Top Trends in Indonesia

33,358 views

Published on

Abstract of my full report about top societal, technological and economic trends in Indonesia - including more trends, full trend descriptions, implications & opportunities as well as facts & figures and imaginative assertions of 3 typical Indonesians on each trend and more.....

Download the Full Report here: http://goo.gl/wktNyb

7 Comments
98 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
33,358
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2,213
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4,899
Comments
7
Likes
98
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Top Trends in Indonesia

  1. 1. TOP TRENDS IN INDONESIA T thomas.klaffke@gmail.com 2014 © tripadvisor
  2. 2. TOP TRENDS IN INDONESIA As an enormously large, diverse and rapidly transforming country of 250 million people, Indonesia’s complexity poses many uncertainties and opportunities for international and domestic companies aiming to do business in the archipelago. The currently predominant analyses of merely economic developments and occasionally political changes lack an thorough assessment of societal trend, often driven by technological advances and its rapid dissemination. This study is trying to do exactly that. It is however not trying to predict the future or to portray the following elaborations as the only truth or as a holistic view on things. Nevertheless, this concise study presents a quick overview of important trends, dynamics and forecasts in the archipelago as well as a look at nascent market potentials. Foreword Thomas Klaffke Freelance Futurist www.tomcatfuturist.com
  3. 3. TOP TRENDS IN INDONESIA METHODOLOGY 1 Literature Review Google JakartaGlobe Euromonitor JakartaPost TechinAsia eMarketer ….Blogs Global News Media 2 Review of predominant Trend Studies Researching and reviewing current studies of prominent consulting firms and organizations on developments, trends and forecasts in and about Indonesia. 2 Peer Review Integrating the opinions and expertise of Indonesians working in the hospitality, marketing, online, political and economic industry. Social Media
  4. 4. DIGITALIZATION SOCIAL MEDIA EXPANSION UPRISING CITIES TOP TRENDS IN INDONESIA ASEAN INTEGRATION ENTREPRENEURIALISM NEW TOURISM MARKETS INFORMAL SECTOR TRANSFORMATION RISING CONSUMPTION SOCIETY & TECHNOLOGY ECONOMY CHANGING LIFESTYLES
  5. 5. DIGITALIZATION SOCIAL MEDIA EXPANSION UPRISING CITIES FUTURE TIMELINE SOCIETY & TECHNOLOGY TOP TRENDS IN INDONESIA CHANGING LIFESTYLES
  6. 6. Sources: Hot Chocolate & Mint 2014, CNN 2012, Eat and Treats 2014, Cyclonesia, Antara News, TechinAsia 2012 CHANGING LIFESTYLES
  7. 7. Contrary to demographic developments in developed countries, Indonesia’s population - whilst still gradually growing - is one of the youngest in the world. In 2030, it is expected that about 70% of the Indonesian population will have working age. It is needless to say that the Indonesian youth will be predominantly shaping Indonesia’s future in the coming decades. Surveys show that the outlook on life of these younger generations is much different to older generations which are still rather romanticizing about the pre-democratic, authoritarian regime of Suharto. Thus, the possibility of a transformation towards a more modern, globally interconnected, digital and entrepreneurial society should be considered. Implications / Opportunities New Fashion „Western“ ProductsNew Advertising/Branding Products/Services for Younger Generations CHANGING LIFESTYLES Former Taboos are Gone New Customer Engagement New Food and Beverages
