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  • 1. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20121MASSACHUSETTSHydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan – “Roadmap” CollaborativeParticipantsMassachusetts Hydrogen CoalitionCharlie Myers – PresidentProject Management and Plan DevelopmentNortheast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster:Joel M. Rinebold – Program DirectorPaul Aresta – Project ManagerAlexander C. Barton – Energy SpecialistAdam J. Brzozowski – Energy SpecialistThomas Wolak – Energy InternNathan Bruce – GIS Mapping InternAgenciesUnited States Department of EnergyUnited States Small Business AdministrationBoston skyline – “Boston Skyline”, Matthew Weathers, http://www.matthewweathers.com/year2007/boston1.html, October,2011Forklift – FCHEA, “Nuvera Fuel Cells Receive Second Order for Fuel Cell Powered Forklifts from the Defense LogisticsAgency”, http://fchea.posterous.com/nuvera-fuel-cells-receives-second-order-for-f, October, 2011Welding – “MIG Welding”, Gooden’s Portable Welding, http://joeystechservice.com/goodenswelding/WeldingTechniques.php,October, 2011Blueprint construction – “Contruction1”, The MoHawk Construction Group LLC., http://mohawkcg.com/, October, 2011Health care – “CT Scan”, The Imaging Center, http://www.theimagingcenter.org/services.html , October, 2011Circuit board – “Electronics and Computer Technician”, Western Dakota Tech., http://www.wdt.edu/electech.aspx?id=232,October, 2011
  • 2. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20122MASSACHUSETTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThere is the potential to generate approximately 2.38 million megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity fromhydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the State of Massachusetts, annually throughthe development of 301 to 401 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell generation capacity. The state and federalgovernment have incentives to facilitate the development and use of renewable energy. The decision onwhether or not to deploy hydrogen or fuel cell technology at a given location depends largely on theeconomic value, compared to other conventional or alternative/renewable technologies. Consequently,while many sites may be technically viable for the application of fuel cell technology, this plan providesfocus for fuel cell applications that are both technically and economically viable.Favorable locations for the development of renewable energy generation through fuel cell technologyinclude energy intensive commercial buildings (education, food sales, food services, inpatient healthcare,lodging, and public order and safety), energy intensive industries, wastewater treatment plants, landfills,wireless telecommunications sites, federal/state-owned buildings, ports, and airport facilities with asubstantial amount of air traffic.Currently, Massachusetts has more than 300 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuelcell industry supply chain in the Northeast region. Based on a recent study, these companies making upMassachusetts’ hydrogen and fuel cell industry are estimated to have realized approximately $171 millionin revenue and investment, generated over $147 million in gross state product, and contributed morethan $9.8 million in state and local tax revenue from their participation in this regional energy cluster in2010. Nine of these companies are original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of hydrogen and/orfuel cell systems, and were responsible for supplying 346 direct jobs and $59.4 million in directrevenue and investment in 2010.Hydrogen and fuel cell projects are becoming increasingly popular throughout the Northeast region.These technologies are viable solutions that can meet the demand for renewable energy in Massachusetts.In addition, the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology would reduce the dependence on oil,improve environmental performance, and increase the number of jobs within the state. This plan provideslinks to relevant information to help assess, plan, and initiate hydrogen or fuel cell projects to help meetthe energy, economic, and environmental goals of the State.Developing policies and incentives that support hydrogen and fuel cell technology will increasedeployment at sites that would benefit from on-site generation. Increased demand for hydrogen and fuelcell technology will increase production and create jobs throughout the supply chain. As deploymentincreases, manufacturing costs will decline and hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be in a position tothen compete in a global market without incentives. These policies and incentives can be coordinatedregionally to maintain the regional economic cluster as a global exporter for long-term growth andeconomic development.
  • 3. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20123MASSACHUSETTSTABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................2INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................5DRIVERS............................................................................................................................................6ECONOMIC IMPACT ...........................................................................................................................8POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETS ...................................................................................................9Education ............................................................................................................................................11Food Sales...........................................................................................................................................12Food Service .......................................................................................................................................12Inpatient Healthcare............................................................................................................................13Lodging...............................................................................................................................................14Public Order and Safety......................................................................................................................14Energy Intensive Industries.....................................................................................................................15Government Owned Buildings................................................................................................................16Wireless Telecommunication Sites.........................................................................................................16Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) ................................................................................................16Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)........................................................................................17Airports...................................................................................................................................................18Military ...................................................................................................................................................19POTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETS .........................................................................................20Alternative Fueling Stations................................................................................................................21Bus Transit..........................................................................................................................................22Material Handling...............................................................................................................................22Ground Support Equipment ................................................................................................................23Ports ....................................................................................................................................................23CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................25APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................27
  • 4. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20124MASSACHUSETTSIndex of TablesTable 1 - Massachusetts Economic Data 2011 .............................................................................................8Table 2 - Education Data Breakdown.........................................................................................................12Table 3 - Food Sales Data Breakdown........................................................................................................12Table 4 - Food Services Data Breakdown ..................................................................................................13Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Date Breakdown.........................................................................................13Table 6 - Lodging Data Breakdown............................................................................................................14Table 7 -Public Order and Safety Data Breakdown....................................................................................15Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector ..............................................................15Table 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data Breakdown................................................................................16Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data Breakdown........................................................................16Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data Breakdown ........................................................................16Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plant Data Breakdown..........................................................................17Table 13 - Landfill Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................18Table 14 – Massachusetts Top Airports Enplanement Count ....................................................................18Table 15 - Airport Data Breakdown ...........................................................................................................18Table 16 - Military Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................19Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge)...........................20Table 18 - Ports Data Breakdown...............................................................................................................24Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell Applications ...........................................................................25Index of FiguresFigure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector....................................................................................................9Figure 2 - Electric Power Generation by Primary Energy Source................................................................9Figure 3 - Massachusetts Electrical Consumption per Sector.....................................................................11Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption ..........................................................................................14
