from their participation in this regional energy cluster in 2010.Hydrogen and fuel cell projects are becoming increasingly popular throughout the Northeast region.They can meet Maines demand for renewable energy, reduce the states first-in-the-nation dependence onforeign oil, improve air and water quality and create local jobs. This plan provides links to relevantinformation to help assess, plan, and initiate hydrogen or fuel cell projects to help meet the energy,economic, and environmental goals of the State.Policies and incentives that support hydrogen and fuel cell technology will increase deployment at sitesthat would benefit from on-site generation. Increased demand for hydrogen and fuel cell technology willincrease production and create jobs throughout the supply chain. As deployment increases,manufacturing costs will decline and hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be in a position to thencompete in a global market without incentives. These policies and incentives can be coordinatedregionally to maintain the regional economic cluster as a global exporter for long-term growth andeconomic development.
  • 3. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20123MAINETABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................2INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................5DRIVERS............................................................................................................................................6ECONOMIC IMPACT ...........................................................................................................................8POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETS ...................................................................................................9Education ............................................................................................................................................11Food Sales...........................................................................................................................................12Food Service .......................................................................................................................................12Inpatient Healthcare............................................................................................................................13Lodging...............................................................................................................................................13Energy Intensive Industries.....................................................................................................................15Government Owned Buildings................................................................................................................15Wireless Telecommunication Sites.........................................................................................................16Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) ................................................................................................16Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)........................................................................................17Airports...................................................................................................................................................17Military ...................................................................................................................................................18POTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETS .........................................................................................19Alternative Fueling Stations................................................................................................................20Bus Transit..........................................................................................................................................21Material Handling...............................................................................................................................21Ground Support Equipment ................................................................................................................22Ports ....................................................................................................................................................22CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................23APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................25
  • 4. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20124MAINEIndex of TablesTable 1 - Maine Economic Data 2011 ..........................................................................................................8Table 2 - Education Data Breakdown.........................................................................................................11Table 3 - Food Sales Data Breakdown........................................................................................................12Table 4 - Food Services Data Breakdown ..................................................................................................13Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Data Breakdown.........................................................................................13Table 6 - Lodging Data Breakdown............................................................................................................14Table 7 - Public Order and Safety Data Breakdown...................................................................................14Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector ..............................................................15Table 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data Breakdown................................................................................15Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data Breakdown........................................................................16Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data Breakdown ........................................................................16Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plants Data Breakdown ........................................................................17Table 13 - Landfill Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................17Table 14 – Maine Top Airports Enplanement Count.................................................................................18Table 15 - Airport Data Breakdown ...........................................................................................................18Table 16 - Military Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................19Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge)...........................19Table 18 -Ports Data Breakdown................................................................................................................23Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell Applications ...........................................................................23Index of FiguresFigure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector....................................................................................................9Figure 2 - Electric Power Generation by Primary Energy Sector.................................................................9Figure 3 - Maine Electrical Consumption per Sector..................................................................................11Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption ..........................................................................................13
  • 5. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20125MAINEINTRODUCTIONA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Development Plan was created for each state in the Northeast region(Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and NewJersey), with support from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to increase awarenessand facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. The intent of this guidance documentis to make available information regarding the economic value and deployment opportunities forhydrogen and fuel cell technology.1A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or a hydrogen-rich fuel such as natural gas) and oxygen tocreate an electric current. The amount of power produced by a fuel cell depends on several factors,including fuel cell type, stack size, operating temperature, and the pressure at which the gases aresupplied to the cell. Fuel cells are classified primarily by the type of electrolyte they employ, whichdetermines the type of chemical reactions that take place in the cell, the temperature range in which thecell operates, the fuel required, and other factors. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications forwhich these cells are most suitable. There are several types of fuel cells currently in use or underdevelopment, each with its own advantages, limitations, and potential applications. These technologiesand applications are identified in Appendix VI.Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) in vehicles and providepower for stationary and portable power applications. Fuel cells are in commercial service as distributedpower plants in stationary applications throughout the world, providing thermal power and electricity topower homes and businesses. Fuel cells are also used in transportation applications, such as automobiles,trucks, buses, and other equipment. Fuel cells for portable applications, which are currently indevelopment, and can provide power for laptop computers and cell phones.Fuel cells are cleaner and more efficient than traditional combustion-based engines and power plants;therefore, less energy is needed to provide the same amount of power. Typically, stationary fuel cellpower plants are fueled with natural gas or other hydrogen rich fuel. Virtually none of the earth’shydrogen is in a form that we can readily use in fuel cells or other energy applications. Almost allorganic compounds, which by definition contain carbon, also contain hydrogen.2Natural gas is widelyavailable throughout the northeast, is relatively inexpensive, and is primarily a domestic energy supply.Consequently, natural gas shows the greatest potential to serve as a transitional fuel for the near futurehydrogen economy. 3Capturing carbon emissions from natural gas reforming processes would further improve theenvironmental advantages of a hydrogen economy. Carbon can be sequestered more easily in convertingcentralized natural gas to hydrogen, rather than burning the natural gas. When pure hydrogen is used topower a fuel cell, the only by-products are water and heat; no pollutants or greenhouse gases (GHG) areproduced.Hydrogen is the lightest element in the universe. It also holds a great deal of potential energy, whichmakes it a good energy storage medium. There is a lot of discussion about using hydrogen as an energysource and/or an energy storage medium. There are also a number of firms looking at developinghydrogen energy systems in Maine.1Key stakeholders are identified in Appendix III2Hydrogen and fuel cells, a comprehensive guide – Rebecca L. Busby, 20053EIA,”Commercial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2009”,http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/sum_pr_com.html, August 2011
