The Threat Of Contract Cheating –
Examining The “Paid For” Assignment
Solutions Unduly Populating The
Computing Discipline...
A Bit Of Background
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contractcheating

2
What’s Being Covered?
An introduction to contract cheating informed by research
studies and experience within the Innovati...
My Background
Dr. Thomas Lancaster

Senior Lecturer in Computing
PhD “Effective And Efficient
Plagiarism Detection” from L...
Never believe any quotes you
see in the Daily Mail!

@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contractcheating
...
“The Detective”
Robert Clarke

Educational Consultant
Current Visiting Lecturer
Former Principal Lecturer
30 Years Experie...
A Nuclear Engineer?
this a assignment for do shielding for fast reactor i need
the materials, shape, attenuation coefficie...
Need Your Computing
Assignment “Done For You” In
Ealing?
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contractcheat...
PhD Expert Available!

http://www.gumtree.com/p/business-services/computingprogramming-tutoring-courseworkassignment-help-...
Meet My Tutor

http://meetmytutor.com/tutors/heidar-hosseini

@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contract...
How About A 10,000 Word
Undergraduate Project?
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contractcheating

11
More Ethical Than
Some Services?

http://www.elizabethhall.co.uk/services_dissertation_ghost_writing.htm

@MyBCU

www.face...
And Pricier…

10,000 words = £4,000 (plus a few “extras”)
http://www.elizabethhall.co.uk/costs.htm

@MyBCU

www.facebook.c...
Or Cheaper…

10,000 words = £660
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

http://royalessays.co.uk/prices_and_di...
Lots Of Choice…

10,000 words = £476
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

http://www.college-paper.org/price...
Or “Make Them Fight
For It!”

(roughly) 10,000 words = $498 = £308
http://www.freelancer.com/projects/Academic-Writing-Gho...
Maybe, We Could Have
Done Better…

And 42 other bids
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contractcheating
...
The Business Of
Contract Cheating
Contract cheating occurs when a student has an
original piece of work created for them, ...
This May Be A Smart
Business Decision!
The 10,000 word (Business) dissertation costs
Elizabeth Hall

£4,000

Royal Essays
...
And, We Know That
We’re Getting

@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contractcheating

20
The Real Problem Of
Contract Cheating?
Contract cheating provides students with
original work
This will be marked by acade...
How To Combat Contract
Cheating?
The Detective
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contractcheating

22
The Role Of The
Detective
To monitor sites on which assignment specifications are
visibly placed
To attempt to attribute t...
Finding Clues
Online Search
Google Search for text in the body of the posting
Google search for text in attachments
May al...
Monitoring Can Go
Wrong
Monitoring
Assignment specifications not visible when a detective
is hunting
Assignment specificat...
Attribution And
Notification Can Go
Wrong
Attribution
Assignment specification a generic textbook or
learning repository a...
Business Studies #06724
(Not Attributed)

Take Home Exam
An Innocent Abroad: Fred Bailey in Tokyo Case
Study Analysis base...
Online Universities

Examples frequently found on agency sites
Have observed multiple (10+) postings by one person
Very di...
Identification And
Conviction Can Go
Wrong
Identification
Large class, impossible to work out which student has
contract c...
Example Policy
(Newcastle University,
Australia)

http://www.newcastle.edu.au/service/academic-integrity/fraud-and-plagiar...
The Detective “Rule Of
Threes”
Assignments
Posted

Source
Attributed
Student
Identified

1 in 3 postings
detected
@MyBCU

...
Contract Cheating Seen
Through Freelancer.com (And
Similar Agency Sites)
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity...
Breakdown Of Contract
Cheating Attempts By Agency
Postings by Agency Mar 2005 – Jun 2013
Total of 18,729 detected items

F...
Postings On Freelancer
(January 2007 to June 2013)
5000000

Incorporation of
vWorker postings

4500000

Project ID (sequen...
Types Of Computing
Assignments Observed
(Sample of 910
Computing cases
collected on
RentACoder from Mar
04 to Dec 06)
Site...
EssayBay Study
N Business & Admin studies