  • 5. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20125MASSACHUSETTSINTRODUCTIONA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Development Plan was created for each state in the Northeast region(Massachusetts, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and NewJersey), with support from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to increase awarenessand facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. The intent of this guidance documentis to make available information regarding the economic value and deployment opportunities forhydrogen and fuel cell technology.1A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or a hydrogen-rich fuel such as natural gas) and oxygen tocreate an electric current. The amount of power produced by a fuel cell depends on several factors,including fuel cell type, stack size, operating temperature, and the pressure at which the gases aresupplied to the cell. Fuel cells are classified primarily by the type of electrolyte they employ, whichdetermines the type of chemical reactions that take place in the cell, the temperature range in which thecell operates, the fuel required, and other factors. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications forwhich these cells are most suitable. There are several types of fuel cells currently in use or underdevelopment, each with its own advantages, limitations, and potential applications. These technologiesand applications are identified in Appendix VII.Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) in vehicles and providepower for stationary and portable power applications. Fuel cells are in commercial service as distributedpower plants in stationary applications throughout the world, providing thermal energy and electricity topower homes and businesses. Fuel cells are also used in transportation applications, such as automobiles,trucks, buses, and other equipment. Fuel cells for portable applications, which are currently indevelopment, can provide power for laptop computers and cell phones.Fuel cells are cleaner and more efficient than traditional combustion-based engines and power plants;therefore, less energy is needed to provide the same amount of power. Typically, stationary fuel cellpower plants are fueled with natural gas or other hydrogen rich fuel. Natural gas is widely availablethroughout the northeast, is relatively inexpensive, and is primarily a domestic energy supply.Consequently, natural gas shows the greatest potential to serve as a transitional fuel for the near futurehydrogen economy. Stationary fuel cells use a fuel reformer to convert the natural gas to near purehydrogen for the fuel cell stack. Because hydrogen can be produced using a wide variety of resourcesfound here in the U.S. including natural gas, biomass material, and through electrolysis using electricityproduced from indigenous sources, energy produced from a fuel cell can be considered renewable andwill reduce dependence on imported fuel. 2,3When pure hydrogen is used to power a fuel cell, the onlyby-products are water and heat; no pollutants or greenhouse gases (GHG) are produced.1Key stakeholders are identified in Appendix III2Electrolysis is the process of using an electric current to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.3U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/, August 2011
  • 6. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20126MASSACHUSETTSDRIVERSThe Northeast hydrogen and fuel cell industry, while still emerging, currently has an economic impact ofover $1 Billion of total revenue and investment. Massachusetts has nine original equipmentmanufacturers (OEM) of hydrogen/fuel cell systems, giving the state a significant direct economicimpact, in addition to benefiting from secondary impacts of indirect and induced employment andrevenue.4Furthermore, Massachusetts has a definitive and attractive economic development opportunityto greatly increase its economic participation in the hydrogen and fuel cell industry within the Northeastregion and worldwide. An economic “SWOT” assessment for Massachusetts is provided in AppendixVIII.Industries in the Northeast, including those in Massachusetts, are facing increased pressure to reducecosts, fuel consumption, and emissions that may be contributing to climate change. Currently,Massachusetts’ businesses pay $.141 per kWh for electricity on average; this is the seventh highest cost ofelectricity in the U.S.5Massachusetts’ relative proximity to major load centers, the high cost ofelectricity, concerns over regional air quality, available federal tax incentives, and legislative mandates inMassachusetts and neighboring states have resulted in renewed interest in the development of efficientrenewable energy. Incentives designed to assist individuals and organizations in energy conservation andthe development of renewable energy are currently offered within the state. Appendix IV contains anoutline of Massachusetts’ incentives and renewable energy programs. Some specific factors that aredriving the market for hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Massachusetts include the following:The current Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) recognizes fuel cells that operate fromrenewable fuels as a “Class I” renewable energy source and calls for an increase in renewableenergy used in the state from its current level of approximately nine percent to approximately 15percent by 2020. 6– promotes stationary power applications.Net Metering requires all electric utilities to provide, upon request, net metering to customers whogenerate electricity using renewable-energy systems with a maximum capacity of 60 kWs for“Class I” facilities.7– promotes stationary power applications.Massachusetts is one of the states in the ten-state region that is part of the Regional GreenhouseGas Initiative (RGGI), the nation’s first mandatory market-based program to reduce emissions ofcarbon dioxide (CO2). RGGIs goals are to stabilize and cap emissions at 188 million tonsannually from 2009-2014 and to reduce CO2-emissions by 2.5 percent per year from 2015-2018.8– promotes stationary power and transportation applications.Under the Idle Reduction Requirement, a motor vehicle may not idle for more than fiveconsecutive minutes. Regulations created to reduce CO2-emissions would not apply to hydrogen4There are now twelve total OEMs in Massachusetts, however data within this plan reflects the nine OEMs originally usedwithin the model. Twelve OEMs will increase the impact of the cluster and will be used when the model is run for the next year.5EIA, Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_a.html6DSIRE, “Massachusetts Renewable Portfolio Standards”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=MA05R&re=1&ee=1, September 2, 20117DSIRE, “Massachusetts – Net Metering”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=MA01R&re=1&ee=1, August 12, 20078Seacoastonline.come, “RGGI: Quietly setting a standard”,http://www.seacoastonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090920/NEWS/909200341/-1/NEWSMAP,September 20, 2009
  • 7. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20127MASSACHUSETTSfueled vehicles because the technology goes not cause or contribute to air pollution.9– promotestransportation applications.Hybrid Electric (HEV) Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements: Whenpurchasing new motor vehicles, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts must purchase HEVs orAFVs to the maximum extent feasible and consistent with the ability of such vehicles to performtheir intended functions. HEVs and AFVs must be acquired at a rate of at least 5% annually forall new motor vehicle purchases so that not less than 50 percent of the motor vehicles theCommonwealth owns and operates will be HEVs or AFVs by 2018.10– promotes transportationapplications.The Massachusetts LEV Program requires all new passenger cars and light-duty trucks, medium-duty vehicles, and heavy-duty vehicles and engines sold and registered in Massachusetts to meetCalifornia emission and compliance requirements, as set forth in Title 13 of the California Codeof Regulations. Manufacturers must comply with the Zero Emission Vehicle sales andgreenhouse gas emissions requirements.11– promotes transportation applications.9EERE, “Idle Reduction Requirement”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/MA/5997, September, 201010EERE, “Hybrid Electric (HEV) Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements”,http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/MA/6468, September 201111EERE, “Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Standards”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/MA/6504, September, 2011
  • 8. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20128MASSACHUSETTSECONOMIC IMPACTThe hydrogen and fuel cell industry has direct, indirect, and induced impacts on local and regionaleconomies. 12A new hydrogen and/or fuel cell project directly affects the area’s economy through thepurchase of goods and services, generation of land use revenue, taxes or payments in lieu of taxes, andemployment. Secondary effects include both indirect and induced economic effects resulting from thecirculation of the initial spending through the local economy, economic diversification, changes inproperty values, and the use of indigenous resources.Massachusetts is home to more than 300 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cellindustry supply chain in the Northeast region. Lists of these companies can be seen in Appendix V andAppendix VI. Realizing approximately $171 million in revenue and investments from their participationin this regional cluster in 2010, these companies include manufacturing, parts distributing, supplying ofindustrial gas, engineering based research and development (R&D), coating applications, and managingof venture capital funds. 13Furthermore, the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is estimated to havecontributed approximately $9.8 million in state and local tax revenue and $147 million in gross stateproducts. Table 1 shows Massachusetts’ impact in the Northeast region’s hydrogen and fuel cell industryas of April 2011.Table 1 - Massachusetts Economic Data 2011Massachusetts Economic DataSupply Chain Members 314Direct Rev ($M) 59.6Direct Jobs 346Direct Labor Income ($M) 39.21Indirect Rev ($M) 55.26Indirect Jobs 238Indirect Labor Income ($M) 19.95Induced Revenue ($M) 56.35Induced Jobs 380Induced Labor Income ($M) 20.24Total Revenue ($M) 171.21Total Jobs 964Total Labor Income ($M) 79.4In addition, there are over 118,000 people employed across 3,500 companies within the Northeastregistered as part of the motor vehicle industry. Approximately 15,040 of these individuals and 485 ofthese companies are located in Massachusetts. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology wereto gain momentum within the transportation sector, the estimated employment rate for the hydrogen andfuel cell industry could grow significantly in the region.1412Indirect impacts are the estimated output (i.e., revenue), employment and labor income in other business (i.e., not-OEMs) thatare associated with the purchases made by hydrogen and fuel cell OEMs, as well as other companies in the sector’s supply chain.Induced impacts are the estimated output, employment and labor income in other businesses (i.e., non-OEMs) that are associatedwith the purchases by workers related to the hydrogen and fuel cell industry.13Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, April 8,201114NAICS Codes: Motor Vehicle – 33611, Motor Vehicle Parts – 3363
  • 9. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20129MASSACHUSETTSResidential31%Commercial20%Industrial17%Transportation32%POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETSIn 2009, Massachusetts consumed the equivalent of 418 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of energy fromthe transportation, residential, industrial, and commercial sectors.15Electricity consumption inMassachusetts was approximately 54.4 million MWh, and is forecasted to grow at a rate of 1.1 percentannually over the next decade.16,17Figure 1 illustrates the percent of total energy consumed by each sectorin Massachusetts. A more detailed breakout of energy use is provided in Appendix II.Massachusetts represents approximately 46 percent of the population in New England and 46 percent ofthe region’s total electricity consumption. The State relies on both in-state resources and imports ofpower over the region’s transmission system to serve electricity to customers. Net electrical demand inMassachusetts was 6,205 MW in 2009 and is projected to increase by approximately 420 MW by 2015.18Further, the state’s overall electricity demand is forecasted to grow at a rate of 1.1 percent (1.4 percentpeak summer demand growth) annually over the next decade. Demand for new electric capacity as wellas a replacement of older less efficient base-load generation facilities is expected. With approximately13,400 MW in total capacity of generation plants, Massachusetts represents 42 percent of the totalcapacity in New England. 19As shown in Figure 2, natural gas was the primary energy source forelectricity consumed in Massachusetts for 2009.2015U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), “State Energy Data System”,“http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/rank_use.html”, August 201116EIA, “Electric Power Annual 2009 – State Data Tables”, www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January, 201117ISO New England, “Massachusetts 2011 State Profile”, www.iso-ne.com/nwsiss/grid_mkts/key_facts/ma_01-2011_profile.pdf, January, 201118EIA, “1990 - 2010 Retail Sales of Electricity by State by Sector by Provider (EIA-861)”,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January 4, 201119ISO New England, “Massachusetts 2011 State Profile”, www.iso-ne.com/nwsiss/grid_mkts/key_facts/ma_01-2011_profile.pdf, January, 201120EIA, “Massachusetts Electricity Profile”, http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/massachusetts.html, October, 2011Figure 2 – Electric Power Generationby Primary Energy SourceFigure 1 - Energy Consumption by SectorCoal19.1%Petroleum0.7%Natural Gas58.9%Nuclear13.6%Hydroelectric2.3%Other Renewables3.0%Other1.8%