  • 6. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20126MAINEDRIVERSThe Northeast hydrogen and fuel cell industry, while still emerging, currently has an economic impact ofover $1 Billion of total revenue and investment. Maine benefits from secondary impacts of indirect andinduced employment and revenue.4Furthermore, Maine has a definitive and attractive economicdevelopment opportunity to greatly increase its economic participation in the hydrogen and fuel cellindustry within the Northeast region and worldwide. An economic strengths, weaknesses, opportunitiesand threats (SWOT) assessment for Maine is provided in Appendix VII.Industries in the Northeast, including those in Maine, are facing increased pressure to reduce costs, fuelconsumption, and emissions that may be contributing to climate change. Maine’s relative proximity tomajor load centers, the high cost of electricity, concerns over regional air quality, available federal taxincentives, and legislative mandates in Maine and neighboring states have resulted in renewed interest inthe development of efficient renewable energy. Incentives designed to assist individuals andorganizations in energy conservation and the development of renewable energy are currently offeredwithin the state. Appendix IV contains an outline of Maine’s incentives and renewable energy programs.Some specific factors that are driving the market for hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Maine includethe following:The current Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) recognizes fuel cells and fuel cells that run onrenewable fuels, as a “Class I” renewable energy sources and calls for an increase in renewableenergy used in the state from its current level of approximately three percent to approximately tenpercent by 2017. – promotes stationary power and transportation applications.5Net Metering – In June 2011, Gov. Paul LePage signed legislation requiring the Maine PublicUtilities Commission (PUC) to amend the net energy rules to develop contract terms for netenergy billing and interconnection agreements. Furthermore, the bill allows the PUC to amendnet energy billing rules following "routine technical rules," and will enable the PUC to amend netenergy billing without having to send the amendments to the legislature for approval. – promotesstationary power applications.6Maine is one of the states in the ten-state region that is part of the Regional Greenhouse GasInitiative (RGGI); the nation’s first mandatory market-based program to reduce emissions ofcarbon dioxide (CO2). RGGIs goals are to stabilize and cap emissions at 188 million tonsannually from 2009-2014 and to reduce CO2-emissions by 2.5 percent per year from 2015-2018.7– promotes stationary power and transportation applications.In June 2009, Maine enacted the Act regarding Maines energy future that established theEfficiency Maine Trust, which is responsible for creating a plan to reach the following energyefficiency targets:o 100 MW reduction in peak-load electricity consumption by 2020o 30 percent reduction in electricity and natural gas consumptiono 20 percent reduction in heating fuel consumption4Maine does not have any original equipment manufacturers (OEM) of hydrogen/fuel cell systems so it has no “direct” economicimpact.5DSIRE, “Renewable Portfolio Standards,”http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=ME01R&re=1&ee=1, August, 20116DSIRE, “Maine – Net Energy Billing,”http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=ME02R&re=1&ee=1, August 20117Seacoastonline.come, “RGGI: Quietly setting a standard”,http://www.seacoastonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090920/NEWS/909200341/-1/NEWSMAP,September 20, 2009
  • 7. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20127MAINEo Weatherization of 100 percent of homes and 50 percent of businesses by 2030o Capturing all cost-effective efficiency resources available for utility customers –promotes stationary power and transportation applications.8The Finance Authority of Maine (Authority) manages the Clean Fuel Vehicle Fund, which is anon-lapsing revolving loan fund that may be used for direct loans and grants to supportproduction, distribution and consumption of clean fuels and biofuels (including fuel cells). TheAuthority may also insure up to 100 percent of a loan for a clean fuel or biofuel project. –promotes transportation applications.9By December 1, 2012, the Maine Office of Energy Independence and Security (Office) mustdevelop a plan to reduce petroleum consumption in all sectors of the economy with the overallgoal of reducing petroleum consumption in the state by at least 30 percent and 50 percent, basedon 2007 levels, by 2030 and 2050, respectively. – promotes transportation applications.10Maine has established a policy that prohibits the Maine State Purchasing Agent from purchasingor leasing any car or light-duty truck for use by any state department or agency unless the car ortruck has a manufacturers estimated highway mileage rating of at least 45 miles per gallon (mpg)or 35 mpg, respectively. – promotes transportation applications.11The Transportation Efficiency Fund is a non-lapsing fund managed by the Maine Department ofTransportation to increase energy efficiency and reduce reliance on fossil fuels within the statestransportation system. Funding may be used for zero emission vehicles, biofuel and otheralternative fuel vehicles, congestion mitigation and air quality initiatives, rail, public transit, andcar or van pooling – promotes transportation applications.128DSIRE, “Maine Renewable Portfolio Standards”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=ME09R&re=1&ee=1, August 10, 20079EERE, “AFV and Fueling Infrastructure Loans”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/ME/5299, August 10, 201110EERE, “State Plan to Reduce Petroleum Consumption”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/ME/9401, August 10, 201111EERE, “Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements ”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/ME/5730, August 10,201112EERE, “Transportation Efficiency Fund ”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/ME/8442, August 10, 2011
  • 8. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20128MAINEECONOMIC IMPACTThe hydrogen and fuel cell industry has direct, indirect, and induced impacts on local and regionaleconomies. 13A new hydrogen and/or fuel cell project directly affects the area’s economy through thepurchase of goods and services, generation of land use revenue, taxes or payments in lieu of taxes, andemployment. Secondary effects include both indirect and induced economic effects resulting from thecirculation of the initial spending through the local economy, economic diversification, changes inproperty values, and the use of indigenous resources.Maine is home to at least 28 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industrysupply chain in the Northeast region. Appendix V lists the hydrogen and fuel cell supply chain companiesin Maine. Realizing over $2 million in revenue and investment from their participation in this regionalcluster in 2010, these companies include manufacturing, parts distributing, supplying of industrial gas,engineering based research and development (R&D), coating applications, and managing of venturecapital funds. 14Furthermore, the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is estimated to have contributedapproximately $113,000 in state and local tax revenue, and over $2.9 million in gross state product.Table 1 shows Maine’s impact in the Northeast region’s hydrogen and fuel cell industry as of April 2011.Table 1 - Maine Economic Data 2011Maine Economic DataSupply Chain Members 28Indirect Rev ($M) 1.94Indirect Jobs 10Indirect Labor Income ($M) 0.50Induced Revenue ($M) 0.97Induced Jobs 8Induced Labor Income ($M) 0.29Total Revenue ($M) 2.9Total Jobs 18Total Labor Income ($M) 0.80In addition, there are over 118,000 people employed across 3,500 companies within the Northeastregistered as part of the motor vehicle industry. Approximately 1,874 of these individuals and 78 of thesecompanies are located in Maine. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology were to gainmomentum within the transportation sector, the estimated employment rate for the hydrogen and fuel cellindustry could grow significantly in the region.1513Indirect impacts are the estimated output (i.e., revenue), employment and labor income in other business (i.e., not-OEMs) thatare associated with the purchases made by hydrogen and fuel cell OEMs, as well as other companies in the sector’s supply chain.Induced impacts are the estimated output, employment and labor income in other businesses (i.e., non-OEMs) that are associatedwith the purchases by workers related to the hydrogen and fuel cell industry.14Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1,August8, 201115NAICS Codes: Motor Vehicle – 33611, Motor Vehicle Parts – 3363
  • 9. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20129MAINEPOTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETSIn 2009, Maine consumed the equivalent of 126.14 million megawatt-hours of energy from thetransportation, residential, industrial, and commercial sectors.16Electricity consumption in Maine wasapproximately 11.3 million MWh, and is forecasted to grow at a rate of 0.9 percent annually over the nextdecade.17,18Figure 1 illustrates the percent of total energy consumed by each sector in Maine. A moredetailed breakout of energy usage is provided in Appendix II.This demand represents approximately nine percent of the population in New England and nine percent ofthe region’s total electricity consumption. The State relies on both in-state resources and imports ofpower over the region’s transmission system to serve electricity to customers. Net electrical demand inMaine industries was 1,288 MW in 2009 and is projected to increase by approximately 50 MW by 2015.Further, the state’s overall electricity demand is forecasted to grow at a rate of 0.9 percent (1.5 percentpeak summer demand growth) annually over the next decade. Demand for new electric capacity as wellas a replacement of older less efficient base-load generation facilities is expected. With approximately3,400 MW in total capacity of generation plants, Maine represents 11 percent of the total capacity in NewEngland. As shown in Figure 2, natural gas was the primary energy source for electricity consumed inMaine for 2009. 1916U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), “State Energy Data System”,“http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/rank_use.html”, August 201117EIA, “Electric Power Annual 2009 – State Data Tables”, www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January, 201118ISO New England, “Maine 2011 State Profile”, www.iso-ne.com/nwsiss/grid_mkts/key_facts/nh_01-2011_profile.pdf,January, 201119EIA, “1990 - 2010 Retail Sales of Electricity by State by Sector by Provider (EIA-861)”,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January 4, 2011Residential22%Commercial17%Industrial32%Transportation29%Figure 2 – Electric Power Generation byPrimary Energy SourceFigure 1 – Energy Consumption bySectorCoal0.5%Petroleum1.6%Natural Gas49.2%Hydroelectric22.4%OtherRenewables24.4%Other1.9%
  • 10. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201210MAINEFuel cell systems have many advantages over conventional technologies, including:High fuel-to-electricity efficiency (> 40 percent) utilizing hydrocarbon fuels;Overall system efficiency of 85 to 93 percent;Reduction of noise pollution;Reduction of air pollution;Often do not require new transmission;Siting is not controversial; andIf near point of use, waste heat can be captured and used. Combined heat and power (CHP)systems are more efficient and can reduce facility energy costs over applications that use separateheat and central station power systems.20Fuel cells can be deployed as a CHP technology that provides both power and thermal energy, and canincrease energy efficiency at a customer site, typically from 35 to 50 percent. The value of CHP includesreduced transmission and distribution costs, reduced fuel use and associated emissions.21Based on thetargets identified within this plan, there is the potential to develop at least 58 MWs of stationary fuel cellgeneration capacity in Maine, which would provide the following benefits, annually:Production of approximately 473,000 MWh of electricityProduction of approximately 1.27 million MMBTUs of thermal energyReduction of CO2 emissions of approximately 90,000 tons (electric generation only)22For the purpose of this plan, applications have been explored with a focus on fuel cells in the 300 kW to400 kW range. However, smaller fuel cells are potentially viable for specific applications. Facilities thathave electrical and thermal requirements that closely match the output of the fuel cells provide the bestopportunity for the application of a fuel cell. Facilities that may be good candidates for the application ofa fuel cell include commercial buildings with high electricity consumption, selected governmentbuildings, public works facilities, and energy intensive industries.The Energy Information Agencys (EIA) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS_identifies the building types listed below as having high electricity consumption. They are the bestcandidates for on-site generation and CHP applications. These selected building types making up theCBECS subcategory within the commercial industry include:EducationFood SalesFood ServicesInpatient HealthcareLodgingPublic Order & Safety23As illustrated in Figure 3, these selected building types within the commercial sector is estimated toaccount for approximately 15 percent of Maine’s total electrical consumption. Appendix II further20FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell Basics”, www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html, July, 201121“Distributed Generation Market Potential: 2004 Update Connecticut and Southwest Connecticut”, ISE, Joel M. Rinebold,ECSU, March 15, 200422Replacement of conventional fossil fuel generating capacity with methane fuel cells could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions by between approximately 100 and 600 lb/MWh: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), eGRID2010 Version1.1 Year 2007 GHG Annual Output Emission Rates, Annual non-baseload output emission rates (NPCC New England); FuelCellEnergy, DFC 300 Product sheet, http://www.fuelcellenergy.com/files/FCE%20300%20Product%20Sheet-lo-rez%20FINAL.pdf;UTC Power, PureCell Model 400 System Performance Characteristics, http://www.utcpower.com/products/purecell40023As defined by CBECS, Public Order & Safety facilities are buildings used for the preservation of law and order or publicsafety. Although these sites are usually described as government facilities they are referred to as commercial buildings becausetheir similarities in energy usage with the other building sites making up the CBECS data.