(Sample of 627 “all
subject” cases collected
on EssayBay over 5
months in 2010,...
Key Observations From
Collected Agency Site Studies
Early research showed that students were not getting caught
the “avera...
The Contract Cheating
Process Is Becoming A
“Profitable Business Model”

Student

Essay Mill
Site

Agency Site

Intermedia...
A “Frequent Worker”
Who Specialises In
Academic Work

http://www.freelancer.co.uk/u/sdk2788.html

@MyBCU

www.facebook.com...
Analysis Of 25 Days Of
Freelancer.com Work
Completed By sdk2788
Job Title

USD

Capstone Task 3

396

academic report writ...
“Paid For” Assignments
Are A Fast Turnaround
Business Model
Are our assignments
so easy that Frequent
Workers can
turnarou...
Link Between This
Intermediary Contractor
And Agency Site
Note that the
Intermediary
Contractor actually
appears to be in
...
Adaptive Business
Model
Assignment Arbitrage
Intermediate Contractor advertises to deliver assessed work for
students
Offe...
Issues And Solutions For The
Computing Discipline
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contractcheating

44
Academics To “Be The
Detective” For Their
Own Assignments
Awareness across the sector is necessary
Academics best placed t...
Use Of “Individualised
Assignments”
All assignment specifications created to be unique to that
module (academics to take r...
Example Individualisation – Number Systems Quiz

Individualised
set of data

Individualised
set of questions

Lancaster, T...
Create A Searchable
Database Of Assignment
Specifications

Our Latest Recommendation
Upload all assignment Specifications ...
Example Of Turnitin Used
For Successful Attribution
Small %ages can
be significant
matches occurs
when student paper
conta...
Educate Students
About Contract
Cheating
Students do not always seem to believe that their
lecturers understand and use th...
Cheating Expands Into
The Workplace
(Requested For Same Person)
Systems Development paper
Select a sample system for
devel...
Investigate The Use Of
Stylometrics

Freestyler software developed by Thomas Lancaster and Fintan Culwin
Culwin, F. (2008)...
Stylometric Work At
London South Bank
University
“If routinely, every single piece of output of every single
student in an...
Stylometric Work At
Pace University
“The approach, developed by Charles C. Tappert, a
professor, and several graduate stud...
Alternative Assessment
Types
Set assessment types that students who have
committed contract cheating cannot easily pass
Ex...
Be Alert For New Developments
In Student Cheating

http://joshmaymedia.com/whiteWeasel/index.html

@MyBCU

www.facebook.co...
Further Resources
@MyBCU

www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity

#contractcheating

57
For More Information
Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contract_cheating
Contract Cheating Special Interest Group (s...
Upcoming Introductory
Workshop
Contract Cheating Within The Computing
Discipline Workshop
Workshop provided by Higher Educ...
Thomas Lancaster
Contact Details
Email: thomas.lancaster@bcu.ac.uk
Website: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk
Twitter: @DrLanca...
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The Threat Of Contract Cheating - Examining The Paid For Assignment Solutions Unduly Populating The Computing Discipline - University Of West London - 22 November 2013

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These slides, presented at the University of West London, review the challenges posed by contract cheating, particularly to the Computing academic discipline. Examples are given of the players and people within contract cheating and the effect that this form of academic misconduct has on them. Fresh examples appropriate for the University of West London audience are also included.

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The Threat Of Contract Cheating - Examining The Paid For Assignment Solutions Unduly Populating The Computing Discipline - University Of West London - 22 November 2013