  8. 8. INDONESIA’S POPULATION IS ONE OF THE YOUNGEST IN THE WORLD: ABOUT HALF OF THE POPULATION IS UNDER THE AGE OF 30 AND 29% OF THE TOTAL POPULATION IS UNDER 15 YEARS OLD THE OUTLOOK ON LIFE OF YOUNG INDONESIANS THAT GREW UP UNDER DEMOCRACY, POST-SUHARTO, POST-ASIA FINANCIAL CRISIS WITH THE OMNIPRESENCE OF DIGITAL DEVICES AND THE INTERNET IS VERY DIFFERENT TO OLDER GENERATIONS: THE YOUNG ARE OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THEIR FUTURE, EXPRESS THEIR OPINIONS AND IDEAS FREELY (E.G. ON BLOGS, SOCIAL NETWORKS), EMBRACE A GLOBAL INTERCONNECTED WORLDVIEW, ARE CONCERNED ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, ARE ENTREPRENEURIAL AND TECHNOLOGY-DEPENDENT THE NEW „TYPICAL“ YOUNG INDONESIAN IS A COLLECTIVIST, IS SOMEWHAT GEEKY, POSTS FREQUENTLY ON HIS FASHION OR FOOD BLOG, RIDES A BIKE, IS VERY CREATIVE, TWITTERS SEVERAL TIMES A DAY, IS A CITY DWELLER, SPENTS LESS TIME WITH HIS/HER FAMILY AND MORE TIME WITH TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICES, AND WATCHES LESS TV AND MARRIES LATER IN LIFE THAN HIS/HER PARENTS Sources: ABC 2012, World Bank 2013, Goethe Institut 2010, McKinsey 2012a, Jakarta Globe 2012, Youth Lab n/s CHANGING LIFESTYLES
  9. 9. 3 TYPES OF INDONESIANS YOUNG AMBITIOUS URBAN DIGITAL MODERN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA ELITE WEALTHY POLITICAL HARDWORKING NATIONAL FARMER TRADITIONAL RURAL FAMILY-CENTRIC MODEST CHANGING LIFESTYLES
  10. 10. She is a young and very ambitious graduate from the University of Indonesia, working for a foreign-owned advertising company. She loves spending her free-time at malls and parks with her friends. Whenever she sees nice fashion and delicious food, she immediately tweets and writes about it on her blog. She likes the way european girls dress and looks forward to new technological gadgets from South Korea, China or the US. The transforming atmosphere in her city and country encourages her to pursue her passion and to invest all of her time into building a great career. While her parents encourage her to find a husband and to seek a secure employment, she sees her future differently, putting more value on her personal goals. UNIVERSITY GRADUATE IMPORTANCE OF…. (from +++ = highly important to - - - = not important at all) FAMILY WORK RELIGION FREE-TIME LUXURY HOUSING TRAVELLING EDUCATION INTERNET GADGETS ++ +++ ++ ++ ++ + +++ +++ +++ +++ RAMIFICATIONS MARRY LATER, BUT FAMILY STILL VERY IMPORTANT SEEKING VERY SUCCESSFUL CAREER STILL VERY IMPORTANT VERY IMPORTANT; WEEKENDS AND NIGHTS SPENT WITH FRIENDS LOVES LUXURY BRANDS; SAVES MONEY TO BUY THEM LIVES IN A KOST; WOULD LIKE TO MOVE TO APPARTMEN T SAVES MONEY TO EXPLORE THE WORLD, ESP. EUROPE INVESTS LOTS OF TIME IN HER EDUCATION AND TRAINING IS CONSTANTL Y ONLINE VIA SMARTPHON E LOVES NEW TECHNOLOG Y CHANGING LIFESTYLES 3 TYPES OF INDONESIANS
  11. 11. The business he started in the highly prosperous Suharto era has been doing great, despite regional and global crisis. He is very proud of himself, coming from a middle class family in the outskirts of Jakarta and making it through hard work to his luxurious house in the more expensive part of Jakarta. He is proud of the achievements of his country, despite the hourlong traffic jams he has to endure daily with his new German car as well as the occasional political corruption scandal he reads about in the newspaper. He wants his children to be well educated, preferably in the U.S. or Europe, so that they might eventually continue his business and lead Indonesia’s economy into the future. BUSINESS DAD IMPORTANCE OF…. (from +++ = highly important to - - - = not important at all) FAMILY WORK RELIGION FREE-TIME LUXURY HOUSING TRAVELLING EDUCATION INTERNET GADGETS +++ +++ ++ - - +++ +++ + +++ ++ +++ RAMIFICATIONS LOVES AND IS PROUD OF HIS FAMILY AND TRADITION VERY HARDWORKI NG; VERY IMPORTANT, PRACTICED DAILY WORK IS VALUED MORE THAN FREE-TIME LOVES WESTERN LUXURY BRANDS, ESP. CARS OWN SEVERAL LUXURIOUS HOUSES LOVES FAMILY VACCATION S IN THE ALPS OR THE USA WANTS HIS CHILDREN TO STUDY IN THE USA OR EUROPE IS INCREASING LY ONLINE; SEES ITS VALUE FOR HIS FIRM OWNS THE LATEST GADGETS CHANGING LIFESTYLES 3 TYPES OF INDONESIANS