  • 11. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201211MAINEdefines Maine’s estimated electrical consumption in each sector. Graphical representation of theseopportunities analyzed is depicted in Appendix I.Figure 3 – Maine Electrical Consumption per SectorEducationThere are approximately 145 non-public schools and 780 public schools (134 of which are consideredhigh schools with 100 or more students enrolled) in Maine.24,25High schools operate for a longer periodof time daily due to extracurricular after school activities, such as clubs and athletics. Furthermore, twoof these schools have swimming pools, which may make these sites especially attractive because it wouldincrease the utilization of and make more efficient the electrical and thermal output offered by a fuel cell.There are also 39 colleges and universities in Maine. Colleges and universities have facilities forstudents, faculty, administration, and maintenance crews that typically include dormitories, cafeterias,gyms, libraries, and athletic departments – some with swimming pools. Of these 173 locations (134 highschools and 39 colleges), 65 are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 1:Education).Educational establishments in other states such as Connecticut and New York have shown interest in fuelcell technology. Examples of existing or planned fuel cell applications include South Windsor HighSchool (CT), Liverpool High School (NY), Rochester Institute of Technology, Yale University,University of Connecticut, and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science andForestry.Table 2 - Education Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)964(5)65(3)42(6)12.6(6)99,338(6)267,551(6)19,073(4)24EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html25Public schools are classified as magnets, charters, alternative schools and special facilities
  • 12. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201212MAINEFood SalesThere are over 1,800 businesses in Maine known to be engaged in the retail sale of food. Food salesestablishments are good candidates for fuel cells based on their electrical demand and thermalrequirements for heating and refrigeration. Approximately 80 of these sites are considered larger foodsales businesses with approximately 60 or more employees at their site. 26Of these 80 large food salesbusinesses, 45 are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales).27The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at a small convenience store may not be economicallyviable based on the electric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuel cell may beappropriate.Popular grocery chains such as Price Chopper, Supervalu, Wholefoods, and Stop and Shop have showninterest in powering their stores with fuel cells in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York.28Inaddition, grocery distribution centers, like the one operated by Shaws (a Supervalu brand) in Wells,Maine, are prime targets for the application of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for both stationarypower and material handling equipment.Table 3 - Food Sales Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)1,800(4)45(4)45(4)13.5(((4)106,434(4)286,662(4)20,435(3)Food ServiceThere are over 2,100 businesses in Maine that can be classified as food service establishments used forthe preparation and sale of food and beverages for consumption.2915 of these sites are considered largerrestaurant businesses with 130 or more employees at their site and are located in Maine communitiesserviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 3: Food Services).30The application of a large fuel cell(>300 kW) at smaller restaurants with less than 130 workers may not be economically viable based on theelectric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriateto meet hot water and space heating requirements. A significant portion (18 percent) of the energyconsumed in a commercial food service operation can be attributed to the domestic hot water heatingload.31In other parts of the U.S., popular chains, such as McDonalds, are beginning to show an interest inthe smaller sized fuel cell units for the provision of electricity and thermal energy, including domesticwater heating at food service establishments.3226On average, food sale facilities consume 43,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. When compared to currentfuel cell technology (>300 kW), which satisfies annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh,calculations show food sales facilities employing more than 61 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the applicationof a larger fuel cell.27EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html28Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA), “Fuel Cells for Supermarkets – Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat andPower Systems”, Benny Smith, www.cleanenergystates.org/assets/Uploads/BlakeFuelCellsSupermarketsFB.pdf29EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html30On average, food service facilities consume 20,300 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel celltechnology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations showfood service facilities employing more than 130 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuelcell.31“Case Studies in Restaurant Water Heating”, Fisher, Donald, http://eec.ucdavis.edu/ACEEE/2008/data/papers/9_243.pdf, 200832Sustainable business Oregon, “ClearEdge sustains brisk growth”,http://www.sustainablebusinessoregon.com/articles/2010/01/clearedge_sustains_brisk_growth.html, May 8, 2011
  • 13. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201213MAINEOfficeEquipment, 4%Ventilation, 4%Refrigeration,3%Lighting, 11%Cooling, 13%Space Heating ,33%Water Heating ,18%Cooking, 5% Other, 9%Table 4 - Food Services Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)2,100(3)15(4)15(4)4.5(4)35,478(4)95,554(4)6,812(2)Inpatient HealthcareThere are over 181 inpatient healthcare facilities in Maine; 42 of which are classified as hospitals.33Ofthese 42 hospitals, eight are located in communities serviced by natural gas and contain 100 or more bedsonsite (Appendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare). Hospitals represent an excellent opportunity for theapplication of fuel cells because they require a high availability factor of electricity for lifesaving medicaldevices and operate 24/7 with a relatively flat load curve. Furthermore, medical equipment, patientrooms, sterilized/operating rooms, data centers, and kitchen areas within these facilities are often requiredto be in operational conditions at all times which maximizes the use of electricity and thermal energyfrom a fuel cell. Nationally, hospital energy costs have increased 56 percent from $3.89 per square footin 2003 to $6.07 per square foot for 2010, partially due to the increased cost of energy.34Examples of healthcare facilities with planned or operational fuel cells include St. Francis, Stamford, andWaterbury Hospitals in Connecticut, and North Central Bronx Hospital in New York.Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)181(5)42(10)42(10)12.6(10)99,338(10)267,551(10)19,073(8)LodgingThere are over 730 establishments specializing intravel/lodging accommodations that include hotels, motels, orinns in Maine. Approximately 33 of these establishmentshave 150 or more rooms onsite, and can be classified as“larger sized” lodging that may have additional attributes,such as heated pools, exercise facilities, and/or restaurants. 35Of these 33 locations, 15 employ more than 94 workers andare located in communities serviced by natural gas. 36Asshown in Figure 4, more than 60 percent of total energy use ata typical lodging facility is due to lighting, space heating, andwater heating. 37The application of a large fuel cell (>30033EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html34BetterBricks, “http://www.betterbricks.com/graphics/assets/documents/BB_Article_EthicalandBusinessCase.pdf”, Page 1,August 201135EPA, “CHP in the Hotel and Casino Market Sector”, www.epa.gov/chp/documents/hotel_casino_analysis.pdf, December, 200536On average lodging facilities consume 28,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel cell technology(>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations show lodgingfacilities employing more than 94 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.37National Grid, “Managing Energy Costs in Full-Service Hotels”,www.nationalgridus.com/non_html/shared_energyeff_hotels.pdf, 2004Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption
  • 14. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201214MAINEkW) at hotel/resort facilities with less than 94 employees may not be economically viable based on theelectrical demand and operational requirement; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate.Popular hotel chains such as the Hilton and Starwood Hotels have shown interest in powering theirestablishments with fuel cells in New Jersey and New York.Maine also has 107 facilities identified as convalescent homes, three of which have bed capacities greaterthan, or equal to 150 units.38All three sites are located in communities serviced by natural gas (AppendixI – Figure 5: Lodging).Table 6 - Lodging Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)837(10)18(2)18(2)5.4(2)42,574(2)114,665(2)8,174(2)Public Order and SafetyThere are approximately 216 facilities in Maine that can be classified as public order and safety; theseinclude 96 fire stations, 102 police stations, eight state police stations, nine border patrols, and nineprisons. 39,40Ten of these locations employ more than 210 workers and are located in communitiesserviced by natural gas.41,42These applications may represent favorable opportunities for the applicationof a larger fuel cell (>300 kW), which could provide heat and uninterrupted power. 43,44The sitesidentified (Appendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety) will have special value to provide increasedreliability to mission critical facilities associated with public safety and emergency response during gridoutages. The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at public order and safety facilities with less than210 employees may not be economically viable based on the electrical demand and operationalrequirement; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate. Central Park Police Station inNew York City, New York is presently powered by a 200 kW fuel cell system.Table 7 - Public Order and Safety Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)216(7)10(3)10(3)3.0(3)23,652(3)63,703(3)4,541(3)38Assisted-Living-List, “List of 120 Nursing Homes in Maine (ME)”, http://assisted-living-list.com/me--nursing-homes/, May 9,201139EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html40USACOPS – The Nations Law Enforcement Site, www.usacops.com/me/41CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201142On average public order and safety facilities consume 12,400 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuelcell technology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculationsshow public order and safety facilities employing more than 212 workers may represent favorable opportunities for theapplication of a larger fuel cell.432,628,000 / 12,400 = 211.9444CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 2011