  • 10. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201210MASSACHUSETTSFuel cell systems have many advantages over other conventional technologies, including:High fuel-to-electricity efficiency (> 40 percent) utilizing hydrocarbon fuels;Overall system efficiency of 85 to 93 percent;Reduction of noise pollution;Reduction of air pollution;Often do not require new transmission;Siting is not controversial; andIf near point of use, waste heat can be captured and used. Combined heat and power (CHP)systems are more efficient and can reduce facility energy costs over applications that use separateheat and central station power systems.21Fuel cells can be deployed as a CHP technology that provides both power and thermal energy, and cannearly double energy efficiency at a customer site, typically from 35 to 50 percent. The value of CHPincludes reduced transmission and distribution costs, reduced fuel use and associated emissions.22Basedon the targets identified within this plan, there is the potential to develop at least approximately 301 MWsof stationary fuel cell generation capacity in Massachusetts, which would provide the following benefits,annually:Production of approximately 2.38 million MWh of electricityProduction of approximately 6.39 million MMBTUs of thermal energyReduction of CO2 emissions of more than 840,000 tons (electric generation only)23For the purpose of this plan, potential applications have been explored with a focus on fuel cells that havea capacity between 300 kW to 400 kW. However, smaller fuel cells are potentially viable for specificapplications. Facilities that have electrical and thermal requirements that closely match the output of thefuel cells potentially provide the best opportunity for the application of a fuel cell. Facilities that may begood candidates for the application of a fuel cell include commercial buildings with potentially highelectricity consumption, selected government buildings, public works facilities, and energy intensiveindustries.Commercial building types with high electricity consumption have been identified as potential locationsfor on-site generation and CHP application based on data from the Energy Information Administration’s(EIA) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). These selected building typesmaking up the CBECS subcategory within the commercial industry include:EducationFood SalesFood ServicesInpatient HealthcareLodgingPublic Order & Safety2421FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell Basics”, www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html, July, 201122“Distributed Generation Market Potential: 2004 Update Connecticut and Southwest Connecticut”, ISE, Joel M. Rinebold,ECSU, March 15, 200423Replacement of conventional fossil fuel generating capacity with methane fuel cells could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions by between approximately 100 and 600 lb/MWh: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), eGRID2010 Version1.1 Year 2007 GHG Annual Output Emission Rates, Annual non-baseload output emission rates (NPCC New England); FuelCellEnergy, DFC 300 Product sheet, http://www.fuelcellenergy.com/files/FCE%20300%20Product%20Sheet-lo-rez%20FINAL.pdf;UTC Power, PureCell Model 400 System Performance Characteristics, http://www.utcpower.com/products/purecell400
  • 11. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201211MASSACHUSETTSThe commercial building types identified above represent top principal building activity classificationsthat reported the highest value for electricity consumption on a per building basis and have a potentiallyhigh load factor for the application of CHP. Appendix II further defines Massachusetts’ estimatedelectrical consumption per each sector. As illustrated in Figure 3, this targeted CBECS subcategorywithin the commercial sector are estimated to account for approximately 13 percent of Massachusetts’total electrical consumption. Graphical representation of potential targets reflected are depicted inAppendix I.Figure 3 – Massachusetts Electrical Consumption per SectorEducationThere are approximately 854 non-public schools and 1,934 public schools (418 of which are consideredhigh schools with 100 or more students enrolled) in the Massachusetts.25,26High schools operate for alonger period of time daily due to extracurricular after school activities, such as clubs and athletics.Furthermore, 11 of these schools have swimming pools, which make the sites especially attractivebecause it would increase the utilization of both the electrical and thermal output offered by a fuel cell.There are also 205 colleges and universities in Massachusetts. Colleges and universities have facilitiesfor students, faculty, administration, and maintenance crews that typically include dormitories, cafeterias,gyms, libraries, and athletic departments – some with swimming pools. Of these 623 locations (418 highschools and 205 colleges), 594 are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 1:Education).Educational establishments in other states such as Connecticut and New York have shown interest in fuelcell technology. Examples of existing or planned fuel cell applications include South Windsor HighSchool (CT), Liverpool High School (NY), Rochester Institute of Technology, Yale University,University of Connecticut, and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science andForestry. Some colleges and universities in Massachusetts, such as the Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology, have demonstrated fuel cell technology at their institution.24As defined by CBECS, Public Order & Safety facilities are: buildings used for the preservation of law and order or publicsafety. Although these sites are usually described as government facilities they are referred to as commercial buildings becausetheir similarities in energy usage with the other building sites making up the CBECS data.25EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html26Public schools are classified as magnets, charters, alternative schools and special facilities
  • 12. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201212MASSACHUSETTSTable 2 - Education Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)2,993(16)594(27)216(31)64.8(31)510,883(31)1,375,979(31)181,364(42)Food SalesThere are over 7,000 businesses in Massachusetts known to be engaged in the retail sale of food. Foodsales establishments are potentially good candidates for fuel cells based on their electrical demand andthermal requirements for heating and refrigeration. 243 of these sites are considered larger food salesbusinesses with approximately 60 or more employees at their site.27Of these 243 businesses, 237 arelocated in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales).28The application ofa large fuel cell (>300) at a small convenience store may not be economically viable based on the electricdemand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate.Popular grocery chains such as Price Chopper, Supervalu, Whole foods, and Stop and Shop have showninterest in powering their stores with fuel cells in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York.29StarMarket, located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts is a location where a fuel cell power plant has beeninstalled. In addition, grocery distribution centers, such as Shaw’s Perishable Distribution Center inMethuen, Massachusetts, are prime targets for the application of hydrogen and fuel cell technology forboth stationary power and material handling equipment.Table 3 - Food Sales Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)7,000(14)237(20)237(20)71.1(20)560,552(20)1,509,754(20)198,996(31)Food ServiceThere are over 10,000 businesses in Massachusetts that can be classified as food service establishmentsbecause they are used for the preparation and sale of food and beverages for consumption.30Approximately 84 of these sites are considered larger restaurant businesses with approximately 130 ormore employees at their site and are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure3: Food Services).31The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at smaller restaurants with less than130 workers may not be economically viable based on the electric demand and operational requirements;however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate to meet hot water and space heatingrequirements. A significant portion (18 percent) of the energy consumed in a commercial food service27On average, food sale facilities consume 43,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel cell technology(>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations show food salesfacilities employing more than 61 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.28EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html29Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA), “Fuel Cells for Supermarkets – Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat andPower Systems”, Benny Smith, www.cleanenergystates.org/assets/Uploads/BlakeFuelCellsSupermarketsFB.pdf30EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html31On average, food service facilities consume 20,300 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel celltechnology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations showfood service facilities employing more than 130 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuelcell.
  • 13. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201213MASSACHUSETTSoperation can be attributed to the domestic hot water heating load.32In other parts of the U.S., popularchains, such as McDonalds, are beginning to show an interest in the smaller sized fuel cell units for theprovision of electricity and thermal energy, including domestic water heating.33Table 4 - Food Services Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)10,000(16)84(22)84(22)25.2(22)198,677(22)535,103(22)70,530(24)Inpatient HealthcareThere are over 691 inpatient healthcare facilities in Massachusetts; 124 of which are classified ashospitals.34Of these 124 hospitals, 79 are located in communities serviced by natural gas and contain 100or more beds onsite (Appendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare). Hospitals represent an excellentopportunity for the application of fuel cells because they require a high availability factor of electricity forlifesaving medical devices and operate 24/7 with a relatively flat load curve. Furthermore, medicalequipment, patient rooms, sterilized/operating rooms, data centers, and kitchen areas within thesefacilities are often required to be in operational conditions at all times which maximizes the use ofelectricity and thermal energy from a fuel cell. Nationally, hospital energy costs have increased 56percent from $3.89 per square foot in 2003 to $6.07 per square foot for 2010, partially due to theincreased cost of energy.35Examples of healthcare facilities with planned or operational fuel cells include St. Francis, Stamford, andWaterbury hospitals in Connecticut, and North Central Bronx Hospital in New York.Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Date BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)691(17)79(19)79(19)23.7(19)186,851(19)503,251(19)66,332(29)32“Case Studies in Restaurant Water Heating”, Fisher, Donald, http://eec.ucdavis.edu/ACEEE/2008/data/papers/9_243.pdf, 200833Sustainable business Oregon, “ClearEdge sustains brisk growth”,http://www.sustainablebusinessoregon.com/articles/2010/01/clearedge_sustains_brisk_growth.html, May 8, 201134EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html35BetterBricks, “http://www.betterbricks.com/graphics/assets/documents/BB_Article_EthicalandBusinessCase.pdf”, Page 1,August 2011
  • 14. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201214MASSACHUSETTSOfficeEquipment, 4%Ventilation, 4%Refrigeration, 3%Lighting, 11%Cooling, 13%Space Heating ,33%Water Heating ,18%Cooking, 5% Other, 9%LodgingThere are over 1,900 establishments specializingin travel/lodging accommodations that includehotels, motels, or inns in Massachusetts.Approximately 143 of these establishments have100 or more rooms onsite, and can be classifiedas “larger sized” lodging that may haveadditional attributes, such as heated pools,exercise facilities, and/or restaurants. 36Of these146 locations, 136 are located in communitiesserviced by natural gas. As shown in Figure 4,more than 60 percent of total energy use at atypical lodging facility is due to lighting, spaceheating, and water heating. 37Popular hotelchains such as the Hilton and Starwood Hotelshave shown interest in powering theirestablishments with fuel cells in New Jersey andNew York.Massachusetts also has 431 facilities identifiedas convalescent homes, 87 of which have bedcapacities greater than, or equal to 150 units,and are located in communities serviced bynatural gas (Appendix I – Figure 5: Lodging). 38Table 6 - Lodging Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)1,358(17)223(25)223(25)66.9(25)527,440(25)1,420,571(25)187,241(39)Public Order and SafetyThere are approximately 603 facilities in Massachusetts that can be classified as public order and safety;these include 274 fire stations, 304 police stations, seven state police stations, and 23 prisons. 39,4048 ofthese locations employ more than 210 workers and are located in communities serviced by natural gas.41,4236EPA, “CHP in the Hotel and Casino Market Sector”, www.epa.gov/chp/documents/hotel_casino_analysis.pdf, December, 200537National Grid, “Managing Energy Costs in Full-Service Hotels”,www.nationalgridus.com/non_html/shared_energyeff_hotels.pdf, 200438Assisted-Living-List, “List of 491 Nursing Homes in Massachusetts (MA)”, http://assisted-living-list.com/ma-nursing-homes//, September, 201139EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html40USACOPS – The Nations Law Enforcement Site, www.usacops.com/me/41CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201142On average, public order and safety facilities consume 12,400 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuelcell technology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculationsshow public order and safety facilities employing more than 212 workers may represent favorable opportunities for theapplication of a larger fuel cell.Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption
  • 15. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201215MASSACHUSETTSThese applications may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell (>300kW), which could provide heat and uninterrupted power. 43,44The sites identified (Appendix I – Figure 6:Public Order and Safety) will have special value to provide increased reliability to mission criticalfacilities associated with public safety and emergency response during grid outages. The application of alarge fuel cell (>300 kW) at public order and safety facilities with less than 210 employees may not beeconomically viable based on the electrical demand and operational requirement; however, a smaller fuelcell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate. Central Park Police Station in New York City, New York is presentlypowered by a 200 kW fuel cell system.Table 7 -Public Order and Safety Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)603(18)48(15)48(15)14.4(15)113,530(15)305,773(15)40,303(23)Energy Intensive IndustriesAs shown in Table 2, energy intensive industries with high electricity consumption (which on average is4.8 percent of annual operating costs) have been identified as potential locations for the application of afuel cell.45In Massachusetts, there are approximately 787 of these industrial facilities that are involved inthe manufacture of aluminum, cement, food, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, petroleum,coal products or iron and steel and employ 25 or more employees.46Of these 787 locations, 761 arelocated in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries).Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector47NAICS Code Sector Energy Consumption per Dollar Value of Shipments (kWh)325 Chemical manufacturing 2.49322 Pulp and Paper 4.46324110 Petroleum Refining 4.72311 Food manufacturing 0.76331111 Iron and steel 8.15321 Wood Products 1.233313 Alumina and aluminum 3.58327310 Cement 16.4133611 Motor vehicle manufacturing 0.213315 Metal casting 1.64336811 Shipbuilding and ship repair 2.053363 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing 2.05Companies such as Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, and Pepperidge Farms in Connecticut, New Jersey,and New York have installed fuel cells to help supply energy to their facilities.42EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html432,628,000 / 12,400 = 211.9444CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201145EIA, “Electricity Generation Capability”, 1999 CBECS, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/pba99/comparegener.html46Proprietary market data47EPA, “Energy Trends in Selected Manufacturing Sectors”, www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/energy/ch2.pdf, March 2007
  • 16. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201216MASSACHUSETTSTable 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)787(17)76(18)76(18)22.8(18)179,755(18)484,141(18)63,813(29)Government Owned BuildingsBuildings operated by the federal government can be found at 187 locations in Massachusetts; 16 of theseproperties are actively owned, rather than leased, by the federal government and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings).There are also a number of buildings owned and operated by the State of Massachusetts. The applicationof fuel cell technology at government owned buildings would assist in balancing load requirements atthese sites and offer a unique value for active and passive public education associated with the high usageof these public buildings.Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)187(15)16(18)16(18)4.8(18)37,843(18)101,924(18)13,434(27)Wireless Telecommunication SitesThe telecommunications industry in Massachusetts is an $800 million industry.48Telecommunicationscompanies rely on electricity to run call centers, cell phone towers, and other vital equipment. InMassachusetts, there are more than 583 telecommunications and/or wireless company tower sites(Appendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites). Any loss of power at these locations may result in aloss of service to customers; thus, having reliable power is critical. Each individual site represents anopportunity to provide back-up power for continuous operation through the application of on-site back-upgeneration powered by hydrogen and fuel cell technology. It is an industry standard to install unitscapable of supplying 48-72 hours of backup power, which is typically accomplished with batteries orconventional emergency generators.49The deployment of fuel cells at selected telecommunication siteswill have special value to provide increased reliability to critical sites associated with emergencycommunications and homeland security. An example of a telecommunication site that utilizes fuel celltechnology to provide back-up power is a T-Mobile facility located in Storrs, Connecticut.Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)583(15)58(15)N/A N/A N/A N/A N/AWastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs)48NHPUC, “Telecom”, www.puc.nh.gov/telecom/telecom.htm, July 7, 201149ReliOn, Hydrogen Fuel Cell: Wireless Applications”, www.relion-inc.com/pdf/ReliOn_AppsWireless_2010.pdf, May 4, 2011
  • 17. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201217MASSACHUSETTSThere are 144 WWTPs in Massachusetts that have design flows ranging from 4,800 gallons per day(GPD) to 294 million gallons per day (MGD); 36 of these facilities average between 3 – 294 MGD.WWTPs account for approximately three percent of the electric load in the U.S.50Digester gas producedat WWTP’s, which is usually 60 percent methane, can serve as a fuel substitute for natural gas to powerfuel cells. Anaerobic digesters generally require a wastewater flow greater than three MGD for aneconomy of scale to collect and use the methane.51WWTPs typically operate 24/7 and may be able toutilize the thermal energy from the fuel cell to process fats, oils, and grease.52Most facilities currentlyrepresent a lost opportunity to capture and use the digestion of methane emissions created from theiroperations (Appendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites).53,54A 200 kW fuel cell power plant in Yonkers, New York, was the world’s first commercial fuel cell to runon a waste gas created at a wastewater treatment plant. The fuel cell generates about 1,600 MWh ofelectricity a year, and reduces methane emissions released to the environment.55A 200 kW fuel cellpower plant was also installed at the Water Pollution Control Authority’s WWTP in New Haven,Connecticut, and produces 10 – 15 percent of the facility’s electricity, reducing energy costs by almost$13,000 a year.56Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plant Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)143(25)4(25)4(25)1.2(25)9,461(25)25,481(25)3,359(40)Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)There are 39 landfills in Massachusetts identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) throughtheir LMOP program; 18 of which are operational, two are candidates, and 19 are considered potentialsites for the production and recovery of methane gas.57,58The amount of methane emissions released by agiven site is dependent upon the amount of material in the landfill and the amount of time the material hasbeen in place. Similar to WWTPs, methane emissions from landfills could be captured and used as a fuelto power a fuel cell system. In 2009, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills were responsible forproducing approximately 17 percent of human-related methane emissions in the nation. These locationscould produce renewable energy and help manage the release of methane (Appendix I – Figure 10: Solidand Liquid Waste Sites).50EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, “Introduction”, July, 200651EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, July, 201152“Beyond Zero Net Energy: Case Studies of Wastewater Treatment for Energy and Resource Production”, Toffey, Bill,September 2010, http://www.awra-pmas.memberlodge.org/Resources/Documents/Beyond_NZE_WWT-Toffey-9-16-2010.pdf53“GHG Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Management”, Beecher, Ned, November 20, 2009,www.des.state.nh.us/organization/divisions/water/wmb/rivers/watershed_conference/documents/2009_fri_climate_2.pdf54EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, May 4, 201155NYPA, “WHAT WE DO – Fuel Cells”, www.nypa.gov/services/fuelcells.htm, August 8, 201156Conntact.com; “City to Install Fuel Cell”,http://www.conntact.com/archive_index/archive_pages/4472_Business_New_Haven.html; August 15, 200357LMOP defines a candidate landfill as “one that is accepting waste or has been closed for five years or less, has atleast one million tons of waste, and does not have an operational or, under-construction project ”EPA, “LandfillMethane Outreach Program”, www.epa.gov/lmop/basic-info/index.html, April 7, 201158Due to size, individual sites may have more than one potential, candidate, or operational project.
  • 18. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201218MASSACHUSETTSTable 13 - Landfill Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)22(10)2(14)2(14)0.6(14)4,730(14)12,741(14)1,679(23)AirportsDuring peak air travel times in the U.S., there are approximately 50,000 airplanes in the sky each day.Ensuring safe operations of commercial and private aircrafts are the responsibility of air trafficcontrollers. Modern software, host computers, voice communication systems, and instituted full scaleglide path angle capabilities assist air traffic controllers in tracking and communicating with aircrafts;59consequently, reliable electricity is extremely important and present an opportunity for a fuel cell powerapplication.There are approximately 76 airports in Massachusetts, including 42 that are open to the public and havescheduled services. Of those 42 airports, eight (Table 3) have 2,500 or more passengers enplaned eachyear; six of these eight facilities are located in communities serviced by natural gas. (See Appendix I –Figure 11: Commercial Airports). An example, of an airport currently hosting a fuel cell power plant toprovide backup power is Albany International Airport located in Albany, New York.Table 14 – Massachusetts Top Airports Enplanement CountAirport60Total Enplanement in 2000General Edward Lawrence Logan International 13,613,507Nantucket Memorial 296,451Barnstable Municipal 205,906Laurence G. Hanscom Field 82,204Martha’s Vineyard 71,150Worchester Regional 52,916New Bedford Regional 22,882Two of Massachusetts’ 76 airports are considered “Joint-Use” airports. Westover Army Reserve BaseMetropolitan (CEF) and Barnstable Municipal (BAV) are facilities where the military departmentauthorizes use of the military runway for public airport services. Army Aviation Support Facilities(AASF), located at these sites are used by the Army to provide aircraft and equipment readiness, train andutilize military personnel, conduct flight training and operations, and perform field level maintenance.These locations represent favorable opportunities for the application of uninterruptible power fornecessary services associated with national defense and emergency response. Furthermore, both of thesesites are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports).Table 15 - Airport Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)76(9)9(2)(18)9(18)2.7(18)21,287(18)57,332(18)7,557(27)59Howstuffworks.com, “How Air Traffic Control Works”, Craig, Freudenrich,http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/air-traffic-control5.htm, May 4, 201160Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Massachusetts Transportation Profile”,www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics/massachusetts/pdf/entire.pdf, March 30, 2011