  12. 12. She is the mother of three boys and one girl, all of which but one have left the family house, even the village, as they moved to the cities. Two of her sons are trying to make it in the city center of Medan, selling hand-made products from home or working as parking lot security men. Her 18 year old daughter just got a trainee job at a hotel near the coast, cleaning rooms and making beds for tourists. She is proud of her children but fear the day their youngest son will leave them. The work on the farm is too much even when uncle Waris helps out. Luckily her children are sending a share of their paycheck back, supporting their parents with their hospital and household bills.CARING GRANDMA IMPORTANCE OF…. (from +++ = highly important to - - - = not important at all) FAMILY WORK RELIGION FREE-TIME LUXURY HOUSING TRAVELLING EDUCATION INTERNET GADGETS +++ +++ +++ - - - - - - - - ++ - - - - - - RAMIFICATIONS FAMILY IS EVERYTHING TO HER LIFE IS FARM WORK VERY RELIGIOUS, PRAYS 5 TIMES A DAY NO ACTUAL FREE-TIME CANNOT AFFORD LUXURY OWNS SMALL, MODEST HOUSE NEAR FARM TOO OLD TO TRAVEL THE WORLD; VILLAGE IS HER HOME BELIEVES IN EDUCATION, BUT ALSO NEEDS HELP ON FARM HAS NEVER BEEN ONLINE; KNOWS THAT HER KIDS ARE CANNOT AFFORD TECHN. GADGETS CHANGING LIFESTYLES 3 TYPES OF INDONESIANS
  13. 13. • A GREAT CAREER • EXPLORE THE WORLD • THE LATEST GADGETS • POLITICAL PARTICIPATION • WESTERN LIFESTYLE WITH • INDONESIAN TRADITIONS • A MODERN, FORWARD- MOVING COUNTRY UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA WHAT KIND OF FUTURE DO THEY WANT ? • THE BEST EDUCATION FOR HIS KIDS • A SUCCESSFUL AND POWERFUL NATION • BETTER ACCESS TO WESTERN LUXURY BRANDS • BETTER POLITICS • LESS BUREAUCRACY • THE BEST FOR HER KIDS • GRANDCHILDREN • A SOCIETY BASED ON TRADITION AND FAMILY VALUES • BETTER SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS | | CHANGING LIFESTYLES 3 TYPES OF INDONESIANS
  14. 14. DIGITALIZATION
  15. 15. DIGITALIZATION Indonesia is rapidly becoming digitalized. Currently low or moderate numbers of internet users are expected to increase enormously over the next few years, largely driven by an ongoing surge in smartphone dissemination. This development is mainly due to decreasing costs of smartphones and the expansion of Indonesia’s telecommunications infrastructure all over the archipelago. While internet penetration used to be highest among 15-24 year old city dwellers and university graduates, it is increasingly expanding to older age cohorts with more spending power. We are ultimately seeing a swift growth in the e-commerce as well as the IT- market where many international and domestic companies are entering and where startups are founded. Implications / Opportunities Mobile Advertising E-Commerce Businesses Uber for X (e.g. Ojek) Location-Based Services IT Consultancy Mobile Banking Mobile TVBig Data Analytics Mobile Education/Health
  16. 16. INTERNET USERS WILL GROW FROM 72.7m IN 2013 TO 102.8m IN 2016 - FROM 29% OF THE POPULATION TO 39.8% THE SHARE OF POPULATION USING A SMARTPHONE WILL JUMP FROM 4.8% IN 2011 TO 33.8% IN 2017 INDONESIA’S E-COMMERCE MARKET IS ONE OF THE FASTEST GROWING MARKETS IN THE WORLD, EXPECTED TO GROW FROM US$4bn IN 2012 TO US$25bn IN 2016, WHEN THE NUMBER OF ONLINE SHOPPERS WILL HIT 49m THE INDONESIAN IT MARKET IS SET TO GROW AT AN ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF 18% OVER 2012-2016, REACHING A TOTAL MARKET VALUE OF US$11.5bn, IN LARGE DUE TO INCREASED COMPUTER HARDWARE SPENDING - ABOUT US$8.5bn IN 2016 Sources: eMarketer 2013a, eMarketer 2013b, Research and Markets 2012 DIGITALIZATION
  17. 17. Growth of Smartphone users in Indonesia 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 103,6 89,8 74,8 61,2 41,6 26,3 11,7 Smartphone users (million) Phone type as share of all mobile phones 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 45 %50 %55 % 67 % 74 % 52 %46 %40 % 28 %20 % 3 %4 %5 %5 %6 % Basic phones Smartphones Feature phones OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS, THE SHARE OF SMARTPHONES WILL CONSTANTLY INCREASE WHILE THE NUMBER OF FEATURE PHONES IN USE ARE EXPECTED TO DECLINE SHARPLY. THIS IS DRIVEN BY CHEAP SMARTPHONES FROM CHINA, GROWING PER CAPITA INCOMES IN INDONESIA AND BY A WORLDWIDE SWITCH FROM CONVENTIONAL PHONES TO SMARTPHONES Sources: eMarketer 2013b, Redwing Asia 2012a DIGITALIZATION
  18. 18. Internet user growth between 2009-2012 by age group 0 % 100 % 200 % 300 % 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-50 Total 104 % 167 % 300 % 238 % 125 % 86 % 40 % INTERNET PENETRATION IS HIGHEST AMONG 15-24 YEARS OLD CITY DWELLERS WITH A UNIVERSITY DEGREE BUT IS INCREASINGLY EXPANDING TO OLDER AGE COHORTS. AS OLDER AGE GROUPS HAVE MORE SPENDING POWER, THIS LEADS TO AN IMMENSE BOOST FOR E- COMMERCE Sources: Redwing Asia 2012b, Bayu Syerli Rachmat 2013 DIGITALIZATION