  1. 1. The Threat Of Contract Cheating – Examining The “Paid For” Assignment Solutions Unduly Populating The Computing Discipline Thomas Lancaster University Of West London Friday 22 November 2013 @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 1
  2. 2. A Bit Of Background @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 2
  3. 3. What’s Being Covered? An introduction to contract cheating informed by research studies and experience within the Innovations in Computing Education group at Birmingham City University The focus is on: Methods students are using to have “paid for” assignments cheaply produced for them Research into the extent of contract cheating and the type of assignments being produced within the Computing discipline The problems and potential solutions for contract cheating for exploration by Computing academics @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 3
  4. 4. My Background Dr. Thomas Lancaster Senior Lecturer in Computing PhD “Effective And Efficient Plagiarism Detection” from London South Bank University Leader of Innovations in Computing Education Group Programme Leader Computer Science “These sites are creating a generation of fraudsters in education and thickos in the workplace.” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-391085/Thecybercheats-making-small-fortune.html @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 4
  5. 5. Never believe any quotes you see in the Daily Mail! @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 5
  6. 6. “The Detective” Robert Clarke Educational Consultant Current Visiting Lecturer Former Principal Lecturer 30 Years Experience Teaching At Birmingham City University Has collected over 19,000 attempts at Contract Cheating “Would you like to go for a job and be pipped to the post by someone who cheated in their degree?” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-20298237 @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 6
  7. 7. A Nuclear Engineer? this a assignment for do shielding for fast reactor i need the materials, shape, attenuation coefficient and size of the shielding and dose analysis around the reactor. this for health physics or nuclear engineering Do you want to live within 5 miles of this person? @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 7
  8. 8. Need Your Computing Assignment “Done For You” In Ealing? @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 8
  9. 9. PhD Expert Available! http://www.gumtree.com/p/business-services/computingprogramming-tutoring-courseworkassignment-help-in-computingprogramming-by-phdexpert/1033905911#photo-content @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 9
  10. 10. Meet My Tutor http://meetmytutor.com/tutors/heidar-hosseini @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 10
  11. 11. How About A 10,000 Word Undergraduate Project? @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 11
  12. 12. More Ethical Than Some Services? http://www.elizabethhall.co.uk/services_dissertation_ghost_writing.htm @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 12
  13. 13. And Pricier… 10,000 words = £4,000 (plus a few “extras”) http://www.elizabethhall.co.uk/costs.htm @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 13
  14. 14. Or Cheaper… 10,000 words = £660 @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity http://royalessays.co.uk/prices_and_discounts #contractcheating 14
  15. 15. Lots Of Choice… 10,000 words = £476 @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity http://www.college-paper.org/prices.html #contractcheating 15
  16. 16. Or “Make Them Fight For It!” (roughly) 10,000 words = $498 = £308 http://www.freelancer.com/projects/Academic-Writing-Ghostwriting/Dissertation-Bachelor-business.html @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 16
  17. 17. Maybe, We Could Have Done Better… And 42 other bids @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 17
  18. 18. The Business Of Contract Cheating Contract cheating occurs when a student has an original piece of work created for them, which they then hand in for academic credit Work could include source code, dissertations, presentation slides, databases, logbooks, PDP … @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 18
  19. 19. This May Be A Smart Business Decision! The 10,000 word (Business) dissertation costs Elizabeth Hall £4,000 Royal Essays £660 College Paper £476 Freelancer (paid) £308 Freelancer (cheapest) £155 Not bad, compared to £9000 a year course fees @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 19
  20. 20. And, We Know That We’re Getting @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 20
  21. 21. The Real Problem Of Contract Cheating? Contract cheating provides students with original work This will be marked by academics like any other original work This won’t usually be detected as plagiarised when using “text matching tools” such as Turnitin @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 21
  22. 22. How To Combat Contract Cheating? The Detective @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 22
  23. 23. The Role Of The Detective To monitor sites on which assignment specifications are visibly placed To attempt to attribute the assignment specification to an academic institution To attempt to contact and notify an appropriate academic within that institution To hope that academic can then identify the cheating student To hope that academic will then get a suitable conviction from a cheating panel @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 23