  • 15. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201215MAINEEnergy Intensive IndustriesAs shown in Table 2, energy intensive industries with high electricity consumption (which on average is4.8 percent of annual operating costs) have been identified as potential locations for the application of afuel cell.45In Maine, there are approximately 156 of these industrial facilities that are involved in themanufacture of aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, petroleum, coal products orsteel and employ 25 or more employees.46Of these 156 locations, 64 are located in communities servicedby natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries).Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector47NAICS Code Sector Energy Consumption per Dollar Value of Shipments (kWh)325 Chemical manufacturing 2.49322 Pulp and Paper 4.46324110 Petroleum Refining 4.72311 Food manufacturing 0.76331111 Iron and steel 8.15321 Wood Products 1.233313 Alumina and aluminum 3.58327310 Cement 16.4133611 Motor vehicle manufacturing 0.213315 Metal casting 1.64336811 Shipbuilding and ship repair 2.053363 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing 2.05Companies such as Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, and Pepperidge Farms in Connecticut, New Jersey,and New York have installed fuel cells to help supply energy to their facilities.Table 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)156(3)6(1)6(1)1.8(1)14,191(1)38,222(1)2,725(1)Government Owned BuildingsBuildings operated by the federal government can be found at 114 locations in Maine; four of theseproperties are actively owned, rather than leased, by the federal government and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings).There are also a number of buildings owned and operated by the State of Maine. The application of fuelcell technology at government owned buildings would assist in balancing load requirements at these sitesand offer a unique value for active and passive public education associated with the high usage of thesepublic buildings.45EIA, “Electricity Generation Capability”, 1999 CBECS, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/pba99/comparegener.html46Proprietary market data47EPA, “Energy Trends in Selected Manufacturing Sectors”, www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/energy/ch2.pdf, March 2007
  • 16. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201216MAINETable 10 - Government Owned Building Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)114(9)4(4)4(4)1.2(4)9,461(4)25,481(4)1,816(4)Wireless Telecommunication SitesTelecommunications companies rely on electricity to run call centers, cell phone towers, and other vitalequipment. In Maine, there are approximately 509 telecommunications and/or wireless company towersites (Appendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites). Any loss of power at these locations may resultin a loss of service to customers; thus, having reliable power is critical. Each individual site represents anopportunity to provide back-up power for continuous operation through the application of on-site back-upgeneration powered by hydrogen and fuel cell technology. It is an industry standard to install unitscapable of supplying 48-72 hours of backup power, which this is typically accomplished with batteries orconventional emergency generators.48The deployment of fuel cells at selected telecommunication siteswill have special value to provide increased reliability to critical sites associated with emergencycommunications and homeland security. An example of a telecommunication site that utilizes fuel celltechnology to provide back-up power is a T-Mobile facility located in Storrs, Connecticut.Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)509(13)51(13)N/A N/A N/A N/A N/AWastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs)There are 111 WWTPs in Maine that have design flows ranging from 3,000 gallons per day (GPD) to 16million gallons per day (MGD); seven of these facilities average between 3 – 16 MGD. WWTPstypically operate 24/7 and may be able to utilize the thermal energy from the fuel cell to process fats, oils,and grease.49WWTPs account for approximately three percent of the electric load in the United State.50Digester gas produced at WWTP’s, which is usually 60 percent methane, can serve as a fuel substitute fornatural gas to power fuel cells. Anaerobic digesters generally require a wastewater flow greater thanthree MGD for an economy of scale to collect and use the methane.51Most facilities currently represent alost opportunity to capture and use the digestion of methane emissions created from their operations(Appendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites). 52,53A 200 kW fuel cell power plant in Yonkers, New York, was the world’s first commercial fuel cell to runon a waste gas created at a wastewater treatment plant. The fuel cell generates about 1,600 MWh ofelectricity a year, and reduces methane emissions released to the environment.54A 200 kW fuel cell48ReliOn, Hydrogen Fuel Cell: Wireless Applications”, www.relion-inc.com/pdf/ReliOn_AppsWireless_2010.pdf, May 4, 201149“Beyond Zero Net Energy: Case Studies of Wastewater Treatment for Energy and Resource Production”, Toffey, Bill,September 2010, http://www.awra-pmas.memberlodge.org/Resources/Documents/Beyond_NZE_WWT-Toffey-9-16-2010.pdf50EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, “Introduction”, July, 200651EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, July, 200652“GHG Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Management”, Beecher, Ned, November 20, 2009,www.des.state.nh.us/organization/divisions/water/wmb/rivers/watershed_conference/documents/2009_fri_climate_2.pdf53EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, May 4, 201154NYPA, “WHAT WE DO – Fuel Cells”, www.nypa.gov/services/fuelcells.htm, August 8, 2011
  • 17. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201217MAINEpower plant was and installed at the Water Pollution Control Authority’s WWTP in New Haven,Connecticut, and produces 10 – 15 percent of the facility’s electricity, reducing energy costs by almost$13,000 a year.55Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plants Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)111(19)1(6)1(6)0.3(6)2,365(6)6,370(6)454(5)Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)There are 11 landfills in Maine identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through theirLMOP program; two of which are operational, two are candidates, and six are considered potential sitesfor the production and recovery of methane gas. 56,57The amount of methane emissions released by agiven site is dependent upon the amount of material in the landfill and the amount of time the material hasbeen in place. Similar to WWTPs, methane emissions from landfills could be captured and used as a fuelto power a fuel cell system. In 2009, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills were responsible forproducing approximately 17 percent of human-related methane emissions in the nation. These locationscould produce renewable energy and help manage the release of methane (Appendix I – Figure 10: Solidand Liquid Waste Sites).Table 13 - Landfill Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)25(12)1(7)1(7)0.3(7)2,365(7)6,370(7)454(6)AirportsDuring peak air travel times in the U.S., there are approximately 50,000 airplanes in the sky each day.Ensuring safe operations of commercial and private aircrafts are the responsibility of air trafficcontrollers. Modern software, host computers, voice communication systems, and instituted full scaleglide path angle capabilities assist air traffic controllers in tracking and communicating with aircrafts;consequently, reliable electricity is extremely important and present an opportunity for a fuel cell powerapplication. 58There are approximately 103 airports in Maine, including 47 that are open to the public and havescheduled services. Of those 47 airports, six (Table 3) have 2,500 or more passengers enplaned eachyear, two of these six facilities are located in communities serviced by natural gas (See Appendix I –55Conntact.com; “City to Install Fuel Cell”,http://www.conntact.com/archive_index/archive_pages/4472_Business_New_Haven.html; August 15, 200356Due to size, individual sites may have more than one potential, candidate, or operational project.57LMOP defines a candidate landfill as “one that is accepting waste or has been closed for five years or less, has at least onemillion tons of waste, and does not have an operational or, under-construction project.”EPA, “Landfill Methane OutreachProgram”, www.epa.gov/lmop/basic-info/index.html, April 7, 201158Howstuffworks.com, “How Air Traffic Control Works”, Craig, Freudenrich,http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/air-traffic-control5.htm, May 4, 2011
  • 18. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201218MAINEFigure 11: Commercial Airports). An example, of an airport currently hosting a fuel cell power plant toprovide backup power is Albany International Airport located in Albany, New York.Table 14 – Maine Top Airports Enplanement CountAirport59Total Enplanement in 2000Portland International Jetport 668,098Bangor International 272,833Northern Maine Regional at Presque Isle 25,174Knox County Regional 17,328Hancock County Bar harbor 14,399Augusta State 7,148Bangor International Airport (BGR) is considered the only “Joint-Use” airport in Maine. Joint-Usefacilities are establishments where the military department authorizes use of the military runway forpublic airport services. Army Aviation Support Facilities (AASF), located at this site are used by theArmy to provide aircraft and equipment readiness, train and utilize military personnel, conduct flighttraining and operations, and perform field level maintenance. Bangor International Airport represents afavorable opportunity for the application of uninterruptible power for necessary services associated withnational defense and emergency response and is located in a community serviced by natural gas(Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports).Table 15 - Airport Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)103(12)5(1)(1)1(1)1.5(1)11,826(1)31,851(1)2,271(8)MilitaryThe U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is the largest funding organization in terms of supporting fuelcell activities for military applications in the world. DOD organizations are using fuel cells for:Stationary units for power supply in bases.Fuel cell units in transport applications.Portable units for equipping individual soldiers or group of soldiers.In a collaborative partnership with the DOE, the DOD plans to install and operate 18 fuel cell backuppower systems at eight of its military installations, two of which are located within the Northeast region(New York and New Jersey).60In addition, the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PSNY) in Kittery, Maine,occupies more than 297 acres on base, employs approximately 4,500 civilian employees, and 100 navalofficers in addition to enlisted personal assigned to the shipyard, and is a potential application forhydrogen and fuel cell technology (Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports). 6159Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Maine Transportation Profile”,www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics/maine/pdf/entire.pdf, March 30, 201160Fuel Cell Today, “US DoD to Install Fuel cell Backup Power Systems at Eight Military Installations”,http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/online/news/articles/2011-07/US-DOD-FC-Backup-Power-Systems, July 20, 201161Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, “Shipyard Facts”, http://www.navsea.navy.mil/shipyards/portsmouth/Pages/Facts.aspx, August2011