  • 19. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201219MASSACHUSETTSMilitaryThe U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is the largest funding organization in terms of supporting fuelcell activities for military applications in the world. DOD is using fuel cells for:Stationary units for power supply in bases.Fuel cell units in transport applications.Portable units for equipping individual soldiers or group of soldiers.In a collaborative partnership with the DOE, the DOD plans to install and operate 18 fuel cell backuppower systems at eight of its military installations, two of which are located within the Northeast region(New York and New Jersey).61Fort Devens, Hanscom Air Force Base, and Soldier Systems Center inMassachusetts, are additional military sites for the potential application of hydrogen and fuel celltechnology (Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports).Table 16 - Military Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)3(21)3(21)3(21)0.9(21)7,096(21)19,111(21)2,519(35)61Fuel Cell Today, “US DoD to Install Fuel cell Backup Power Systems at Eight Military Installations”,http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/online/news/articles/2011-07/US-DOD-FC-Backup-Power-Systems, July 20, 2011
  • 20. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201220MASSACHUSETTSPOTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETSTransportation is responsible for one-fourth of the total global GHG emissions and consumes 75 percentof the world’s oil production. In 2010, the U.S. used 21 million barrels of non-renewable petroleum eachday. Roughly 32 percent of Massachusetts’ energy consumption is due to demands of the transportationsector, including gasoline and on-highway diesel petroleum for automobiles, sport utility vehicles, cars,trucks, and buses. A small percent of non-renewable petroleum is used for jet and ship fuel.62The current economy in the U.S. is dependent on hydrocarbon energy sources and any disruption orshortage of this energy supply will severely affect many energy related activities, includingtransportation. As oil and other non-sustainable hydrocarbon energy resources become scarce, energyprices will increase and the reliability of supply will be reduced. Government and industry are nowinvestigating the use of hydrogen and renewable energy as a replacement of hydrocarbon fuels.Hydrogen-fueled fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have many advantages over conventionaltechnology, including:Quiet operation;Near zero emissions of controlled pollutants such as nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide,hydrocarbon gases or particulates;Substantial (30 to 50 percent) reduction in GHG emissions on a well-to-wheel basis compared toconventional gasoline or gasoline-hybrid vehicles when the hydrogen is produced byconventional methods such as natural gas; and 100 percent when hydrogen is produced from aclean energy source;Ability to fuel vehicles with indigenous energy sources which reduces dependence on importedenergy and adds to energy security; andHigher efficiency than conventional vehicles (See Table 4).63,64Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge65)Passenger Car Light Truck Transit BusHydrogen Gasoline Hybrid Gasoline Hydrogen Gasoline Hydrogen Fuel Cell Diesel52 50 29.3 49.2 21.5 5.4 3.9FCEVs can reduce price volatility, dependence on oil, improve environmental performance, and providegreater efficiencies than conventional transportation technologies, as follows:Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual CO2 emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately10,170, 15,770, and 182,984 pounds per year, respectively.6662“US Oil Consumption to BP Spill”, http://applesfromoranges.com/2010/05/us-oil-consumption-to-bp-spill/, May31, 201063“Challenges for Sustainable Mobility and Development of Fuel Cell Vehicles”, Masatami Takimoto, Executive Vice President,Toyota Motor Corporation, January 26, 2006. Presentation at the 2ndInternational Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Expo TechnicalConference Tokyo, Japan64“Twenty Hydrogen Myths”, Amory B. Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute, June 20, 200365Miles per Gallon Equivalent66Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008, Calculations based upon average annual mileage of 12,500miles for passenger car and 14,000 miles for light trucks (U.S. EPA) and 37,000 average miles/year per bus (U.S. DOT FTA,2007)
  • 21. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201221MASSACHUSETTSReplacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual energy savings (per vehicle) of approximately 230gallons of gasoline (passenger vehicle), 485 gallons of gasoline (light duty truck) and 4,390gallons of diesel (bus).Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual fuel cost savings of approximately $885 per passengervehicle, $1,866 per light duty truck, and $17,560 per bus.67Automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, General Motors, Honda, Daimler AG, and Hyundai haveprojected that models of their FCEVs will begin to roll out in larger numbers by 2015. Longer term, theU.S. DOE has projected that between 15.1 million and 23.9 million light duty FCEVs may be sold eachyear by 2050 and between 144 million and 347 million light duty FCEVs may be in use by 2050 with atransition to a hydrogen economy. These estimates could be accelerated if political, economic, energysecurity or environmental polices prompt a rapid advancement in alternative fuels.68Strategic targets for the application of hydrogen for transportation include alternative fueling stations;Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) refueling stations; bus transits operations;government, public, and privately owned fleets; and material handling and airport ground supportequipment (GSE). Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Alternative Fueling StationsThere are approximately 2,700 retail fueling stations in Massachusetts;69however, only 56 public and/orprivate stations within the state provide alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, compressed natural gas(CNG), liquid propane gas (LPG), ethanol (E85), electricity, and/or hydrogen for alternative-fueledvehicles.70There are also approximately 27 refueling stations owned and operated by MassDOT that canbe used by authorities operating federal and state safety vehicles, state transit vehicles, and employees ofuniversities that operate fleet vehicles on a regular basis.71Development of hydrogen fueling at alternativefueling stations and at selected locations owned and operated by MassDOT would help facilitate thedeployment of FCEVs within the state (Appendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations).Currently, Massachusetts’ only hydrogen refueling station is located in Billerica at Nuvera’s headquarters.There are approximately 18 existing or planned transportation fueling stations in the Northeast regionwhere hydrogen is provided as an alternative fuel.72,67U.S. EIA, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices: gasoline - $3.847 and diesel – 4.00,www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_a_epm0r_pte_dpgal_w.htm68Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States: Report to Congress,http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/congress_reports.html, August 201169“Public retail gasoline stations state year” www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/data/docs/gasoline_stations_state.xls, May 5, 201170Alternative Fuels Data Center, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/71EPA, “Government UST Noncompliance Report-2007”, www.epa.gov/oust/docs/MA%20Compliance%20Report.pdf72Alternative Fuels Data Center, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/
  • 22. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201222MASSACHUSETTSFleetsThere are over 10,000 fleet vehicles (excluding state and federal vehicles) classified as non-leasing orcompany owned vehicles in Massachusetts.73Fleet vehicles typically account for more than twice theamount of mileage, and therefore twice the fuel consumption and emissions, compared to personalvehicles on a per vehicle basis. There is an additional 8,890 passenger automobiles and/or light dutytrucks in Massachusetts, owned by state and federal agencies (excluding state police) that traveled acombined 69,463,246 miles in 2010, while releasing 5,056 metrics tons of CO2.74Conversion of fleetvehicles from conventional fossil fuels to FCEVs could significantly reduce petroleum consumption andGHG emissions. Fleet vehicle hubs may be good candidates for hydrogen refueling and conversion toFCEVs because they mostly operate on fixed routes or within fixed districts and are fueled from acentralized station.Bus TransitThere are approximately 1,030 directly operated buses that provide public transportation services inMassachusetts.75As discussed above, replacement of a conventional diesel transit bus with a fuel celltransit bus would result in the reduction of CO2 emissions (estimated at approximately 183,000 poundsper year), and reduction of diesel fuel (estimated at approximately 4,390 gallons per year).76Although theefficiency of conventional diesel buses has increased, conventional diesel buses, which typically achievefuel economy performance levels of 3.9 miles per gallon, have the greatest potential for energy savings byusing high efficiency fuel cells.In September 2007, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) received an award forbeing the “Largest Alternative Fuel User in Massachusetts”, mainly due to its fleet of 360 buses that runon natural gas. The MBTA bus fleet consists of CNG, Emission Control Diesel (ECD), and all electricbuses, and is working to improve Boston’s air quality even further. In addition to Massachusetts, otherstates have also begun the transition of fueling transit buses with alternative fuels to improve efficiencyand environmental performance.77Material HandlingMaterial handling equipment, such as forklifts, are used by a variety of industries, includingmanufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, food, retailers, and wholesale trade to move goodswithin a facility or to load goods for shipping to another site. Material handling equipment is usuallybattery, propane, and/or diesel powered. Batteries that currently power material handling equipment areheavy and take up significant storage space while only providing up to 6 hours of run time. Fuel cells canensure constant power delivery and performance, eliminating the reduction in voltage output that occursas batteries discharge. Fuel cell powered material handling equipment last more than twice as long (12-14 hours) and also eliminate the need for battery storage and charging rooms, leaving more space forproducts. In addition, fueling time only takes two to three minutes by the operator compared to least 2073Fleet.com, “2009-My Registration”, www.automotive-fleet.com/Statistics/StatsViewer.aspx?file=http%3a%2f%2fwww.automotive-fleet.com%2ffc_resources%2fstats%2fAFFB10-16-top10-state.pdf&channel74U.S. General Services Administration, “GSA 2010 Fleet Reports”, Table 4-2, http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/230525, September201175NTD Date, “TS2.2 - Service Data and Operating Expenses Time-Series by System”,http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm, December 201176Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008.77Mass.gov, “Leading by Example: Transportation – Alternative Fuel”,http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eoeeaterminal&L=4&L0=Home&L1=Grants+%26+Technical+Assistance&L2=Guidance+%26+Technical+Assistance&L3=Greening+State+Government&sid=Eoeea&b=terminalcontent&f=eea_lbe_lbe_transportation&csid=Eoeea, September, 2011
