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Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013
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Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating - ITiCSE 2013

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This presentation, from ITiCSE 2013, explores the commercial extent of contract cheating, where students pay to have work completed on their behalf. The presentation includes examples and explores the …

This presentation, from ITiCSE 2013, explores the commercial extent of contract cheating, where students pay to have work completed on their behalf. The presentation includes examples and explores the contractors and frequent workers who responsible for original work being created for students.

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  • 1. #contractcheating 1 Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating Robert Clarke and Thomas Lancaster Birmingham City University ITiCSE 2013
  • 2. #contractcheating 2 Background
  • 3. #contractcheating 3 The Burning Questions How are students cheating? How is technology helping students to cheat? Who is involved in the student cheating process? Who is profiting when students are cheating?
  • 4. #contractcheating 4 Who Are We? Thomas Lancaster Senior Lecturer in Computing PhD “Effective And Efficient Plagiarism Detection” Prog. Leader BSc Computer Science Robert Clarke Educational Consultant Visiting Lecturer/Principal Lecturer 30 Years Experience Teaching At BCU “Detective Bob”
  • 5. #contractcheating 5 Cheating Through Original Work
  • 6. #contractcheating 6 Contract Cheating Contract cheating occurs when a student has original work produced for them, which they then submit for academic credit
  • 7. #contractcheating 7 Typical Contract Cheating Essay Mills If you thinking, "I just need someone to write my essay?" ProfEssays.com is the right choice if you want to get the best grade for your assignment. We strive to be the best partner for your academic career. Try our services – buy your essay now!
  • 8. #contractcheating 8 The Agency Site Alternative
  • 9. #contractcheating 9 Agency Sites For Commercial Work
  • 10. #contractcheating 10 Contract Cheating Using Agency Sites Student Agency Site Workers 1. Student posts assignment details onto agency site 2. Workers make bids to do the work $50 3. Student selects bid Payment is escrowed 4. Selected Worker does assignment 5. Student receives solution Payment is released to Worker
  • 11. #contractcheating 11 Explicit Agency Sites For Student Assignments Post your homework for free and wait for answers from teachers. Most likely, more than one teacher will answer your question. You will be able to see a preview of the answers and purchase the one that seems the best for you. If you don't understand your assignment or don't have enough time to complete it, let our tutors take care of the work for you.
  • 12. #contractcheating 12 Breakdown Of Contract Cheating Attempts By Agency 29 45 105 216 294 725 1289 5468 10558 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 ODESK TRANSTUTORS OTHER LIVEPERSON SCRIPTLANCE ESSAYBAY GETACODER VWORKER FREELANCER Postings by Agency Mar 2005 – Jun 2013 Total of 18,729 detected items Number of postings
  • 13. #contractcheating 13 Postings On Freelancer (January 2007 to June 2013) 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 3500000 4000000 4500000 5000000 Jan, 07 Jan, 08 Jan, 09 Jan, 10 Jan, 11 Jan, 12 Jan, 13 Incorporation of vWorker postings Incorporation of LimeExchange postings Date Posting Detected ProjectID(sequence) Incorporation of ScriptLance postings Items below trend line not detected when first posted
  • 14. #contractcheating 14 What A Typical Student Posting Looks Like Budget range Project Status Details other postings Agreed price Selected worker Student alias
  • 15. #contractcheating 15 Postings By A Typical Student Student "davidwood91“ posted 5 OPENGL assignments Mar-Apr 2013 Other research shows “average” student posted between 4 and 7 assignments.