  • 19. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201219MAINETable 16 - Military Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)1(7)1(7)1(7)0.3(7)2,365(7)6,370(7)454(6)POTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETSTransportation is responsible for one-fourth of the total global GHG emissions and consumes 75 percentof the world’s oil production. In 2010, the U.S. used 21 million barrels of non-renewable petroleum eachday. Roughly 29 percent of Maine’s energy consumption is due to demands of the transportation sector,including gasoline and on-highway diesel petroleum for automobiles, trucks, and buses. A small percentof non-renewable petroleum is used for jet and ship fuel.62The current economy in the U.S. is dependent on hydrocarbon energy sources and any disruption orshortage of this energy supply will severely affect many energy related activities, includingtransportation. As oil and other non-sustainable hydrocarbon energy resources become scarce, energyprices will increase and the reliability of supply will be reduced. Government and industry are nowinvestigating the use of hydrogen and renewable energy as a replacement of hydrocarbon fuels.Hydrogen-fueled fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have many advantages over conventionaltechnology, including:Quiet operation;Near zero emissions of controlled pollutants such as nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide,hydrocarbon gases or particulates;Substantial (30 to 50 percent) reduction in GHG emissions on a well-to-wheel basis compared toconventional gasoline or gasoline-hybrid vehicles when the hydrogen is produced byconventional methods such as natural gas; and 100 percent when hydrogen is produced from aclean energy source;Ability to fuel vehicles with indigenous energy sources which reduces dependence on importedenergy and adds to energy security; andHigher efficiency than conventional vehicles (See Table 4).63,64Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge65)Passenger Car Light Truck Transit BusHydrogen Gasoline Hybrid Gasoline Hydrogen Gasoline Hydrogen Fuel Cell Diesel52 50 29.3 49.2 21.5 5.4 3.9FCEVs can reduce price volatility, dependence on oil, improve environmental performance, and providegreater efficiencies than conventional transportation technologies, as follows:62“US Oil Consumption to BP Spill”, http://applesfromoranges.com/2010/05/us-oil-consumption-to-bp-spill/, May31, 201063“Challenges for Sustainable Mobility and Development of Fuel Cell Vehicles”, Masatami Takimoto, Executive Vice President,Toyota Motor Corporation, January 26, 2006. Presentation at the 2ndInternational Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Expo TechnicalConference Tokyo, Japan64“Twenty Hydrogen Myths”, Amory B. Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute, June 20, 200365Miles per Gallon Equivalent
  • 20. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201220MAINEReplacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual CO2 emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately10,170, 15,770, and 182,984 pounds per year, respectively.66Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual energy savings (per vehicle) of approximately 230gallons of gasoline (passenger vehicle), 485 gallons of gasoline (light duty truck) and 4,390gallons of diesel (bus).Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual fuel cost savings of approximately $885 per passengervehicle, $1,866 per light duty truck, and $17,560 per bus.67Automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, General Motors, Honda, Daimler AG, and Hyundai haveprojected that models of their FCEVs will begin to roll out in larger numbers by 2015. Longer term, theU.S. DOE has projected that between 15.1 million and 23.9 million light duty FCEVs may be sold eachyear by 2050 and between 144 million and 347 million light duty FCEVs may be in use by 2050 with atransition to a hydrogen economy. These estimates could be accelerated if political, economic, energysecurity or environmental polices prompt a rapid advancement in alternative fuels.68Maine’s opportunities to support these new vehicles include alternative fueling stations; MaineDepartment of Transportation (MDOT) refueling stations; bus transit operations; government, public, andprivately owned fleets; and material handling and airport ground support equipment (GSE). Graphicalrepresentation of these opportunities analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Alternative Fueling StationsThere are approximately 1,400 retail fueling stations in Maine;69however, only 10 public and/or privatestations within the state provide alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, compressed natural gas, propane,and/or electricity for alternative-fueled vehicles.70There are also at least 17 refueling stations owned andoperated by MDOT that can be used by authorities operating federal and state safety vehicles, state transitvehicles, and employees of universities that operate fleet vehicles on a regular basis. 71Development ofhydrogen fueling at alternative fuel stations and at selected locations owned and operated by MDOTwould help facilitate the deployment of FCEVs within the state (Appendix I – Figure 12: AlternativeFueling Stations). Currently, there are approximately 18 existing or planned transportation fuelingstations in the Northeast region where hydrogen is provided as an alternative fuel.72,73,74,7566Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008, Calculations based upon average annual mileage of 12,500miles for passenger car and 14,000 miles for light trucks (U.S. EPA) and 37,000 average miles/year per bus (U.S. DOT FTA,2007)67U.S. EIA, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices: gasoline - $3.847 and diesel – 4.00,www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_a_epm0r_pte_dpgal_w.htm68Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States: Report to Congress,http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/congress_reports.html, August 201169“Public retail gasoline stations state year” www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/data/docs/gasoline_stations_state.xls, May 5, 201170Alternative Fuels Data Center, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/71EPA, “Government UST Noncompliance Report-2007”, www.epa.gov/oust/docs/ME%20Compliance%20Report.pdf, August8,200772Alternative Fuels Data Center, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/73Hyride, “About the fueling station”, http://www.hyride.org/html-about_hyride/About_Fueling.html74CTTransit, “Hartford Bus Facility Site Work (Phase 1)”,www.cttransit.com/Procurements/Display.asp?ProcurementID={8752CA67-AB1F-4D88-BCEC-4B82AC8A2542}, March, 201175Currently, there are no publicly or privately accessible transportation fueling stations where hydrogen is provided as analternative fuel in Maine.
  • 21. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201221MAINEFleetsThere are over 7,000 fleet vehicles (excluding state and federal vehicles) classified as non-leasing orcompany owned vehicles in Maine. 76Fleet vehicles typically account for more than twice the amount ofmileage, and therefore twice the fuel consumption and emissions, compared to personal vehicles on a pervehicle basis. There are an additional 1,781 passenger automobiles and/or light duty trucks in Maine,owned by state and federal agencies (excluding state police) that traveled a combined 14,965,373 miles in2010, while releasing 1,031 metrics tons of CO2. 77Conversion of fleet vehicles from conventional fossilfuels to FCEVs could significantly reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions. Fleet vehiclehubs are good candidates for hydrogen refueling and conversion to FCEVs because they mostly operateon fixed routes or within fixed districts and are fueled from a centralized station.Bus TransitThere are approximately 61 directly operated buses that provide public transportation services in Maine.78As discussed above, replacement of a conventional diesel transit bus with a fuel cell transit bus wouldresult in the reduction of CO2 emissions (estimated at approximately 183,000 pounds per year), andreduction of diesel fuel (estimated at approximately 4,390 gallons per year).79Although the efficiency ofconventional diesel buses has increased, conventional diesel buses, which typically achieve fuel economyperformance levels of 3.9 miles per gallon, have the greatest potential for energy savings by using highefficiency fuel cells. In addition to Maine, other states have also begun the transition of fueling transitbuses with alternative fuels to improve efficiency and environmental performance.Material HandlingMaterial handling equipment such as forklifts are used by a variety of industries, includingmanufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, food, retailers, and wholesale trade to move goodswithin a facility or to load goods for shipping to another site. Material handling equipment is usuallybattery, propane or diesel powered. Batteries that currently power material handling equipment are heavyand take up significant storage space while only providing up to 6 hours of run time. Fuel cells canensure constant power delivery and performance, eliminating the reduction in voltage output that occursas batteries discharge. Fuel cell powered material handling equipment last more than twice as long (12-14 hours) and also eliminate the need for battery storage and charging rooms, leaving more space forproducts. In addition, fueling time only takes two to three minutes by the operator compared to least 20minutes or more for each battery replacement, which saves the operator valuable time and increaseswarehouse productivity.In addition, fuel cell powered material handling equipment has significant cost advantages, compared tobatteries, such as:1.5 times lower maintenance cost;8 times lower refueling/recharging labor cost;2 times lower net present value of total operations and management (O&M) system cost.76Fleet.com, “2009-My Registration”, http://www.automotive-fleet.com/Statistics/StatsViewer.aspx?file=http%3a%2f%2fwww.automotive-fleet.com%2ffc_resources%2fstats%2fAFFB10-16-top10-state.pdf&channel77U.S. General Services Administration, “GSA 2010 Fleet Reports”, Table 4-2, http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/230525, September201178NTD Date, “TS2.2 - Service Data and Operating Expenses Time-Series by System”,http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm, December 201179Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008.
