Tec mty guadalajara-power-bertrand-caron-11-03-11

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This presentation is about the need for change in higher education through online learning and proposes a solution to Daniel's Iron Triangle by associating stakeholder priorities.

This presentation is about the need for change in higher education through online learning and proposes a solution to Daniel's Iron Triangle by associating stakeholder priorities.

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  • 1. Designing  Sustainable Online Learning:  an international perspective  Dr. Michael PowerCampus Guadalajara
  • 2. QUEBEC CITY – 2008 = 400th www.ulaval.ca16-01-07
  • 3. LAVAL UNIVERSITY – QUEBEC CITY, CANADA • 2ND OLDEST in CA‐ USA after Harvard • +35 K  students • Top 10 in Canada • French‐language  university www.ulaval.ca16-01-07
  • 4. WHY ONLINE LEARNING?• WORLD‐CLASS EXPERTISE  (1,400 PROFESSORS)• LARGE UNIVERSITY,  SMALL CITY• MANY UNMET NEEDS  REGIONALLY,  NATIONALLY AND  INTERNATIONALLY• NEED FOR OUTREACH• VIRTUALLY UNLIMITED  www.ulaval.ca POTENTIAL FOR GROWTH  ONLINE 16-01-07
  • 5. Higher Education Hundreds of years of tradition… http://tenthmedieval.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/lecturing‐778306.jpg
  • 6. Higher Education in the 21st century:  Major Studies, Major Trends  http://www.flickr.com/photos/webmonk/1470292918/
  • 7. STUDIES UNESCOTo remain human and liveable, knowledge societies will have to be societies of shared knowledge. 2005
  • 8. …every four years the amount of information available in the world doubles……it is projected that by 2020 knowledge will double every 73 days!up‐to‐date scientific knowledge and technology... http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php‐URL_ID=25929&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
  • 9. 2009!ImportantStudy on OnlineLearning US Department of Education 2009
  • 10. 1,000 empirical studies later... …on average, students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face‐to‐face instruction. (…)… positive effects associated with blended learning
  • 11. 2010!Important Study  MARCH 2010The National Educational Technology on Educational  Plan (NETP)  Technology:aims at a revolutionary transformation rather thansmall, gradual changes… US Department of Education 2010
  • 12. …disruptive innovation... a process by which a sector that has previously served only a limited few …(…)… is transformed into one whose products and services are simple, affordable, and convenient...http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2011/02/pdf/disrupting_college_execsumm.pdf
  • 13. Online learning is sweeping across America. In the year 2000, roughly 45,000 K–12 students took an online course. In 2009, more than 3 million K–12 students did.http://www.innosightinstitute.org/media‐room/publications/education‐publications/the‐rise‐of‐k‐12‐blended‐learning/ 
  • 14. 21st century readiness for every student
  • 15. Traditional Universities  must CHANGE NOWhttp://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/domenicogelermo/domenicogelermo0810/domenicogelermo081000060/3706694.jpghttp://images.google.ca/
  • 16. Shaping From scholars on foot… The MIND ejmas.com
  • 17. Shaping From scholars on foot… The MIND to scholars online ejmas.com
  • 18. Shaping From scholars on foot… The MIND to scholars online ejmas.com
  • 19. www.obhe.ac.ukTransnational education
  • 20. D. Olcott DEMAND THE GAP SUPPLYDon Olcott CE OBHE http://www.obhe.ac.uk/resources/2008_AUA_Presentation.pdf
  • 21. A worldwide problem A worldwide problem 
  • 22. OBHE –Olcott/HannaRosovsky (2005):“By 2010, there will be a hundred millionstudents in the world fully qualified toproceed from secondary education to tertiaryeducation for which there will simply beno room on any campus, anywhere”.
  • 23. Teacher Education through Open & Distance Learning (09‐10) “It is now clear that “bricks and  mortar” approaches to expanding  teacher education may not be  adequate if the current and  projected shortfalls in teacher  supply and low teacher quality are  to be properly addressed”.
  • 24. ON‐CAMPUS TEACHING A tradition continues…30
  • 25. ON‐CAMPUS TEACHING A tradition continues… one of EXCLUSION… If we, as faculty, do not redesign our31 university, who will? 