  • 16. #contractcheating 16 Postings By A Less Typical “Student” Title Paid Coder Date Teaching Methods -- Literacy & Elementary Reading $85 USD geologistt Mar 18, 13 Teaching Methods--Literacy & Elementary Reading $100 USD remnyakovavw Mar 4, 13 Competency Exam Task $175 USD sdk2788 Jan 21, 12 Formal and informal assessment techniques for evaluating $90 USD sdk2788 Jan 5, 12 Bias in Testing $90 USD sdk2788 Dec 18, 11 Teaching Writing in the classroom $60 USD sdk2788 Nov 21, 11 Classroom Social Enviorment $60 USD sdk2788 Nov 14, 11 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT - Management Systems $65 USD sdk2788 Oct 6, 11 Classroom Management; Routines $60 USD sdk2788 Sep 9, 11 Experiential Learning $50 USD MrSir Apr 19, 11 Setting & Communicating Expectations In the classroom Essay $35 USD MrSir Mar 4, 11 Legal Rights of Students with Disabilities essay $50 USD MrSir Feb 10, 11 Human development and learning, short essay $30 USD hotline69 Feb 7, 11 Cognitive development, a compare & contrast essay $40 USD sdk2788 Jan 31, 11 “pennykw” posted 27 items from Jan 2011 to Mar 2013 Either one student posting all his/her assignments or a contractor specialising in education courses at WGU (Western Governors University)
  • 17. #contractcheating 17 Who Gets Involved?
  • 18. #contractcheating 18 The Cast Of Players Student Agency Site Essay Mill Site Worker Intermediary Contractor The student may “outsource” the work direct to the agency or indirectly through a essay-mill site or intermediary contractor
  • 19. #contractcheating 19 “Intermediary Contractors”
  • 20. #contractcheating 20 “Intermediary Contractors” Intermediary Contractors undertake, for a fee, to complete assignments for students. Post a large number of assignments Post assignments from a range of subject areas Assignments traced to different universities Often linked to “Essay Mill” and “Homework Help” sites
  • 21. #contractcheating 21 Examples Of “Intermediary Contractors” Contractor Alias Date Started Assignments Detected Average Value (USD) tutorapex Nov-09 134 110.1 BTSacademy1 Apr-10 30 113.3 mastermatlab Jul-10 45 42.7 vipin85gupta Dec-10 83 86.0 cjylondon Feb-11 65 224.6 worldcitizen324 Mar-11 97 60.3 yheducation Apr-11 25 109.2 erocan Oct-11 24 162.9 Charles2011 Nov-11 36 72.5 powerapple Jan-12 54 92.7 chunny02 Apr-12 31 97.5 assignmentshelp Nov-12 64 70.5 Average 101.4 Based on a sample of recently completed jobs Represents 336 jobs with a total value of 34,000 USD
  • 22. #contractcheating 22 Typical Posting By An “Intermediary Contractor” Contractor’s Alias and previous postings Assignment Brief in attachments (as scanned image)
  • 23. #contractcheating 23 Typical Range Of Postings By An “Intermediary Contractor” cjylondon on Freelancer Based on a sample of 59 postings made March to June 2011 Total value of 12,814 USD Included assignments attributed to 18 different UK universities.
  • 24. #contractcheating 24 Frequent Workers
  • 25. #contractcheating 25 Frequent Workers Frequent Workers specialise in undertaking student assignments. Contractor “cjylondon” selected a small number of workers to carry out these 59 tasks. Worker Jobs Value USD sdk2788 21 5,195 raiseq 9 2,126 writingspirit 6 1,146 hotline69 5 424 saeedyasir 3 1,134 waqar21081974 3 419 dmjuma 3 245 writer048 2 628 jnk87 2 449 swiftcult22 2 196 PixelBrains 1 471 noureenpenwalla 1 314 Balistap40 1 68 Totals 59 12,814
  • 26. #contractcheating 26 Typical Frequent Worker Activities Assignments Completed By “sdk2788” Apr – May 2013 Title Employer Value $USD Academic Writing - Literature Short Answer Questions hatcher 105 Academic Writing - Book Report hatcher 62 Technical writing richardgush 435 Quality System in IT Thush73 204 10 Page Paper with References awj118 310 IT MGMT Task 3 Tguitari 50 IT MGMT Task 1 Tguitari 50 Strategic Information Systems munishluther 280 The transition and influence of market economy in Russia Alihan777 471 Casablanca Essay hatcher 125 English Literature caro155347 132 comparative essay greenpaint 110 Why Didn't They Ask Evans? hatcher 187 PESTEL analysis munishluther 70 Research paper - Marketing Mix Analysis jale007bond 130 answer the questions in essay style jus91 107 OIL, OPEC and World Economies ustesol 185 Writing a financial report TheMelt 181 Global shifts have occurred in recent years fuelled partly by the Alihan777 129 Land Economic Essay -1500 Words - Harvard Referencing Sunnitro 100 Average 171
  • 27. #contractcheating 27 Linking The Cast Of Players
  • 28. #contractcheating 28 Contractor Links To Essay- Mill Sites If your college or university teacher gives you an assignment or project which is difficult to solve, then come on our board of experts. Our team of qualified and professional people provides all kind of solution of any topic Entry on FacebookPosting and details on Freelancer Essay-Mill Site
  • 29. #contractcheating 29 Contractor To Essay Mill Site Link Thank you and welcome to the Site The Student Tuition Anabasis. Briefly provide support Theses all levels and thematic fields Student work within the semester with the possibility to cover the work of all directions Statistical Analysis - Statistical Studies Translations from and into over 50 languages http://www.anavasis.gr/
  • 30. #contractcheating 30 Contractor Example Postings The below is a project for one of our customers. The student needs the coding part of his dissertation Dissertaion title : Optimal Investment Planning for Distributed Generation in a Competitive Electricity Market We are an educational company and want the below project for one of our clients During this course, you will develop an information portal on a topic of your choice based on focused crawling technology. The work is your one of our customers who is a student, so it is a student work Abstract: The thesis includes a study of the IEEE 802.11n standard on the operation at the physical level and MAC layer of wireless local area networks ... in MATLAB.