  • 22. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201222MAINE63 percent less emissions of GHG (Appendix X provides a comparison of PEM fuel cell andbattery-powered material handling equipment).Fuel cell powered material handling equipment is already in use at dozens of warehouses, distributioncenters, and manufacturing plants in North America.80Large corporations that are currently using orplanning to use fuel cell powered material handling equipment include CVS, Coca-Cola, BMW, CentralGrocers, and Wal-Mart (Refer to Appendix IX for a partial list of companies in North America that usingfuel cell powered forklifts).81There are approximately five distribution centers/warehouse sites that havebeen identified in Maine that may benefit from the use of fuel cell powered material handling equipment(Appendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports).Ground Support EquipmentGround support equipment (GSE) such as catering trucks, deicers, and airport tugs can be batteryoperated or more commonly run on diesel or gasoline. As an alternative, hydrogen-powered tugs arebeing developed for both military and commercial applications. While their performance is similar to thatof other battery-powered equipment, a fuel cell-powered GSE remains fully charged (provided there ishydrogen fuel available) and do not experience performance lag at the end of a shift like battery-poweredGSEs.82Potential large end-users of GSE that serve Maine’s largest airports include Air Canada, DeltaAirlines, Continental, JetBlue, United, and US Airways.83(Appendix I – Figure 11: CommercialAirports)PortsMaine has 3,480 miles of coastline, with six cargo ports, and 13 cruise ship ports. The ports of Portlandand Bath, Maine, which service large vessels, such as container ships, tankers, bulk carriers, and cruiseships, may be candidates for improved energy management. Commercial marine vessels (cargo shipsentering and leaving Marine ports) contribute approximately 166 tons of volatile organic compounds(VOC), 1134 tons of NOX, 374 tons of CO, 124 tons of sulfur dioxide SO2 and 91 tons of particulatematter (PM10) per year.84In one year, a single large container ship can emit pollutants equivalent to that of 50 million cars. Thelow grade bunker fuel used by the worlds 90,000 cargo ships contains up to 2,000 times the amount ofsulfur compared to diesel fuel used in automobiles.85Furthermore, diesel emissions from cruise shipswhile at port are a significant source of air pollution. While docked, vessels shut off their main enginesbut use auxiliary diesel and steam engines to power refrigeration, lights, pumps, and other functions, aprocess called “cold-ironing. An estimated one-third of ship emissions occur while they are idling atberth. Replacing auxiliary engines with on-shore electric power could significantly reduce emissions.;The applications of fuel cell technology at ports may also provide electric and thermal energy forimproving energy management for warehouses and equipment operated between terminals (Appendix I –Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports)..8680DOE EERE, “Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment”,www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/pdfs/early_markets_forklifts.pdf, February 201181Plug Power, “Plug Power Celebrates Successful year for Company’s Manufacturing and Sales Activity”,www.plugpower.com, January 4, 201182Battelle, “Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets”,April 2007, www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/pemfc_econ_2006_report_final_0407.pdf83PWM, “Airlines”, http://www.portlandjetport.org/airlines, August 24, 201184Maine Department of Environmental Protection, “Air Emission from Marine Vessels”,http://www.maine.gov/dep/blwq/topic/vessel/airemissionsreport.pdf, January 15, 200585“Big polluters: one massive container ship equals 50 million cars”, Paul, Evans, http://www.gizmag.com/shipping-pollution/11526/, April 23,200986Savemayportvillage.net, “Cruise Ship Pollution”, http://www.savemayportvillage.net/id20.html, October, 2011
  • 23. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201223MAINETable 18 -Ports Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)ME(% of Region)42(35)2(11)2(11)0.6(11)4,730(11)12,741(11)908(9)CONCLUSIONHydrogen and fuel cell technology offers significant opportunities for improved energy reliability, energyefficiency, and emission reductions. Large fuel cell units (>300 kW) may be appropriate for applicationsthat serve large electric and thermal loads. Smaller fuel cell units (< 300 kW) may provide back-up powerfor telecommunication sites, restaurants/fast food outlets, and smaller sized public facilities at this time.Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell ApplicationsCategory Total Sites PotentialSitesNumber of FuelCells< 300 kWNumber ofFuel Cells>300 kWCBECSDataEducation 964 658723 42Food Sales 1,800+ 458845Food Services 2,100+ 158915Inpatient Healthcare 181 429042Lodging 837 189118Public Order & Safety 216 109210Energy Intensive Industries 156 6936Government OperatedBuildings114 4944WirelessTelecommunicationTowers50995519651WWTPs 111 1971Landfills 25 1981Airports (w/ AASF) 103 5 (1)9958765 high schools and/or college and universities located in communities serviced by natural gas8845 food sale facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas89Ten percent of the 97 food service facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas90Eight Hospitals located in communities serviced by natural gas and occupying 150+ or more beds onsite9115 hotel facilities with 100+ rooms onsite and three convalescent homes with 150+ bed onsite located in communities servicedby natural gas92Correctional facilities and/or other public order and safety facilities with 212 workers or more.93Ten percent of the 64 energy intensive industry facilities located in communities serviced with natural gas.94Four actively owned federal government operated building located in communities serviced by natural gas95The Federal Communications Commission regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire,satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.96Ten percent of the 509 wireless telecommunication sites in Maine’s targeted for back-up PEM fuel cell deployment97Ten percent of Maine WWTP with average flows of 3.0+ MGD98Ten percent of the landfills targeted based on LMOP data
  • 24. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201224MAINEMilitary 1 1 1Ports 42 2 2Total 7,159+ 266 74 192As shown in Table 5, the analysis provided here estimates that there are approximately 266 potentiallocations, which may be favorable candidates for the application of a fuel cell to provide heat and power.Assuming the demand for electricity was uniform throughout the year, approximately 150 to 192 fuel cellunits, with a capacity of 300 – 400 kW, could be deployed for a total fuel cell capacity of 58 to 77 MWs.If opportunities for fuel cell use in Maine identified in this report are met with 300 kW units, a minimumof 473,040 MWh electric and 1.27 million MMBTUs (equivalent to 373,404 MWh) of thermal energywould be produced, which could reduce CO2 emissions by at least 90,824 tons per year. 100Maine can also benefit from the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation such aspassenger fleets, transit district fleets, municipal fleets and state department fleets. The application ofhydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation would reduce the dependence on oil, improveenvironmental performance and provide greater efficiencies than conventional transportationtechnologies.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled passenger vehicle with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately 10,170 pounds, annual energy savings of 230gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $885.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled light duty truck with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per light duty truck) of approximately 15,770 pounds, annual energy savingsof 485 gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $1,866.• Replacement of a diesel-fueled transit bus with a fuel cell powered bus could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per bus) of approximately 182,984 pounds, annual energy savings of 4,390gallons of fuel, and annual fuel cost savings of $17,560.Hydrogen and fuel cell technology also provides significant opportunities for job creation and/oreconomic development. Realizing over $2 million in revenue and investment in 2010, the hydrogen andfuel cell industry in Maine is estimated to have contributed approximately $113,000 in state and local taxrevenue, and over $2.9 million in gross state product. Currently, there are at least 30 Maine companiesthat are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the Northeast region. Ifnewer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology were to gain momentum, the number of companiesand employment for the industry could grow substantially.99Airport facilities with 2,500+ annual Enplanement Counts and/or AASF100If opportunities for fuel cell use in Maine identified in this report are met with 400 kW units, a minimum of 665,760 MWhelectric and 3.12 million MMBTUs (equivalent to 915,127 MWh) of thermal energy would be produced, which could reduce CO2emissions by at least 127,826 tons per year.