  • 26. Online Graduate Studies… world‐wideAsynchronous Synchronous tools tools © M. Power 2008
  • 27. Aligning Research Centers and Graduate Programs http://sites.google.com/site/changchienlily/BlankWorldMap.gif
  • 28. Latin Americaand QuébecSynchronousCommunications 1 1
  • 29. AchievingSustainable Online Learning
  • 30. www.irrodl.org
  • 31. The challenge of sustainability• Maintaining or increasing QUALITY• Increasing ACCESSIBILITY• Decreasing COSTHOW DO WE DO THAT?WHAT HAVE WE DONE THUS FAR?WHAT HAS WORKED and WHAT HASN’T?
  • 32. Daniel’s “Iron Triangle” ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle Current  effect, the State IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 33. Optimizing Higher Education ACCESS QUALITY ACCESS QUALITY Desired  Current  State State COST COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 34. Increase Accessibility? ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle Current  effect, the State IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 35. Increase Accessibility? =  increase Cost & lower Quality ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle effect, the IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 36. Increase Accessibility? =  increase Cost & lower Quality ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle effect, the IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 37. Increase Quality? ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle Current  effect, the State IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 38. Increase Quality?= increase Cost & lower Accessibility ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle effect, the IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 39. Increase Quality?= increase Cost & lower Accessibility ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle effect, the IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 40. Lower COST? ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle Current  effect, the State IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 41. Lower COST?= lower Accessibility & lower Quality ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle effect, the IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 42. Lower COST?= lower Accessibility & lower Quality ACCESS QUALITY Sir John Daniel termed the three variable- based triangle effect, the IRON TRIANGLE COSTSource: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Daniel_0411AAOUShanghai.pdf
  • 43. BREAKING OUT OF THE “Iron Triangle” ACCESS QUALITY COST
  • 44. The challenge of sustainability• Maintaining or increasing QUALITY• Increasing ACCESSIBILITY• Decreasing COSTHOW DO WE DO THAT?WHAT HAVE WE DONE THUS FAR?WHAT HAS WORKED and WHAT HASN’T?
  • 45. ACCESSIBILITY STUDENTS Main Main priority priority ADMIN FACULTY COST‐ QUALITYEFFECTIVENESS Main priority Power, 2010
  • 46. STUDENTSADMIN FACULTY
  • 47. Traditional, campus-bound studiesUp to post-WWII,very few changes Qualityafter 700 years Overriding valueof existence(Keegan, 1996).•Elitist & Accessibility Traditional Not a valueundemocratic Universities•Incompatible with emerging post-WW2 values/needs http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_242/1204324714C372RB.jpg
  • 48. Traditional, campus-bound studiesPost- WW2:need for expansion Qualityof the university Diminishing valuesystem Accessibility Traditional Overriding value Universities http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_242/1204324714C372RB.jpg
  • 49. STILL A QUALITY LEARNING EXPERIENCE? http://www.ibiblio.org/cccr/AustraliaPhotos/Preview005.png
  • 50. The emergence of Distance EducationDistance Education addressing Accessibility Main value + Quality Sustained value Traditional Universities http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_242/1204324714C372RB.jpg
  • 51. The emergence of Distance EducationDistance Education addressing Accessibility Main value + Quality Sustained value Traditional Universities http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_242/1204324714C372RB.jpg