  24. 24. Finding Clues Online Search Google Search for text in the body of the posting Google search for text in attachments May also look for indicators on Turnitin Alias used by student Search across social networking sites for location and identity clues Google Images search for photo used by student Usually relies on trace evidence Use text editor to examine files Multiple postings may be needed By same student over a period of time By different students at same time May need to combine several clues e.g. module code + location @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 24
  25. 25. Monitoring Can Go Wrong Monitoring Assignment specifications not visible when a detective is hunting Assignment specifications sent only to people who express interest (private auction) Student uses a contract cheating mechanism that is not monitorable (friends/family/personal tutors/classified ads) @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 25
  26. 26. Attribution And Notification Can Go Wrong Attribution Assignment specification a generic textbook or learning repository assignment, not attributable Assignment specification only kept in private database, not findable Notification Staff contact information often now not available to the public No standard email address available for “academic integrity” @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 26
  27. 27. Business Studies #06724 (Not Attributed) Take Home Exam An Innocent Abroad: Fred Bailey in Tokyo Case Study Analysis based on Cross Cultural Management view point (using Hofstede's Cultural Indices and MBI Frame work) Google finds about 181,000 results @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 27
  28. 28. Online Universities Examples frequently found on agency sites Have observed multiple (10+) postings by one person Very difficult to notify staff (lack of email addresses) @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 28
  29. 29. Identification And Conviction Can Go Wrong Identification Large class, impossible to work out which student has contract cheated Conviction Academic policies do not understand that contract cheating will not provide a source document (this is original work, but not by the listed student) @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 29
  30. 30. Example Policy (Newcastle University, Australia) http://www.newcastle.edu.au/service/academic-integrity/fraud-and-plagiarism.html @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 30
  31. 31. The Detective “Rule Of Threes” Assignments Posted Source Attributed Student Identified 1 in 3 postings detected @MyBCU 1 in 3 attributed 1 in 27 cheaters dealt with 1 in 3 students found www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 31
  32. 32. Contract Cheating Seen Through Freelancer.com (And Similar Agency Sites) @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 32
  33. 33. Breakdown Of Contract Cheating Attempts By Agency Postings by Agency Mar 2005 – Jun 2013 Total of 18,729 detected items Freelancer (+ previously vWorker) FREELANCER 10558 VWORKER 5468 GETACODER 1289 ESSAYBAY 725 SCRIPTLANCE 216 OTHER vWorker (RentACoder) 294 LIVEPERSON 105 TRANSTUTORS had a “no homework”policy but private auctions Kasamba (Liveperson) 45 ODESK 29 0 main sites examined easy to search give most details of users tracking sub-contractors “tutorial” site 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Number of postings Student Of Fortune + Transtutors sells homework solutions Clarke, R. and Lancaster, T. (2013), Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating, ITiCSE 2013, Canterbury, United Kingdom @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 33
  34. 34. Postings On Freelancer (January 2007 to June 2013) 5000000 Incorporation of vWorker postings 4500000 Project ID (sequence) 4000000 3500000 Incorporation of ScriptLance postings 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 Incorporation of LimeExchange postings 1000000 Items below trend line not detected when first posted 500000 0 Jan, 07 Jan, 08 Jan, 09 Jan, 10 Jan, 11 Jan, 12 Jan, 13 Date Posting Detected @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 34
  35. 35. Types Of Computing Assignments Observed (Sample of 910 Computing cases collected on RentACoder from Mar 04 to Dec 06) Site used primarily for computer contracting, so assignments dominated by Computing academic discipline Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2007), Assessing Contract Cheating Through Auction Sites – A Computing Perspective, 8th Annual Conference of the Higher Education Academy for Information and Computer Sciences, Southampton, United Kingdom @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 35
  36. 36. EssayBay Study N Business & Admin studies (Sample of 627 “all subject” cases collected on EssayBay over 5 months in 2010, and manually classified by UCAS Subject Category L Social Studies V Hist & Philosophical studies B Subjects allied to Medicine X Education C Biological Sciences Q Linguistics, Classics & related G Mathematical & Comp Sci M Law H Engineering K Architecture,Build & Plan F Physical Sciences W Creative Arts & Design P Mass Comms and Documentation R European Langs, Lit & related 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 EssayBay no longer operational, but this is an example of an Agency site exclusively set up for student assignments Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2012), Dealing with Contract Cheating: A Question of Attribution, 1 st HEA STEM Conference April 2012, London, United Kingdom @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 36