  • 31. #contractcheating 31 Monetary Value Of Postings
  • 32. #contractcheating 32 Analysis of Postings on Freelancer (1) Site has been monitored since Jan 2007 More frequently since mid 2010 Unable to inspect every posting made We sample based on keywords (eg “assignment”, “plagiarism”) Examine activities of known “workers” and “contractors” “Contractors” may hide real content of postings Custom Projects may contain little detail Projects & attachments may be deleted after completion of job Effort is put into postings where student may be identifiable Also where there is evidence of frequent offending 32
  • 33. #contractcheating 33 Analysis of Postings on Freelancer (2) Estimate 5% of postings on Freelancer are attempts at “contract cheating” From analysis of project ID sequences 10,558 postings detected between Jan 07 and June 13 Average of 1,920 postings per year Estimated value of $192,000 per year ($100 average value) Freelancer admin fee is 10% = $19,200 income to freelancer.com Estimate that only 1/3 of postings detected “Contractors” using custom/deleted projects to hide postings Large number of postings only found in follow-up searches 33
  • 34. #contractcheating 34 Freelancer.com (1) Fees payable to Freelancer (depends on type of membership) Employer : 3% of value Freelancer: 10% of value 34 Statistics since February 2004 Number of posted projects: 4,647,828 Number of verified users: 7,867,670 Value of projects posted: $1,150,694,000 USD Source: http://www.freelancer.com/info/about.php accessed 21/6/13 Average value of a project = 248 USD
  • 35. #contractcheating 35 Freelancer.com (2) 3.7 Terms of use Our Site acts as an online venue to allow Users to offer and buy professional services. As a result you acknowledge and agree that Freelancer.com has no control over the quality or legality of the professional services provided by Users on our Site, or the ability of Freelancers to provide the services or the Employers to pay for the services. We do not guarantee that a User will actually complete the professional services or act lawfully in using the Site. https://www.freelancer.com/page.php?p=info/terms 35 “Homework Policy” There is no explicit restriction on posting “homework” on Freelancer. Posting copyrighted material is prohibited (9.1 User Content) Upon request, Freelancer will remove assignments where there is copyright infringement.
  • 36. #contractcheating 36 Recommendations
  • 37. #contractcheating 37 Continued Development Clear that the players in the contract cheating arena are benefitting financially Need to automate the detection and attribution of contract cheating through agency sites Continued education, research and analysis needed, particularly outside Computer Science Agency sites represent only the “tip of the iceberg”
  • 38. #contractcheating 38 Further Resources
  • 39. #contractcheating 39 For More Information Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contract_cheating Contract Cheating Special Interest Group (support by the Higher Education Academy): https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi- bin/webadmin?A0=CONTRACTCHEATING Slides Available At: http://www.slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster
  • 40. #contractcheating 40 Our Contact Details Thomas Lancaster Email: thomas.lancaster@bcu.ac.uk Website: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster Robert Clarke Email: robert.clarke@bcu.ac.uk

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