  • 52. The emergence of Distance Education Distance Education addressing - MAINLY UNDERGRADUATE - Negligible impact Accessibility Main value - Never went mainstream (Moore & Kearsley, 2004) + Quality Sustained value Open/Dist. Traditional Universities UniversitiesCOST-EFFECTIVENESS http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_242/1204324714C372RB.jpg
  • 53. The emergence of Online learningDistance Education Online Learning-Low regular COST-EFFECTIVENESS Overriding value faculty participation (Shea, 2005; Sammons & Ruth, + 2009) Accessibility-System within a Parallel value system Traditional Universities becoming Dual-Mode Universities http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_242/1204324714C372RB.jpg
  • 54. The emergence of Online learningDistance Education Online Learning-Low regular COST-EFFECTIVENESS Overriding value faculty participation (Shea, 2005; Sammons & Ruth, + 2009) Accessibility-System within a Parallel value system Traditional Universities becoming Dual-Mode Universities http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_242/1204324714C372RB.jpg
  • 55. The emergence of Blended LearningOnline Learning Blended Learning- Exerting a stronger influence COST-EFFECTIVENESS Overriding value CAMPUS ONLINE DUAL-MODE UNIVERSITY PC One week on ICT Back ‘n forth Accessibility One week off Diminished value (Harasim, 2000; Seaman & Allen, 2008) http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_242/1204324714C372RB.jpg
  • 56. HOW DO WE BALANCE THESE VALUES? STUDENTS Accessibility Overriding value ADMIN FACULTYCOST-EFFECTIVENESS Quality Overriding value Overriding value http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_242/1204324714C372RB.jpg
  • 57. Accessibility, Quality and Cost‐ effectiveness meet up SYNCHRONOUS  ASYNCHRONOUS +SDC LMS COURSE ACCESS © M. Power 2008
  • 58. A Blended Online Learning Environment…is the simultaneous and complimentary  integration and implementation of an  asynchronous ‐mode learning environment (i.e.  a course management system, or CMS) and a  synchronous desktop conferencing  environment” (i.e. a virtual classroom). Power, 2008; inspired by Garrison & Vaughan, 2008
  • 59. Virtual Classroom + Basic Web Site webcam Virtual classroom LMS SYNCHRONOUS ASYNCHRONOUS Power, 2008
  • 60. www.bold-research.org
  • 61. SO, does BOLD balance the 3 values? • FACULTY/QUALITY: virtually same learning  experience as F2F +  lower front‐end design,  faster start‐up  = higher faculty buy-in; http://sonoranalliance.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/ThumbsDown.jpg
  • 62. SO, does BOLD balance the 3 values? • FACULTY/QUALITY: virtually same learning  experience as F2F +  lower front‐end design,  faster start‐up  = higher faculty buy-in; • STUDENTS: ACCESSIBILITY: all online + higher  interaction  & lower isolation levels  = lower W‐DO rates, higher satisfaction levels; http://sonoranalliance.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/ThumbsDown.jpg
  • 63. SO, does BOLD balance the 3 values? • FACULTY/QUALITY: virtually same learning  experience as F2F +  lower front‐end design,  faster start‐up  = higher faculty buy-in; • STUDENTS: ACCESSIBILITY: all online + higher  interaction  & lower isolation levels  = lower W‐DO rates, higher satisfaction levels; • ADMIN: COST‐EFFECTIVENESS: lower start‐up costs;  higher off‐campus student enrolment levels = higher effectiveness (outreach) without greater cost http://sonoranalliance.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/ThumbsDown.jpg
  • 64. SO, does BOLD balance the 3 values? • FACULTY/QUALITY: virtually same learning  experience as F2F +  lower front‐end design,  faster start‐up  = higher faculty buy-in; • STUDENTS: ACCESSIBILITY: all online + higher  interaction  & lower isolation levels  = lower W‐DO rates, higher satisfaction levels; • ADMIN: COST‐EFFECTIVENESS: lower start‐up costs;  higher off‐campus student enrolment levels = higher effectiveness (outreach) without greater cost http://sonoranalliance.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/ThumbsDown.jpg
  • 65. BOLD Research and Researchers Instructional Design Distance Education/ &  Online Learning/ Technology Blended Learning BOLD FACULTY  GRADUATE  DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ARE YOU A BOLD RESEARCHER?