  37. 37. Key Observations From Collected Agency Site Studies Early research showed that students were not getting caught the “average” student posted between 4-7 assignments before their cheating was attributed Computing students first to take advantage of agency sites Particularly for C/C++, Java programming Notable spikes for undergraduate projects Examples observed up to PhD level More recent observations suggests, everything from “anthropology to theology” However, cheating is dominated by “Business Studies” requests, including MBA level Computing students may now be smart enough to not be directly observed @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 37
  38. 38. The Contract Cheating Process Is Becoming A “Profitable Business Model” Student Essay Mill Site Agency Site Intermediary Contractor Worker These links between the people involved in Agency site use for contract cheating have been observed Clarke, R. and Lancaster, T. (2013), Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating, ITiCSE 2013, Canterbury, United Kingdom @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 38
  39. 39. A “Frequent Worker” Who Specialises In Academic Work http://www.freelancer.co.uk/u/sdk2788.html @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 39
  40. 40. Analysis Of 25 Days Of Freelancer.com Work Completed By sdk2788 Job Title USD Capstone Task 3 396 academic report writing AUS GBP 245 166 98 Australian Law question 120 74 Bus Report 100 62 statistics..... 110 Academic Analysis on a company 125 New Project2 77 180 Quick critique of 2 short papers 38 research report 4500 words write a scholarly literature review about (The use of quick response systems (clickers) in education) 65 107 23 325 105 193 65 Total Earnings Mean Per Job 100.9 Earnings Per Day @MyBCU 1009 Note the varied selection, including contributing a staged task to a capstone project (equivalent of BSc Final Year Project) sdk2788 is also active on other agency sites, so earnings figure is likely underrepresented 40.36 www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 40
  41. 41. “Paid For” Assignments Are A Fast Turnaround Business Model Are our assignments so easy that Frequent Workers can turnaround one or two per day? Note the positioning of this advert towards Workers in the Philippines https://www.odesk.com/o/jobs/job/_~011e1767b194a671d1 @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 41
  42. 42. Link Between This Intermediary Contractor And Agency Site Note that the Intermediary Contractor actually appears to be in Canada Offers a variety of services, not just Essay Writing http://newcodelogic.com @MyBCU https://www.facebook.com/pages/NewCodeLogic/378310608867860 www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity Is this a business jumping on the contract cheating bandwagon? #contractcheating 42
  43. 43. Adaptive Business Model Assignment Arbitrage Intermediate Contractor advertises to deliver assessed work for students Offers to complete the work for a high price Outsources the work using an Agency Site or Frequent Workers for a low price Intermediate Contractor pockets the difference ($50 per page offered on oDesk by NewCodeLogic appears to be overpaying!) @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 43
  44. 44. Issues And Solutions For The Computing Discipline @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 44
  45. 45. Academics To “Be The Detective” For Their Own Assignments Awareness across the sector is necessary Academics best placed to support finding their own assignment specifications online Monitor known Agency Sites and local Private Tutors Do you want employers and prospective students finding your assignments online? Embed unusual phrases/words/identifiers in Assignment Specifications and use Google Alerts Academics to report on success of anti-contract cheating measures during the assessment moderation process @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 45
  46. 46. Use Of “Individualised Assignments” All assignment specifications created to be unique to that module (academics to take responsibility) No textbook assignments/three year old cycled assignments Students have access to archives through sites and social media Use simple scripting to give students unique combinations of assignment requirements Allow the identification of individual cheating assignments Embed visible and invisible watermarks, and contact details There is scope for a toolkit to automatically create these @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 46
  47. 47. Example Individualisation – Number Systems Quiz Individualised set of data Individualised set of questions Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R.(2010), Staff Led Individualised Assessment – A Case Study, 1th Annual Conference of the Higher Education Academy for Information and Computer Sciences, Durham University, United Kingdom @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 47
  48. 48. Create A Searchable Database Of Assignment Specifications Our Latest Recommendation Upload all assignment Specifications to Turnitin System to automatically archive and search Agency Sites still needed Clarke, R, and Lancaster, T (2007). Establishing a Systematic Six-Stage Process for Detecting Contract Cheating; The Second International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Applications (ICPCA07), Birmingham City University,, United Kingdom @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 48