  • 23. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201223MASSACHUSETTSminutes or more for each battery replacement (assuming one is available), which saves the operatorvaluable time and increases warehouse productivity.Fuel cell powered material handling equipment has significant cost advantages, compared to batteries,such as:1.5 times lower maintenance cost;8 times lower refueling/recharging labor cost;2 times lower net present value of total operations and management (O&M) system cost.63 percent less emissions of GHG (Appendix XI provides a comparison of PEM fuel cell andbattery-powered material handling equipment). 78Fuel cell powered material handling equipment is already in use at dozens of warehouses, distributioncenters, and manufacturing plants in North America.79Large corporations that are currently using orplanning to use fuel cell powered material handling equipment include CVS, Coca-Cola, BMW, CentralGrocers, and Wal-Mart (Refer to Appendix X for a partial list of companies in North America that usefuel cell powered forklifts).80There are approximately 25 distribution center/warehouse sites that havebeen identified in Massachusetts that may benefit from the use of fuel cell powered material handlingequipment (Appendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports).Ground Support EquipmentGround support equipment (GSE) such as catering trucks, deicers, and airport tugs can be batteryoperated or more commonly run on diesel or gasoline. As an alternative, hydrogen-powered tugs arebeing developed for both military and commercial applications. While their performance is similar to thatof other battery-powered equipment, a fuel cell-powered GSE remains fully charged (provided there ishydrogen fuel available) and do not experience performance lag at the end of a shift like battery-poweredGSE.81Potential large end-users of GSE that serve Massachusetts’ largest airports include Air Canada,Air France, British Airways, Continental, Southwest Airlines, JetBlue, United, and US Airways(Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports).82PortsPorts in Boston, Fall River, New Bedford, Gloucester Harbor, and Fore River Shipyard, which servicelarge vessels such as container ships, tankers, bulk carriers, and cruise ships, may be candidates forimproved energy management. Massachusetts’ largest port, the Port of Boston, actively supports 34,000jobs, and contributes more than $2 billion to the local, regional, and national economies through direct,indirect, and induced impact. Furthermore, the Port of Boston hosts privately owned petroleum andliquefied natural gas terminals, which supply more than 90 percent of Massachusetts heating and fossilfuel needs and handles nearly 1.5 million metric tons of cargo each year. Boston’s top imports are79DOE EERE, “Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment”,www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/pdfs/early_markets_forklifts.pdf, February 201180Plug Power, “Plug Power Celebrates Successful year for Company’s Manufacturing and Sales Activity”,www.plugpower.com, January 4, 201181Battelle, “Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets”,April 2007, www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/pemfc_econ_2006_report_final_0407.pdf82Logan Airport, “Airlines at Boston Logan”, http://www.massport.com/logan-airport/about-logan/Pages/Airlines.aspx,September, 2011
  • 24. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201224MASSACHUSETTSalcoholic beverages, frozen seafood, footwear and furniture, while top exports include hides and skins,automobiles, logs and lumber, frozen seafood, paper, and scrap metal. 83In one year, a single large container ship can emit pollutants equivalent to that of 50 million cars. Thelow grade bunker fuel used by the worlds 90,000 cargo ships contains up to 2,000 times the amount ofsulfur compared to diesel fuel used in automobiles.84While docked, vessels shut off their main enginesbut use auxiliary diesel and steam engines to power refrigeration, lights, pumps, and other functions, aprocess called “cold-ironing”. An estimated one-third of ship emissions occur while they are idling atberth. Replacing auxiliary engines with on-shore electric power could significantly reduce emissions.The application of fuel cell technology at ports may also provide electric and thermal energy forimproving energy management at warehouses and equipment operated between terminals (Appendix I –Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports).85Table 18 - Ports Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)MA(% of Region)20(17)5(26)5(26)1.5(26)11,826(26)31,851(26)4,198(41)83Massport.com, “About Port of Boston”, http://www.massport.com/port-of-boston/About%20Port%20of%20Boston/AboutPortofBoston.aspx, September 201184“Big polluters: one massive container ship equals 50 million cars”, Paul, Evans, http://www.gizmag.com/shipping-pollution/11526/, April 23,200985Savemayportvillage.net, “Cruise Ship Pollution”, http://www.savemayportvillage.net/id20.html, October, 2011
  • 25. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201225MASSACHUSETTSCONCLUSIONHydrogen and fuel cell technology offers significant opportunities for improved energy reliability, energyefficiency, and emission reductions. Large fuel cell units (>300 kW) may be appropriate for applicationsthat serve large electric and thermal loads. Smaller fuel cell units (< 300 kW) may provide back-up powerfor telecommunication sites, restaurants/fast food outlets, and smaller sized public facilities at this time.Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell ApplicationsCategory Total SitesPotentialSitesNumber of FuelCells< 300 kWNumber ofFuel Cells>300 kWCBECSDataEducation 2,993 59486378 216Food Sales 7,000+ 23787237Food Services 10,000+ 848884Inpatient Healthcare 691 798979Lodging 1358 22390223Public Order & Safety 603 489148Energy Intensive Industries 787 769276Government OperatedBuildings187 169316WirelessTelecommunicationTowers58394589558WWTPs 143 4964Landfills 22 2972Airports (w/ AASF) 76 9 (2) 9813Military 3 3 3Ports 20 5 5Total 24,466 1,438 436 1,002As shown in Table 5, the analysis provided here estimates that there are approximately 1,438 potentiallocations, which may be favorable candidates for the application of a fuel cell to provide heat and power.Assuming the demand for electricity was uniform throughout the year, approximately 753 to 1,002 fuel86594 high schools and/or college and universities located in communities serviced by natural gas87237 food sale facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas88Ten percent of the 648 food service facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas8979 Hospitals located in communities serviced by natural gas and occupying 100 or more beds onsite90136 hotel facilities with 100+ rooms onsite and 87 convalescent homes with 150+ bed onsite located in communities servicedby natural gas91County, state, or federal prisons/correctional facilities and/or other public order and safety facilities with 212 or more works.92Ten percent of the 761 energy intensive industry facilities located in communities with natural gas.9316 actively owned federal government operated building located in communities serviced by natural gas94The Federal Communications Commission regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire,satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.95Ten percent of the 583 wireless telecommunication sites in Massachusetts’ targeted for back-up PEM fuel cell deployment96Ten percent of Massachusetts WWTP with average flows of 3.0+ MGD97Ten percent of the landfills targeted based on LMOP data.98Airport facilities with 2,500+ annual Enplanement Counts and/or with AASF
  • 26. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201226MASSACHUSETTScell units, with a capacity of 300 – 400 kW, could be deployed for a total fuel cell capacity of 301 to 401MWs.If all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations with 300 kW units, a minimum of 2.37million MWh electric and 6.39 million MMBTUs (equivalent to 1.87 million MWh) of thermal energywould be produced, which could reduce CO2 emissions by at least 842,445 tons per year.99Massachusetts can also benefit from the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation suchas passenger fleets, transit district fleets, and general fleets. The application of hydrogen and fuel celltechnology for transportation would reduce the dependence on oil, improve environmental performanceand provide greater efficiencies than conventional transportation technologies.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled passenger vehicle with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately 10,170 pounds, annual energy savings of 230gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $885.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled light duty trucks with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per light duty truck) of approximately 15,770 pounds, annual energy savingsof 485 gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $1866.• Replacement of a diesel-fueled transit bus with a fuel cell powered bus could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per bus) of approximately 182,984 pounds, annual energy savings of 4,390gallons of fuel, and annual fuel cost savings of $17,560.Hydrogen and fuel cell technology also provides significant opportunities for job creation and/oreconomic development. Realizing approximately $171 million in revenue and investment from theirparticipation in this regional cluster in 2010, the hydrogen and fuel cell industry in Massachusetts isestimated to have contributed over $9 million in state and local tax revenue, and over $147 million ingross state product. Currently, there are more than 300 Massachusetts companies that are part of thegrowing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the Northeast region. Nine of these companiesare defined as OEMs, and were responsible for supplying 346 direct jobs and $59.6 million in directrevenue and investment in 2010. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology were to gainmomentum, the number of companies and employment for the industry could grow substantially.99If all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations with 400 kW units, a minimum of 3.34 million MWh electricand 15.66 million MMBTUs (equivalent to 4.59 million MWh) of thermal energy would be produced, which could reduce CO2emissions by at least 1.18 million tons per year.
  • 27. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201227MASSACHUSETTSAPPENDICES
  • 28. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201228MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 1: Education
  • 29. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201229MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales
  • 30. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201230MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 3: Food Services
  • 31. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201231MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare
  • 32. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201232MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 5: Lodging
  • 33. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201233MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety
  • 34. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201234MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries
  • 35. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201235MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings
  • 36. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201236MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites
  • 37. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201237MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites
  • 38. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201238MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports
  • 39. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201239MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations
  • 40. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201240MASSACHUSETTSAppendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports
  • 41. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201241MASSACHUSETTSAppendix II – Massachusetts Estimated Electrical Consumption per SectorCategory Total SiteElectric Consumption per Building(1000 kWh)100kWh Consumed per SectorNew EnglandEducation 2,788 161.844 451,221,072Food Sales 7,000 319.821 2,238,747,000Food Services 10,000 128 1,281,900,000Inpatient Healthcare 691 6,038.63 4,172,689,875Lodging 1,358 213.12 289,414,244Public Order & Safety 781 77.855 55,899,890Total 22,555 8,489,872,081Residential10120,539,000,000Industrial 9,870,000,000Commercial 26,415,000,000Other Commercial 8,489,872,081100EIA, Electricity consumption and expenditure intensities for Non-Mall Building 2003101DOE EERE, “Electric Power and Renewable Energy in Massachusetts”,http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/electricity.cfm/state=MA , August, 2011
  • 42. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201242MASSACHUSETTSAppendix III – Key StakeholdersOrganization Town State WebsiteMassachusetts MunicipalAssociationCommunications &Membership DivisionBoston MA http://www.mma.org/home-mainmenu-1Massachusetts HydrogenCoalition, Inc.Medway MA http://www.massh2.org/International GreenTechnology Trade CenterTrade center 128Woburn MA http://igttc128.com/Massachusetts CleanEnergy Center(MassCEC)Boston MA http://www.masscec.com/Department of EnergyResources (DOER)Boston MA http://www.mass.gov/MassachusettsTechnology LeadershipCouncil for EnergyWaltham MA http://www.mhtc.org/Massachusetts Departmentof TransportationBoston MA http://www.massdot.state.ma.us/Massachusetts EmergencyManagement AgencyFramingham MA http://www.mass.gov/Massachusetts Departmentof Public UtilitiesBoston MA http://www.mass.gov/Department ofEnvironmental ProtectionBoston MA http://www.mass.gov/UtilitiesBay State Gas http://www.columbiagasma.com/en/home.aspxBerkshire Gas http://www.berkshiregas.com/National Grid (Keyspan) http://www.nationalgridus.com/National Grid (Massachusetts Electric) http://www.nationalgridus.com/NSTAR http://www.nstar.com/residential/Unitil http://www.unitil.com/customer-configurationWMECO http://www.wmeco.com/