  • 66. www.bold‐research.org
  • 67. ENGLISH‐language network BOLD International Research Network Dual‐mode universitiesFounder: M. Power / Co-founder: N. Vaughan / Coordinator: A. St-Jacques www.bold‐research.org
  • 68. FRENCH‐language network E‐learning intégral (synchrone et asynchrone) Carroll‐Ann Keating &  Richard  Lemay Universités bimodalesFounder: M. Power / Co-founder: N. Vaughan / Coordinator: A. St-Jacques www.bold‐research.org
  • 69. SPANISH‐language network Red de investigación hispanófono - design de enviros de aprendizaje en línea en modo integral Fabio Suarez Universidades bimodalesFounder: M. Power / Co-founder: N. Vaughan / Coordinator: A. St-Jacques www.bold‐research.org
  • 70. QUEBEC & VERACRUZ… JUST ONE HOUR AWAY! Synch comms
  • 71. MORE ON BOLD • Power, M. & Gould‐Morven, A. (2011). Head of gold, feet of clay: the online  learning paradox. International Review of Research on Open and Distance  Learning. Vol. 12 (2).  www.irrodl.org• Power, M. & Vaughan, N. (2010). Redesigning online learning for  graduate seminar delivery. Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 24 (2).  http://www.jofde.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/649• Power, M. (2009). A Designer’s Log: Case Studies in  Instructional Design. Athabasca University Press.  http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120161 . • Power, M. (2008). The emergence of blended online  learning. MERLOT‐Journal of Online Learning & Teaching  4 (4). http://jolt.merlot.org/vol4no4/power_1208.htm
  • 72. www.bold-research.org
  • 73. Sustainable Online Learning:  an international perspectiveLouise Bertrand, Ph.D.Télé‐universitéUniversité du Québec à Montréalbertrand.louise@teluq.uqam.ca 81
  • 74. Three parts : Why Dual‐Mode Universities? Creation of a Dual‐Mode U. through the of a Traditional  University and a Distance Education University; Ongoing Research. 82
  • 75. Major Social Changes including : Decrease in the power of governments; Shrinkage in funding; Quest for economic viability; Pervasivness of consumerism and individualism; And above all… 83
  • 76. Development of ICT Universal access to information and knowledge; Internet‐based openess and collaboration for knowledge  production; Existence of multiple networks – continually evolving  relationships; Profound changes  in the way we learn and  process knowledge 84
  • 77. Relationship to knowledge: This relationship is the mission of all universities to  establish between a subject (the student) and a body of  scientific knowledge, soft skills and hard skills by  employing all the means at its disposal to ensure the  success of this relationship. 85
  • 78. New generations of students : Developing a multitude of individual activities supported by technologies that allow students to be and to act, by  and for themselves, in cyberspace, irrespective of physical location; Finding answers to the majority of their questions on the  Internet.  Expect Universities to provide immediate information processing; Have grown up with ICT.  They are deeply embedded in  their cognitive processes. 86
  • 79. What does this mean for Universities? Finding the means (the method) to allow students to  acquire knowledge and to give it meaning, by making the  most of the students’own strengths through an optimal  combination of  methods. Providing a relationship to knowledge that is efficient,  relevant and stimulating to promote a real acquisition of  knowledge by students 87
  • 80. Does attaching ICT to traditional teaching methods really afford students with the full advantages of dual‐mode integration? 88
  • 81. Creating a Dual‐Mode University in Québec : a twofold goal Facilitating access to university education  by broadening the range of distance  learning offerings; Expanding and enhancing teaching  methods. 89
  • 82. Advantages for both universities : Télé‐université : Support of a large campus‐ based university UQAM : Means to expand its teaching beyond  Montreal campus  90
  • 83. A promising union…Optimal development of distance teaching and university teaching in Québec;Experimental academic management framework. 91
  • 84. A considerable challenge… Two highly different infrastructures and operating  systems; Growing resistance from UQAM’s faculty as their financial problems were growing; Major financial and political crisis at UQAM in 2006 let to  an unexpected change of management in early 2007. New leadership’s lack of interest. 92
  • 85. External expert’s conclusion : « (…) the main items were already resolved (…) it was  a good project and well thought out; academically,  the thinking was very advanced; it has been the  subject of systematic consultations, capably  conducted and with convincing results. » 93
  • 86. Sine qua non conditions A clear awareness  and vision of the profound changes  facing the university as an institution in 21st century  society. A strong political will : Management must support the  mobilization of the community to this end. Faculty members themselves must support and  accomplish this transformation. Mutual respect for the differences inherent in two  complementary teaching modes. Incentives for improvement and expansion. 94
  • 87. Ongoing research : Operational Characterization of a Dual‐ Mode University 95
  • 88. Our goals : Explore the main issues in management and  governance; Propose approaches and tools. 96
  • 89. Revisit our modes of operation: Functions and roles of professors; New skills and techno‐pedagogical functions; Management and governance models adapted. 97
  • 90. 98
  • 91. Claude CaronUniversité Laval/Téluq
  • 92. ContentsWho are the millenials? Comparisons with other generations.What are their effects on teaching and management? Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 100
  • 93. Generations Age BornSilent Gen 67 and more Before 1944Boomers 47‐66 1945‐1964 X 32‐46 1965‐1979Millenials 11‐31 1980‐2000 Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 101