  • 25. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201225MAINEAPPENDICES
  • 26. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201226MAINEAppendix I – Figure 1: Education
  • 27. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201227MAINEAppendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales
  • 28. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201228MAINEAppendix I – Figure 3: Food Services
  • 29. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201229MAINEAppendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare
  • 30. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201230MAINEAppendix I – Figure 5: Lodging
  • 31. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201231MAINEAppendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety
  • 32. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201232MAINEAppendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries
  • 33. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201233MAINEAppendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings
  • 34. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201234MAINEAppendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites
  • 35. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201235MAINEAppendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites
  • 36. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201236MAINEAppendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports
  • 37. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201237MAINEAppendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations
  • 38. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201238MAINEAppendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports
  • 39. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201239MAINEAppendix II – Maine Estimated Electrical Consumption per SectorCategory Total SiteElectric Consumption per Building(1000 kWh)101kWh Consumed per SectorNew EnglandEducation 925 161.844 149,705,700Food Sales 1,800 319.821 575,677,800Food Services 2,100 128 269,199,000Inpatient Healthcare 181 6,038.63 1,092,991,125Lodging 837 213.12 178,379,766Public Order & Safety 262 77.855 20,398,010Total 6,105 2,286,351,401Residential1024,503,000,000Industrial 3,702,000,000Commercial 4,503,000,000Other Commercial 2,286,351,401101EIA, Electricity consumption and expenditure intensities for Non-Mall Building 2003102DOE EERE, “Electric Power and Renewable Energy in Maine”, http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/electricity.cfm/state=ME,August 25, 2011
  • 40. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201240MAINEAppendix III – Key StakeholdersOrganization City/Town State WebsiteHydrogen Energy Center Portland ME www.hydrogenenergycenter.orgUniversity of Maine School ofEngineering TechnologyOrono ME http://www.umaine.edu/set/University of Maine AdvancedManufacturing CenterOronoME www.umaine.edu/amc/University of Maine AdvancedStructures and Composites CenterOronoME http://www2.umaine.edu/aewc/Manufacturers Association of Maine WestbrookME www.mainemfg.comMaine Manufacturing ExtensionPartnershipAugustaME http://www.mainemep.orgMid-Coast Regional RedevelopmentAuthorityBrunswickME www.mrra.usManufacturing Applications Center GorhamME http://www.usm.maine.edu/Maine Center for EnterpriseDevelopment, University of SouthernMainePortlandME www.mced.bizMaine Small Business DevelopmentCenterPortlandME http://www.mainesbdc.orgSouthern Maine Community College,Sustainability and Energy AlternativesCenterSouthPortlandME http://www.smccme.edu/business-a-community/comunity-resources/sustainability-center.htmlEnvironment and Energy TechnologyCouncil of MainePortlandME www.E2Tech.orgMaine Technology Institute GardinerME www.mainetechnology.orgMaine Innovation Economy advisoryBoard, Maine DECDAugusta ME http://www.maine.gov/decd/Governor’s Office of EnergyIndependence and SecurityAugusta ME http://.maine.gov/oeisUtility CompaniesUnitil http://www.unitil.com/customer-configurationBangor Gas Co. http://www.bangorgas.com/Central Maine Power Co. http://www.cmpco.com/Bangor Hydro-Electric Co. http://www.bhe.com/Maine Public Service Co. http://www.mainepublicservice.com/
  • 41. Appendix IV – Maine State Incentives and ProgramsFunding Source: Maine Public Utilities CommissionProgram Title: Community-based Renewable Energy Pilot ProgramApplicable Energies/Technologies: Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaic, Landfill Gas, Wind,Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Electric, Fuel Cells, Anaerobic Digestion, Tidal Energy,Fuel Cells using Renewable FuelsSummary: The Maine Utilities Commission (PUC) finalized the rule in February 2010. Legislationmandates that up 10 50 MW of generating capacity will be permitted uned this program, andindividual participants may not exceed 10 MW. Of the 50 MW cap, 10 must be reservedspecifically for small program participants or for participants located in a service territory of acooperative transmission and distribution utility.Restrictions:The PUC may require investor-owned utilities to enter into long-term contracts for energy, capacityresources, or renewable energy credits (RECs) produced by the community-based project. Thecontacts term may not exceed 20 year, the PUC will conduct long-term contract solicitations for“large generators.”Timing: The Maine Public Utilities Commission is seeking proposals from suppliers of energy,capacity or renewable energy credits (RECs) for the development of community-based renewableenergy projects over 1 MW. The docket number for this RFP is 2011-150. All inquiries about thisRFP should be directed to christine.r.cook@maine.gov.Maximum Size:Choice of either 1.5 REC credit multiplier; or up to 10 MW DCRequirements:To be eligible for incentives, a generating facility must be 51 percent locally owned, use renewableenergy resources, be no larger than 10 MW in generating capacity, and be located in the State.http://www.state.me.us/mpuc/electricity/community_pilot.shtmlRebate amount: ►$0.10/kWh or cost fo the project, whichever is lowerFor further information, please visit:http://www.state.me.us/mpuc/electricity/community_pilot.shtmlSource:Maine Public Utilities Commission “Community-based Renewable Energy Pilot Program”, August 10, 2011DSIRE “Community-based Renewable Energy Production Incentive (Pilot Program)”, August 10, 2011
  • 42. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201242Funding Source: Voluntary Renewable Resource GrantsProgram Title: Voluntary Renewable Resources FundApplicable Energies/Technologies: Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaics, Wind, Biomass,Hydroelectric, Geothermal Electric, Fuel Cells, Municipal Solid Waste, Tidal Energy, FuelCells using Renewable FuelsSummary: Supported by the state Voluntary Renewable resource Fund and administered by theEfficient Maine, provide funding for small-scale demonstration projects designed to educatecommunities on the value oand cost effectiveness of renewable energy.Restrictions: To Qualify for grant funding, renewable-energy resources generally must qualify as asmall power production facility un Federal Energy Regulatory Commission rules or must not exceed100 MW in capacity and use one of more of the applicable energies/technologies.Timing: Start Date of this program occurred 12/15/1998 and no expiration date is givenMaximum Size:$50,000Requirements:http://www.maine.gov/mpuc/recovery/Rebate amount:► $50,000 MaximuFor further information, please visit:http://www.maine.gov/mpuc/recovery/Source:Maine PUC “Federal Stimulus: MPUC and the Federal Recovery Package” – August 10, 2011DSIRE “Maine - Voluntary Renewable Resource Grants”, August 10, 2011
  • 43. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201243Appendix V – Partial Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Supply Chain Companies in Maine103Organization Name Product or Service Category1University of Maine School ofEngineering TechnologyResearch & Development2University of Maine AdvancedStructures and Composites CenterResearch & Development3Precision Partners-Mid-State MachineProductsManufacturing Services4 Ocean Energy Institute Engineering/Design Services5 Newfab, Inc. Manufacturing Services6 New England Castings Other7 Mitchell Ledge Farm Components8 McNabb Marketing Resources Other9 Maine Oxy, Inc Fuel10 Maine Machine Products Co. Manufacturing Services11 MacTec, Inc. FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services12 Kennebec Technologies Manufacturing Services13 Hydrogen Energy Center Service CenterLab or Test Consulting/Legal/FinancialServices14 Hydrogen Energy Center Other15 Green Energy Maine Other16 Fire Risk Management, Inc. Engineering/Design Services17 Fire Risk Management Engineering/Design Services18 Fairchild Semiconductor Research & Development19 EcoMain Research & Development20 Control Point Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services21 Colby Company Engineering Engineering/Design Services22 Chewonki Foundation Other23 Burroughs Machine Tool Products Equipment24 Bernstein Shur Consulting/Legal/Financial Services25Bath Iron Works (General Dynamics,Inc.)Research & Development26 AMEC Engineering/Design Services27 Advantages Gases and Tools Fuel28Advanced Manufacturing Center-University of MEManufacturing Services103Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1,August 11, 2011
  • 44. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201244Appendix VI – Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies104Fuel CellTypeCommonElectrolyteOperatingTemperatureTypicalStackSizeEfficiency Applications Advantages DisadvantagesPolymerElectrolyteMembrane(PEM)Perfluoro sulfonicacid50-100°C122-212°typically80°C< 1 kW – 1MW105>kW 60%transportation35%stationary• Backup power• Portable power• Distributedgeneration• Transportation• Specialty vehicle• Solid electrolyte reducescorrosion & electrolytemanagement problems• Low temperature• Quick start-up• Expensive catalysts• Sensitive to fuelimpurities• Low temperature wasteheatAlkaline(AFC)Aqueous solutionof potassiumhydroxide soakedin a matrix90-100°C194-212°F10 – 100kW60%• Military• Space• Cathode reaction fasterin alkaline electrolyte,leads to high performance• Low cost components• Sensitive to CO2in fuel and air• Electrolyte managementPhosphoricAcid(PAFC)Phosphoric acidsoaked in a matrix150-200°C302-392°F400 kW100 kWmodule40%• Distributedgeneration• Higher temperature enablesCHP• Increased tolerance to fuelimpurities• Pt catalyst• Long start up time• Low current and powerMoltenCarbonate(MCFC)Solution of lithium,sodium and/orpotassiumcarbonates, soakedin a matrix600-700°C1112-1292°F300k W- 3 MW300 kWmodule45 – 50%• Electric utility• Distributedgeneration• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Suitable for CHP• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• Long start up time• Low power densitySolid Oxide(SOFC)Yttria stabilizedzirconia700-1000°C1202-1832°F1 kW – 2MW60%• Auxiliary power• Electric utility• Distributedgeneration• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Solid electrolyte• Suitable f o r CHP & CHHP• Hybrid/GT cycle• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• High temperatureoperation requires longstart uptime and limitsPolymer Electrolyte is no longer a single category row. Data shown does not take into account High Temperature PEM which operates in the range of 160oC to 180oC. It solvesvirtually all of the disadvantages listed under PEM. It is not sensitive to impurities. It has usable heat. Stack efficiencies of 52% on the high side are realized. HTPEM is not aPAFC fuel cell and should not be confused with one.104U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cells Technology Program, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/pdfs/fc_comparison_chart.pdf, August 5, 2011105Ballard, “CLEARgen Multi-MY Systems”, http://www.ballard.com/fuel-cell-products/cleargen-multi-mw-systems.aspx, November, 2011
  • 45. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201245Appendix VII –Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats for MaineStrengthsStationary Power – Strong market drivers including highelectricity cost, cold climate, reliance on oil for space heating,strong CHP and district heating market, strong environmentaland green energy awareness), capable core of fuel cell CHPinstallers, energy storage demand to serve ME’s aggressivewind-power industry, strong ongoing expansion of natural gasservice/distribution.Transportation Power - Strong market drivers including adispersed population highly reliant on truck and autotransportation, receptive and environmentally consciousalternative fuels/transportation market, relatively low incomepopulation in need of relief from automobile fuel costs, strongNavy shipbuilding industry as potential user of H2/FC auxiliarypower system, strongly interested in fleet-based hydrogenfueling station development (SunHydro model), strong interestin municipal transit and fuel cell -powered rail.Economic Development Factors – Brunswick RenewableEnergy Park emphasis on skills development and technologysynergies, aggressive state level policy to policy to developrenewable wind and biomass energy technologies, skilled andwell organized network of precision manufacturing firms tiedinto aerospace and communications equipment industries,strong labor force at relatively low wages, R&D/businessinfrastructure for advanced biofuels and composite materialstructures, growing University of Maine commitment to fuelcell and biomass R&D, state funding source familiarity/comfortwith H2/FC technologyWeaknessesStationary Power – No technology/industrial momentum at theOEM level, geographically distant from OEMs for component-supply opportunities.Transportation Power – No technology/industrial base at theOEM level, lack of infrastructure funding, relatively dispersedpopulation for transportation services.Economic Development Factors – limited state incentives,somewhat sluggish overall state economy, relativelyundeveloped core of technology skills/knowledge base.