  • 43. Appendix IV – Massachusetts State IncentivesFunding Source: Massachusetts Department of RevenueProgram Title: Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent ExemptionApplicable Energies/Technologies: Passive Solar Space Heat, Solar Water Heat, Solar SpaceHeat, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Photovoltaic, Wind, Biomass,Hydroelectric, Geothermal Electric, Fuel Cells, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal SolidWaste, Fuel Cells using Renewable FuelsSummary: Massachusetts offers a corporate excise tax deductionRestrictions:(1) Any income -- including royalty income -- received from the sale or lease of a U.S. patentdeemed beneficial for energy conservation or alternative energy development by the MassachusettsDepartment of Energy Resources.(2) Any income received from the sale or lease of personal or real property or materialsmanufactured in Massachusetts and subject to the approved patent.Timing: The deduction is effective for up to five years from the date of issuance of the U.S. patentor the date of approval by the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, whichever expiresfirst.Maximum Size:100% deductionRequirements:See Massachusetts Department of Revenue “830 CMR 62.6.1 Residential Energy credit”http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=dorterminal&L=6&L0=Home&L1=Businesses&L2=Help+%26+Resources&L3=Legal+Library&L4=Regulations+(CMRs)&L5=62.00%3a+Income+Tax&sid=Ador&b=terminalcontent&f=dor_rul_reg_reg_830_cmr_62_6_1&csid=AdorRebate amount: NAFor further information, please visit:http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=dorhomepage&L=1&L0=Home&sid=AdorSource:Massachusetts Department of Revenue “830 CMR 62.6.1 Residential Energy credit”, September 6,2011DSIRE “Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption”, September 6, 2011
  • 44. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201244Appendix V – Partial list of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Supply Chain Companies in Massachusetts102Organization Name Product or Service Category1 Anderson Insulation, Inc. Materials2 Inform Design Other3 Spectrum Analytical Lab or Test Equipment/Services4 TW Metals Materials5 HDM Systems Equipment6 MKS Instruments, Inc Equipment7 Trilogic Other8 Vicor Components9 Kidde-Fenwal (UTC Fire & Security) Lab or Test Equipment/Services10 Engineered Materials Solutions Materials11 Sensata Technologies Components12 Vennerbeck Stern Leach Materials13 Distron Corp. Manufacturing Services14 AIM Welding Supply Equipment15 Mastermans Lab or Test Equipment/Services16 Northern Machinery Sales, Inc. Equipment17 Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC Hydrogen System OEM18 Orion Industries Manufacturing Services19 Continental Resources Lab or Test Equipment/Services20 Thermal Products Components21 Meridian Associates, Inc. Other22 Oxford Global Other23 Standley Bros. Machine Co., Inc. Manufacturing Services24 Aotco Metal Finishing Materials25 Cambridge Valve & Fitting Components26 K2 Engineering Services, Inc. Manufacturing Services27 Linde Gas Fuel28 Millipore Corp Equipment29 Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM30 Honematic Machine Corp. Components31 American Meteorological Society Other32 Atkins Associates Consulting/Legal/Financial Services33 Bell Pottinger USA Consulting/Legal/Financial Services34 CT Corporation Consulting/Legal/Financial Services35 Edwards Angell Palmer & Dodge Consulting/Legal/Financial Services36 Ferriter Scobbo & Rodophele, PC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services37 Foley Hoag LLP Consulting/Legal/Financial Services38 Graybar Electric Components39 Massachusettes Department of Energy Resources Other40 ONeill & Associates Consulting/Legal/Financial Services41 SatCon Equipment42 Tekscan Inc Other43 Wolf Greenfield Consulting/Legal/Financial Services44 NTS Acton Division Lab or Test Equipment/Services102Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, August11, 2011
  • 45. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201245Organization Name Product or Service Category45 National Technical Systems Lab or Test Equipment/Services46 Setra Sensing Solutions Components47 InnoChem Inc. Materials48 Luvak Inc Lab or Test Equipment/Services49 Knowledge Foundation Consulting/Legal/Financial Services50 Comsol, Inc. Components51 D.B. Roberts, Inc. Components52 DGI-Invisuals Components53 Entegee Inc (dba ACS National) Other54 Advent Components55 Fraunhofer - Center for Sustainable Energy Systems Other56 Sun Catalytix Components57 Tiax LLC Research & Development58 Abbott Action Other59 Alliance Scale Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services60 Eagle Electric Equipment61 High Output, Inc Equipment62 HMC Electronics Equipment63 Maltz Sales Company Inc. Equipment64 Northeast Engineering Inc. Components65 Safety Source Northeast Other66 Comstat/Division of GTS Components67 E&S Technologies, Inc. Components68 High Tech Machinists Manufacturing Services69 Japenamelac Inc. Materials70 Jay Engineering Manufacturing Services71 New England Time and Systems Other72 Standard Electric Components73 Affordable Duct Cleaning Other74 Electro- Term Hollingsworth Inc. Components75 Hoppe Technologies Equipment76 Microtek, Inc. Manufacturing Services77 Notch Mechanical Other78 Topac, Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services79 Banner Industries Components80 Piping Specialties, Inc. Components81 Controls For Automation Components82 Precision Hydraulic, Inc. Equipment83 Intergra Companies Inc Components84 Sirius Integrator FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services85 Dakota Systems Manufacturing Services86 Designers Metalcraft Manufacturing Services87 United Industrial Services Equipment88 McGill Hose&Co. Inc. Components89 Middlesex Gases & Technologies Materials90 Harbor Freight Components91 Invensys Process Systems Lab or Test Equipment/Services92 Neponset Controls Components93 Teltron Engineering, Inc Components Components
  • 46. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201246Organization Name Product or Service Category94 Sentrol Inc Components95 Workflow Strategies Other96 Air Inc. Components97 Pierce Aluminum Materials98 Resh, Inc. Components99 Schwarzkopf Technologies Corp. Components100 Jacks Machine Co. Manufacturing Services101 United Shoe Machinery Corp. Other102 Engineered Pressure Systems Components103 Plastic Distributors& Fab.,Inc Manufacturing Services104 American Durafilm Co Materials105 Iwaki America Inc. Equipment106 Lista International Other107 Total Recoil Magnetics Equipment108 Diversified Vending LLC Other109 Hy9 Corp Hydrogen System OEM110 Internexsys Consulting/Legal/Financial Services111 Trenergi Corp Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM112 ACT Electronics , Inc. Equipment113 Clark Solutions Equipment114 Caton Connector, Inc. Components115 Ray Murray, Inc. Components116 New England Fabricated Metals Manufacturing Services117 CryoGas International Fuel118 Safe Hydrogen Hydrogen System119 Abraic Inc Consulting/Legal/Financial Services120 Control Resources Components121 Ballard Material Products Materials122 Arco Welding Supply Co. Inc. Equipment123 ASTRODYNE Consulting/Legal/Financial Services124 New England Controls Equipment125 DA-SH Components Components126 Aspen Systems, Inc. Equipment127 Device Technologies Inc. Components128 Marlborough Foundry, Inc. Components129 Nanoptek Hydrogen System OEM130 Doe & Ingalls, Inc. Materials131 Stormship Studios Other132 Massachusetts Hydrogen Coalition Other133 King Gage Eng. Corp. Lab or Test Equipment/Services134 ULVAC Technologies Equipment135 Selmark Materials136 FIBA Technologies Equipment137 Future Solar Systems Engineering/Design Services138 Interstate Rigging, LLC Transportation/Packing Services & Supplies139 Atlantic Stainless Co., Inc. Materials140 Cal-Tek Lab or Test Equipment/Services141 Debco Machine, Inc. Manufacturing Services142 Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies Materials
  • 47. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201247Organization Name Product or Service Category143 The Mathworks Components144 Detronics c/o Carl Lueders Co FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services145 Fortune Metal Finishing Corp. Manufacturing Services146 Northeast Energy and Commerce Association Other147 Parametric Technologies Other148 H.Loeb Corp Components149 Precix, Inc Components150 Accutek Microcircuit Lab or Test Equipment/Services151 Arwood Machine Manufacturing Services152 Rochester Electronics, Inc. Components153 Zampell Refractories Equipment154 Zar-Tech Inc. Materials155 Fuel Cell Intelligence Consulting/Legal/Financial Services156 H.C. Starck Inc. Materials157 L-Com, Inc. Components158 Action Automation & Controls Components159 S.M. Engineering & Heat Treating, Inc Components160 American Power Conversion Components161 E and S Technologies, Inc. Components162 Plastic Design Inc. Manufacturing Services163 Symmetry Electronics Components164 The Hope Group Components165 Aramark Wear Guard Other166 Clean Harbors Environmental Other167 HTG Technologies Components168 Americad Technology Manufacturing Services169 Gibson Engineering Company, Inc. Other170 GQ Machine Components171 Grainger Components172 Instant Sign Center Other173 Instron Lab or Test Equipment/Services174 MRG Components175 Need Personnel Placement Other176 Print Central Other177 SolidVision Other178 Avnet Components179 ETA Associates, Inc. Components180 Flow Serve Components181 Eastern Industrial Products Equipment182 Pittsfield Plastics Components183 Tech-Etch, Inc. Components184 Chenette Plumbing & Heating Equipment185 Granite City Electric Supply Components186 National Fire Protection Association Other187 Accurate Metal Finishing Manufacturing Services188 Emerson Swan Equipment189 Packaging Unlimited Other190 TEK Stainless Piping Products Materials191 Energy Machinery, Inc Components
  • 48. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201248Organization Name Product or Service Category192 Molt Electronic, Inc. Equipment193 Envirotech Laboratories, Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services194 Brodie Companies Other195 In Metal Components196 Innovative Marketing Resources Consulting/Legal/Financial Services197 Leading Innovative Products & Solutions, Inc. Materials198 Advanced Microsensors Components199 Control Point Mechanical Other200 Process Control Solution Lab or Test Equipment/Services201 Whatman Inc Manufacturing Services202 My Marketing Manager Consulting/Legal/Financial Services203 Rogers Foam Corporation Materials204 Crystal Technica Ltd USA Components205 Maine Oxy Hydrogen System206 Protonex Technology Corp Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM207 SpecAir Specialty Gases Components208 L J Fiorello Corporation Other209 M&R Optical Lab or Test Equipment/Services210 Bassette Printers Other211 Joseph Freedman Components212 Lindgren and Sharples Consulting/Legal/Financial Services213 Lumus Construction Consulting/Legal/Financial Services214 Mitchell Machine Manufacturing Services215 Modern Plastics Components216 NorthEast Poly Bag Co. Manufacturing Services217 TSG Equity Partners LLC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services218 Griffith, Peter Consulting/Legal/Financial Services219 Raytheon FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services220 Atlas Box & Crating Co. Other221 General Dynamics C4 Systems Other222 Millennium Die Group Components223 Atlantic Semiconductor Components224 Mass Crane & Hoist Other225 Pear Cable, Inc. Equipment226 Cases-Cases Other227 Minuteman Controls Components228 Montrose Hydraulics Equipment229 Advanced Technology Innovation Corp Consulting/Legal/Financial Services230 Sensortechnics, Inc Components231 BTU Industries Components232 Electronic Fastener Components233 Foster-Miller (QinetiQ) FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services234 IQT IN-Q-Tel Consulting/Legal/Financial Services235 Johnstone Supply Equipment236 Morse Barnes Brown Pendelton Consulting/Legal/Financial Services237 Pro-Calibration, LLC Lab or Test Equipment/Services238 QinetiQ (Foster Miller) FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services239 Texas Instruments Components240 Alfa Aesar Materials
  • 49. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201249Organization Name Product or Service Category241 Lelanite Corp Manufacturing Services242 Firexplo Other243 John Shelley Company Components244 Columbia Tech Components245 DCI Automation Manufacturing Services246 Industrial Automation Systems, Inc. Manufacturing Services247 Sunburst EMS Manufacturing Services248 Turner Steel Co, Inc. Materials249 Quirk Wire Co. Components250 Pharmaceutics Lab or Test Equipment/Services251 Advanced Electronic Controls Components252 Atlantic Fasteners Equipment253 Fountain Plating Manufacturing Services254 CellTech Power, Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM256 Air Compressor Engineering Equipment257 Berkshire Group LTD Manufacturing Services258 Dirats and Co., Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services259 Millrite Machine Manufacturing Services260 Assembly Products, Inc. Equipment261 Beyond Components, Inc. Components262 Kolver USA, LLC Equipment263 Nextek FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services264 Reactive Innovations, LLC Components265 Hy-Technical Electrical Contracting Equipment266 Acumentrics Corporation Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM267 Nano-C Inc. Materials268 Target Electronic Supply, Inc. Components269 ACE Assembly Other270 Arrow Electronics Equipment271 Datapaq Inc Lab or Test Equipment/Services272 Heilind/Force Electronics Components273 Liliputian Systems, Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM274 Analytical Answers, Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services275 Boston Centerless Materials276 Concepts NREC Equipment277 ElectroChem Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services278 Fikst Research & Development279 Greene Rubber Inc. Components280 Gregstrom Corporation Components281 Kaman Industrial Technologies Components282 Pacer Electronics, Inc. Equipment283 Parker Hannifin Components284 PoroGen Corporation Materials285 Vaisala Components286 ZTEK Corp Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM287 Infinity Equipment288 Omni Services, Inc. Components289 Rand Whitney Container LLC Components290 Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics Components