  • 94. Some characteristics of generations Silent Gen: loyalty, authority, faith in the  institutions, common goal‐oriented Boomers: influential (numerous), importance of  career, status, hierarchy, processes X: skeptical, independent / autonomous, skill‐ valuing, well educated After the boomers’ wave Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 102
  • 95. MillenialsDifferent names: Y: Why, ask questions C: Communicate, collaboration, create F: Facebook, linked, wired Net generation Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 103
  • 96. Millenials (Values, characteristics)Selectivity: having the choiceNegociation, Impatient  No tolerance for delayPersonalisation and customisation:  To meet their changing needs, interests and  tastesDigital natives, Gamers, Experiential learners Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 104
  • 97. Millenials (Values and characteristics)Pragmatic: Practical; results & achievement‐orientedNomad communication styleMultitaskersThe importance of: Balanced life (work vs personal) Collaboration Intelligence Working smarter not harderFlexibility/convenience Thinking outside the box Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 105
  • 98. MillenialsSeniority is no longer important: What counts is competency; Earnings should depend on results, not on seniorityCommitment instead of faithfulness: Will get involved if they have the conditions which they  require: flexibility, responsibility, challenge Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 106
  • 99. Millenials Are allergic to authority and control. On the importance of working  relationships.‘If we can’t find pleasure in our work, we  have to at least find it in the office’.   Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 107
  • 100. Millenials Confident ConnectedOpen to changeClaude Caron ‐ 03/2011 108
  • 101. Effects on the relationship with knowledge Professor is no longer the only one who knows Change in relationship with students A relationship based on authority is replaced by one of  collaboration in the co‐construction of knowledge Students increasingly want to be active in their  studies They ask for and need supervision Also in their use of Internet for educational purposes Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 109
  • 102. Effects on the relation with knowledge “Students live online; our classes need to live there as  well. Students’ technological preferences show that traditional classroom lessons might soon be a  campus relic. “Lectures need to transform into brainstorming sessions, and textbooks need to move  online to take advantage of the wealth of resources available there.” Ken Baldauf, director of Florida State University’s Program in Interdisciplinary Computing  Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 110
  • 103. Generation Gaphttp://lagenerationy.com/Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 111
  • 104. Generation GapClaude Caron ‐ 03/2011 112
  • 105. Generation GapClaude Caron ‐ 03/2011 113
  • 106. Effects on organisational managementSome managers are disturbed and feel threatened by the behaviour of Millenials: Ys tend to ask questions about why  things are the way they are Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 114
  • 107. Effects on organisational managementThey insist on transparency: They don’t understand why organisations hide  information Anyway, they will talk about everything in social  networks: Facebook Ratesmyteachers, Ratemyprofessor Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 115
  • 108. Effects on organisational managementHamel (2010) thinks that Ys represent the best hope for creating new practices in management;This generation is more influential than the previous;The Y generation is in harmony with changes brought about by the network society Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 116
  • 109. Hierarchy to WirearchyA new division of work founded on the qualities / capacities of every employee rather than on the organization of tasks.  (Castells, 1998)A dynamic two‐way flow of power and authority based on information, knowledge, trust and credibility, enabled by interconnected people and technology  (Cartier et Husband, 2010) Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 117
  • 110. Hierarchy to Wirearchy« Todays rapid flows of information are like electronic grains of sand, eroding the pillars of rigid hierarchies. This new set of conditions is having real impact on organizational structures and on the ways we do things and behave. »  (Cartier and Husband) Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 118
  • 111. Quotations« New technologies are leading to major structural  changes in the management and organization of  teaching. » A.W. Bates (Managing technological change)« If you dont try new work models now, when your  organisation is finally forced to change, you may not  like the options. » Harold Jarch Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 119
  • 112. Inspiring videosOn You Tube: A Vision of Students Today  Pay AttentionThe World Is Obsessed With Facebook http://vimeo.com/20198465 Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 120
  • 113. ReferencesOn generations and demographics: The Center for Generational Studies David K. Foot: Boom, Bust & Echo Educause: www.educause.edu Articles on Internet (Google) Millenials in education Millenials Behaviors and Higher Education Focus Group  Results Fred Bonner Lecture on Teaching Millenials in Higher Education Technology a key for students with hectic schedules Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 121
  • 114. ReferencesOn management: Gary Hamel: The Future of Management http://www.garyhamel.com/ Harold Jarche: http://www.jarche.com/On the Network society: Manuel Castells:  http://www.manuelcastells.info/en/index.htmOn Wireharchy: http://www.wirearchy.com/what‐is‐wirearchy/ Claude Caron ‐ 03/2011 122
  • 115. caron.claude@teluq.uqam.ca
  • 116. Discussion 124