  • 46. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201246OpportunitiesStationary Power – Opportunity as an “early adaptor market”,some supply chain buildup opportunities around SP deployment.Linkage between H2/FC technologies and advanced biofuelsR&D. Dispersed population & economy needs distributedsolutions. Major need for power storage in conjunction withMaines planned offshore wind-power R&D and development.Transportation Power – Hydrogen refueling station plans. Early-stage potential for major roll-out in marine auxiliary power (USNavy). Commuter rail expansion.Portable Power – Little currently-identified opportunityEconomic Development Factors – Brunswick “Renewable EnergyIndustrial Park” can be significant seed nucleus for bothdeployment & development. Machine-tool industry pursuingH2/FC components supply-chain opportunities.ThreatsStationary Power – The region’s favorable marketneeds/demand could be met by other technologies/sources –Canadian hydro & nuclear, wind, geothermal, direct biomassand power-storage alternatives – batteries, solid state, ammoniaetc.Transportation Power – The region’s favorable marketcharacteristics and needs could be met by other electricvehicles, particularly in the absence of a hydrogeninfrastructure.Economic Development Factors – competition from more fully-equipped states/regions, wind and other renewables grab Maineenergy industry momentum, lack of funding to sustainUniversity of ME’s momentum in storage and fuel celltechnologies related to biomass and wind, hesitation of stategovernment to support alternative energy incentives.
  • 47. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201247Appendix VIII – Partial list of Fuel Cell Deployment in the Northeast regionManufacturer Site Name Site Location Year InstalledPlug Power T-Mobile cell tower Storrs CT 2008Plug Power Albany International Airport Albany NY 2004FuelCell Energy Pepperidge Farms Plant Bloomfield CT 2005FuelCell Energy Peabody Museum New Haven CT 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers Manhattan NY 2004FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Edison NJ 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Parsippany NJ 2003UTC Power Cabelas Sporting Goods East Hartford CT 2008UTC Power Whole Foods Market Glastonbury CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Science Center Hartford CT 2009UTC Power St. Francis Hospital Hartford CT 2003UTC Power Middletown High School Middletown CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Juvenile Training School Middletown CT 2001UTC Power 360 State Street Apartment Building New Haven CT 2010UTC Power South Windsor High School South Windsor CT 2002UTC Power Mohegan Sun Casino Hotel Uncasville CT 2002UTC Power CTTransit: Fuel Cell Bus Hartford CT 2007UTC Power Whole Foods Market Dedham MA 2009UTC Power Bronx Zoo Bronx NY 2008UTC Power North Central Bronx Hospital Bronx NY 2000UTC Power Hunts Point Water Pollution Control Plant Bronx NY 2005UTC Power Price Chopper Supermarket Colonie NY 2010UTC Power East Rochester High School East Rochester NY 2007UTC Power Coca-Cola Refreshments Production Facility Elmsford NY 2010UTC Power Verizon Call Center and Communications Building Garden City NY 2005UTC Power State Office Building Hauppauge NY 2009UTC Power Liverpool High School Liverpool NY 2000UTC Power New York Hilton Hotel New York City NY 2007UTC Power Central Park Police Station New York City NY 1999UTC Power Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester NY 1993UTC Power NYPA office building White Plains NY 2010UTC Power Wastewater treatment plant Yonkers NY 1997UTC Power The Octagon Roosevelt Island NY 2011UTC Power Johnson & Johnson World Headquarters New Brunswick NJ 2003UTC Power CTTRANSIT (Fuel Cell Powered Buses) Hartford CT 2007 - Present
  • 48. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201248Appendix IX – Partial list of Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America106Company City/Town State SiteYearDeployedFuel CellManufacturer# offorkliftsCoca-ColaSan Leandro CABottling anddistribution center2011 Plug Power 37Charlotte NC Bottling facility 2011 Plug Power 40EARPDistributionKansas City KS Distribution center 2011OorjaProtonics24Golden StateFoodsLemont IL Distribution facility 2011OorjaProtonics20Kroger Co. Compton CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 161SyscoRiverside CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 80Boston MA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 160Long Island NY Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 42San Antonio TX Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 113Front Royal VARedistributionfacility2011 Plug Power 100BaldorSpecialty FoodsBronx NY FacilityPlannedin 2012OorjaProtonics50BMWManufacturingCo.Spartanburg SCManufacturingplant2010 Plug Power 86DefenseLogisticsAgency, U.S.Department ofDefenseSan Joaquin CA Distribution facility 2011 Plug Power 20Fort Lewis WA Distribution depot 2011 Plug Power 19WarnerRobinsGA Distribution depot 2010 Hydrogenics 20Susquehanna PA Distribution depot2010 Plug Power 152009 Nuvera 40Martin-Brower Stockton CAFood distributioncenter2010OorjaProtonics15United NaturalFoods Inc.(UNFI)Sarasota FL Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 65Wal-MartBalzacAl,CanadaRefrigerateddistribution center2010 Plug Power 80WashingtonCourt HouseOHFood distributioncenter2007 Plug Power 55Wegmans Pottsville PA Warehouse 2010 Plug Power 136Whole FoodsMarketLandover MD Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 61106FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America”, http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/forklifts.pdf, November,2011
  • 49. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201249Appendix X – Comparison of PEM Fuel Cell and Battery-Powered Material HandlingEquipment3 kW PEM Fuel Cell-PoweredPallet Trucks3 kW Battery-powered(2 batteries per truck)Total Fuel Cycle Energy Use(total energy consumed/kWhdelivered to the wheels)-12,000 Btu/kWh 14,000 Btu/kWhFuel Cycle GHG Emissions(in g CO2 equivalent 820 g/kWh 1200 g/kWhEstimated Product Life 8-10 years 4-5 yearsNo Emissions at Point of Use  Quiet Operation  Wide Ambient OperatingTemperature range Constant Power Availableover ShiftRoutine Maintenance Costs($/YR)$1,250 - $1,500/year $2,000/yearTime for Refueling/ChangingBatteries 4 – 8 min./day45-60 min/day (for battery change-outs)8 hours (for battery recharging & cooling)Cost of Fuel/Electricity $6,000/year $1,300/yearLabor Cost ofrefueling/Recharging$1,100/year $8,750/yearNet Present Value of CapitalCost$12,600($18,000 w/o incentive)$14,000Net Present Value of O&Mcosts (including fuel)$52,000 $128,000
  • 50. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201250

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