  • 50. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201250Organization Name Product or Service Category291 Airline Hydraulics Corporation Components292 Bernard Die, Inc. Components293 Battery Shop of New England, Inc. Components294 CCA Wesco Components295 Central Steel Supply Company Inc. Components296 Crown Equipment Corporation Components297 Deluxe Systems, Inc. Components298 Dynamic Chromium Industries, Inc. Components299 Essco Calibration Laboratory Components300 First Electric Motor Service Components301 Houghton Chemical Components302 L.F. O’Leary Company Components303 Lehigh-Armstrong Inc. Components304 Liberty Supplies Inc. Components305 Lincoln Tool & Machine Corp. Components306 Metric Screw & Tool Co. Components307 MicroVision Laboratories, Inc. Components308 New England Crating Components309 Northeast Electrical Distributors Components310 OEM Supply, Inc. Components311 TM Electronics, Inc. Components312 Toupin Industrial Warehousing Inc. Components313 Triboro Supply Components314 United Electric Controls Components
  • 51. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201251Appendix VI – Partial List of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Original Equipment Manufacturers(OEMs) in Massachusetts103Organization’s Name Product or Service Category Website1 Protonex Technology Corp Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.protonex.com/2 Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.nuvera.com/3 Lilliputian Systems, Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.lilliputiansystemsinc.com/4Giner ElectrochemicalSystems, LLCFuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.ginerinc.com/5 ZTEK Corp Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.ztekcorporation.com/6 Acumentrics Corporation Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.acumentrics.com/7 Hy9 Corp Hydrogen System OEM http://hy9.com/8 ElectroChem, Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.electrocheminc.com/9 Trenergi Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM http://www.trenergi.com/103Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, August11, 2011
  • 52. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201252Appendix VI – Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies104Fuel CellTypeCommonElectrolyteOperatingTemperatureTypicalStackSizeEfficiency Applications Advantages DisadvantagesPolymerElectrolyteMembrane(PEM)Perfluoro sulfonicacid50-100°C122-212°typically80°C< 1 kW – 1MW105>kW 60%transportation35%stationary• Backup power• Portable power• Distributedgeneration• Transportation• Specialty vehicle• Solid electrolyte reducescorrosion & electrolytemanagement problems• Low temperature• Quick start-up• Expensive catalysts• Sensitive to fuelimpurities• Low temperature wasteheatAlkaline(AFC)Aqueous solutionof potassiumhydroxide soakedin a matrix90-100°C194-212°F10 – 100kW60%• Military• Space• Cathode reaction fasterin alkaline electrolyte,leads to high performance• Low cost components• Sensitive to CO2in fuel and air• Electrolyte managementPhosphoricAcid(PAFC)Phosphoric acidsoaked in a matrix150-200°C302-392°F400 kW100 kWmodule40%• Distributedgeneration• Higher temperature enablesCHP• Increased tolerance to fuelimpurities• Pt catalyst• Long start up time• Low current and powerMoltenCarbonate(MCFC)Solution of lithium,sodium and/orpotassiumcarbonates, soakedin a matrix600-700°C1112-1292°F300k W- 3 MW300 kWmodule45 – 50%• Electric utility• Distributedgeneration• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Suitable for CHP• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• Long start up time• Low power densitySolid Oxide(SOFC)Yttria stabilizedzirconia700-1000°C1202-1832°F1 kW – 2MW60%• Auxiliary power• Electric utility• Distributedgeneration• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Solid electrolyte• Suitable f o r CHP & CHHP• Hybrid/GT cycle• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• High temperatureoperation requires longstart uptime and limitsPolymer Electrolyte is no longer a single category row. Data shown does not take into account High Temperature PEM which operates in the range of 160oC to 180oC. It solvesvirtually all of the disadvantages listed under PEM. It is not sensitive to impurities. It has usable heat. Stack efficiencies of 52% on the high side are realized. HTPEM is not aPAFC fuel cell and should not be confused with one.104U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cells Technology Program, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/pdfs/fc_comparison_chart.pdf, August 5, 2011105Ballard, “CLEARgen Multi-MY Systems”, http://www.ballard.com/fuel-cell-products/cleargen-multi-mw-systems.aspx, November, 2011
  • 53. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201253Appendix VIII –Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats for MassachusettsStrengthsStationary Power – Strong market drivers (elect cost,environmental factors, critical power), PEMFC technology andindustrial base available. Several OEM’s includingAcumentrics, Nuvera, and Trenergi.Transportation Power - Strong market drivers (appeal tomarket, environmental factors), strong indigenous technologyand industrial base in PEMFC industrial applications (forktrucks), PEMFC and SOFC military apps, H2Gen, H2infrastructure plansPortable Power – Strong technology/industry base (Protonex,Giner, Liliputian)Economic Development Factors – Supportive state policies,active efforts to recruit/promote MA tech companies,technically trained workforceWeaknessesStationary Power – cost/performance improvements requiredacross industry, MA needs further SOFC progress to compete at200+ kW size scaleTransportation Power – hydrogen infrastructure build outtimeline, plus cost/performance improvements required acrossindustryEconomic Development Factors – State incentives need to belonger term to induce real market penetrationOpportunitiesStationary Power – MA has several SOFC technologydevelopers.Transportation Power –Because of its existing OEM’s inhydrogen generation/purification, MA has potential to benefitsignificantly with general H2/transportation growthPortable Power – Already strong, opportunities to bridge frommilitary to broader industrial/consumer marketsEconomic Development Factors – strong export opportunities,also MA can leverage its significant research and technologyresources to promote its hydrogen/fuel cell industryThreatsStationary Power – General impatience in both investor andgovernment communities towards long SOFC developmenttimeframes. Progress and stronger government support ofother renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind,geothermalTransportation Power – Electric vehicles are both a threat, inthat they “raise the bar” from traditional internal combustion,and an opportunity as an automotive platform that canaccommodate fuel cells as the next phaseEconomic Development Factors – competition from otherstates/regions and state resources have been preoccupied withwind and solar technologies
  • 54. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201254Appendix IX – Partial list of Fuel Cell Deployment in the Northeast regionManufacturer Site Name Site LocationYearInstalledPlug Power T-Mobile cell tower Storrs CT 2008Plug Power Albany International Airport Albany NY 2004FuelCell Energy Pepperidge Farms Plant Bloomfield CT 2005FuelCell Energy Peabody Museum New Haven CT 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers Manhattan NY 2004FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Edison NJ 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Parsippany NJ 2003UTC Power Cabelas Sporting Goods East Hartford CT 2008UTC Power Whole Foods Market Glastonbury CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Science Center Hartford CT 2009UTC Power St. Francis Hospital Hartford CT 2003UTC Power Middletown High School Middletown CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Juvenile Training School Middletown CT 2001UTC Power 360 State Street Apartment Building New Haven CT 2010UTC Power South Windsor High School South Windsor CT 2002UTC Power Mohegan Sun Casino Hotel Uncasville CT 2002UTC Power CTTransit: Fuel Cell Bus Hartford CT 2007UTC Power Whole Foods Market Dedham MA 2009UTC Power Bronx Zoo Bronx NY 2008UTC Power North Central Bronx Hospital Bronx NY 2000UTC Power Hunts Point Water Pollution Control Plant Bronx NY 2005UTC Power Price Chopper Supermarket Colonie NY 2010UTC Power East Rochester High School East Rochester NY 2007UTC Power Coca-Cola Refreshments Production Facility Elmsford NY 2010UTC Power Verizon Call Center and Communications Building Garden City NY 2005UTC Power State Office Building Hauppauge NY 2009UTC Power Liverpool High School Liverpool NY 2000UTC Power New York Hilton Hotel New York City NY 2007UTC Power Central Park Police Station New York City NY 1999UTC Power Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester NY 1993UTC Power NYPA office building White Plains NY 2010UTC Power Wastewater treatment plant Yonkers NY 1997UTC Power The Octagon Roosevelt Island NY 2011UTC Power Johnson & Johnson World Headquarters New Brunswick NJ 2003UTC Power CTTRANSIT (Fuel Cell Powered Buses) Hartford CT2007 -Present
  • 55. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201255Appendix X – Partial list of Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America106Company City/Town State SiteYearDeployedFuel CellManufacturer# offorkliftsCoca-ColaSan Leandro CABottling anddistribution center2011 Plug Power 37Charlotte NC Bottling facility 2011 Plug Power 40EARPDistributionKansas City KS Distribution center 2011OorjaProtonics24Golden StateFoodsLemont IL Distribution facility 2011OorjaProtonics20Kroger Co. Compton CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 161SyscoRiverside CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 80Boston MA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 160Long Island NY Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 42San Antonio TX Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 113Front Royal VARedistributionfacility2011 Plug Power 100BaldorSpecialty FoodsBronx NY FacilityPlannedin 2012OorjaProtonics50BMWManufacturingCo.Spartanburg SCManufacturingplant2010 Plug Power 86DefenseLogisticsAgency, U.S.Department ofDefenseSan Joaquin CA Distribution facility 2011 Plug Power 20Fort Lewis WA Distribution depot 2011 Plug Power 19WarnerRobinsGA Distribution depot 2010 Hydrogenics 20Susquehanna PA Distribution depot2010 Plug Power 152009 Nuvera 40Martin-Brower Stockton CAFood distributioncenter2010OorjaProtonics15United NaturalFoods Inc.(UNFI)Sarasota FL Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 65Wal-MartBalzacAl,CanadaRefrigerateddistribution center2010 Plug Power 80WashingtonCourt HouseOHFood distributioncenter2007 Plug Power 55Wegmans Pottsville PA Warehouse 2010 Plug Power 136Whole FoodsMarketLandover MD Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 61106FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America”, http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/forklifts.pdf, November,2011
  • 56. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201256Appendix XI – Comparison of PEM Fuel Cell and Battery-Powered Material HandlingEquipment3 kW PEM Fuel Cell-PoweredPallet Trucks3 kW Battery-powered(2 batteries per truck)Total Fuel Cycle Energy Use(total energy consumed/kWhdelivered to the wheels)-12,000 Btu/kWh 14,000 Btu/kWhFuel Cycle GHG Emissions(in g CO2 equivalent820 g/kWh 1200 g/kWhEstimated Product Life 8-10 years 4-5 yearsNo Emissions at Point of Use  Quiet Operation  Wide Ambient OperatingTemperature range Constant Power Availableover ShiftRoutine Maintenance Costs($/YR)$1,250 - $1,500/year $2,000/yearTime for Refueling/ChangingBatteries4 – 8 min./day 45-60 min/day (for battery change-outs)8 hours (for battery recharging & cooling)Cost of Fuel/Electricity $6,000/year $1,300/yearLabor Cost ofrefueling/Recharging$1,100/year $8,750/yearNet Present Value of CapitalCost$12,600($18,000 w/o incentive)$14,000Net Present Value of O&Mcosts (including fuel)$52,000 $128,000

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