  49. 49. Example Of Turnitin Used For Successful Attribution Small %ages can be significant matches occurs when student paper contains parts of assignment brief Recommend that: (1) Staff upload assignment briefs to Turnitin as soon as the assignment is released to students (2) Staff then run all student submissions through Turnitin and look for identifiers of known agency sites and essay mills used for contract cheating @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 49
  50. 50. Educate Students About Contract Cheating Students do not always seem to believe that their lecturers understand and use the same technologies that they do Teach students about contract cheating at the same time as they are taught about plagiarism Instil upon them the value of doing their own work Let students know the consequences of being caught, to them and their fellow students Some universities have had success with “name and shame” Make Contract Cheating explicit in Academic Misconduct policies, and educate administrative staff @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 50
  51. 51. Cheating Expands Into The Workplace (Requested For Same Person) Systems Development paper Select a sample system for development that would benefit a business of your choice. Prepare a plan for determining the feasibility of the systems development. Present and explain both business and system planning documents and/or templates that allows you to state the objectives, goals and tactics. Explain how they are used and show examples. Please comment on how you would present risks and mitigation strategies to users @MyBCU DB help I need help with an exisiting database form. The form needs to be searchable by patient name. And the follow-up visits section shows 3 slots they would rather have one that shows ALL the follow-up visits. Let me know if more info is needed. The database information is CONFIDENTIAL. Thanks www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity 1600 “live” oncology records from hospital in California #contractcheating 51
  52. 52. Investigate The Use Of Stylometrics Freestyler software developed by Thomas Lancaster and Fintan Culwin Culwin, F. (2008), Inverse Authorship Attribution – At Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R., Contract Cheating Workshop, Birmingham City University, 7 March 2008 @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 52
  53. 53. Stylometric Work At London South Bank University “If routinely, every single piece of output of every single student in an institution was retained and analysed, then you’d have the statistical basis to say that the stylometric differences between this piece of writing by this student compared with their previous bits of writing is so extreme that it starts to become evidential.” Professor Fintan Culwin PC Pro – How Schools Beat The Net Cheats, Feb 2010 http://www.pcpro.co.uk/features/355597/how-schools-beat-the-net-cheats/4#ixzz2ivUq6nef @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 53
  54. 54. Stylometric Work At Pace University “The approach, developed by Charles C. Tappert, a professor, and several graduate students, tracks the typing and style choices of users to authenticate their identity. Mr. Tappert has worked with various students for several years to develop a keystroke biometric system that tracks how long users hold down and release individual keys—their ‘dwell time’—and their transition from each key to the next. Others have gone that route, but this year his team added a “stylometric” component, to measure tendencies in users’ May be writing, which could include types of words used or frequent applicable misspellings.” to growth of MOOCs The Chronicle Of Higher Education, 20 May 2011 http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/pace-u-researchers-work-on-new-way-to-stop-online-cheating/31421 @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 54
  55. 55. Alternative Assessment Types Set assessment types that students who have committed contract cheating cannot easily pass Exams, not coursework Viva examinations (perhaps bringing together a whole year of knowledge?) Practical tests Programming test, involving making simple modifications to submitted coursework Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2007) The Phenomena of Contract Cheating, in Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and solutions, Roberts, T. S. (editor), Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: Idea Group Inc. @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 55
  56. 56. Be Alert For New Developments In Student Cheating http://joshmaymedia.com/whiteWeasel/index.html @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 56
  57. 57. Further Resources @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 57
  58. 58. For More Information Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contract_cheating Contract Cheating Special Interest Group (supported by the Higher Education Academy): https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgibin/webadmin?A0=CONTRACTCHEATING Slides Available At: http://www.slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 58
  59. 59. Upcoming Introductory Workshop Contract Cheating Within The Computing Discipline Workshop Workshop provided by Higher Education Academy STEM Funding Thursday 13 March 2014 Birmingham City University http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/events/detail/2013/13_March_Computing_Contract_Birmingham @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 59
  60. 60. Thomas Lancaster Contact Details Email: thomas.lancaster@bcu.ac.uk Website: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster @MyBCU www.facebook.com/birminghamcityuniversity #contractcheating 60
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