  19. 19. UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA „I love everything digital and spent everyday several hours on line, usually via my smartphone. The Internet means a lot to me as I can find all sorts of information, connect with my friends or with people from around the world and find new job opportunities on it. A day without my smartphone wouldn’t be possible.“ DIGITALIZATION „The IT industry in Indonesia is growing rapidly. I love the potentials the digitalization offers for businesses. I have decided to acquire some data analytics expertise through consulting firms in order to move our business into the digital age. Personally, I love how my tablet simplifies organizing my business meetings and to-do’s.“ „My children always tell me about all this stuff going on on the internet, but I am too old for such games. When they visit us at home, they always show us the pictures of the city on their phones. The world is moving so fast - too fast for a grandma like me. However, my son told me he wants to buy me a phone so he can send me pictures of my grandchildren. Maybe that will keep the family closer together.“ please note that these are imaginative statements
  20. 20. SOCIAL MEDIA EXPANSION
  21. 21. A look at social media statistics from around the world reveal Indonesia’s great importance in this domain. The archipelago ranks in the top quarter worldwide when it comes to social media usage. Jakarta is even considered to be the Twitter capital of the world, as the sum of tweets of its inhabitants exceeds any other city in the world. Indonesians simply love to use social media to express their feelings and to connect with friends, colleagues and family. While social networks and instant messengers in developed countries are increasingly being scrutinized due to privacy issues, Indonesians are evermore signing up on them. This poses great opportunities for app developers and companies involved in the social media sphere. Implications / Opportunities Social TV Advertising Photo Sharing Apps/Services New Networking Apps New Platforms Social Gaming Big Data Analytics SOCIAL MEDIA EXPANSION
  22. 22. JAKARTA IS TWITTER CAPITAL OF THE WORLD: 2.4% OF ALL GLOBAL TWEETS COME FROM JAKARTA [BANDUNG RANKS 6TH ] WITH ABOUT 64m ACTIVE FACEBOOK USERS, INDONESIA RANKS AMONG THE TOP 5 LARGEST FACEBOOK MARKETS, IS ADDITIONALLY THE 5TH LARGEST MARKET FOR TWITTER AND THE 12TH FOR LINKEDIN E-MAIL IS OUT: 70% OF INDONESIAN INTERNET USERS SEND PRIVATE MESSAGES VIA SOCIAL NETWORKS IN CONTRAST TO 51% SENDING THEM VIA E-MAIL ON OVER 5m BLOGS, INDONESIANS DISCUSS POLITICS, FOOD CULTURE, LIFESTYLE, FASHION TRENDS AND MORE [blogspot.com, blogger.com and wordpress.com are all among the top 10 of most visited websites] Sources: Semiocast 2012, Jakarta Post 2013, Redwing Asia 2012c, We are Social 2011 SOCIAL MEDIA EXPANSION
  23. 23. Sources: statista 2014a, We are Social 2011, TechinAsia 2014 Number of social network users in Indonesia from 2011 to 2017 (in million) 0 27,5 55 82,5 110 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 109,9 99,7 89,3 79,3 67,2 52,2 34,4 Facebook demographics in Indonesia 2 % 2 % 6 % 21 % 41 % 28 % 13-17 18.24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ IN THE LIGHT OF THE 2014 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS, INDONESIAN NETIZENS SEEM TO BECOME INCREASINGLY POLITICAL AS NEW APPS, BLOGS AND WEBSITES LIKE APSI WATCH OR AYO VOTE EMERGE INTO THE DIGITAL SPHERE SOCIAL MEDIA EXPANSION
  24. 24. Source: statista 2012b Online activities of mobile internet users in urban Indonesia Access social networking sites Instand messaging Look up content or search for information Access e-mail Download free applications Send photos taken with camera phone to family/friends Download ringtones Download or view personal photos Play or stream online music 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 21 % 22 % 22 % 25 % 30 % 37 % 42 % 45 % 76 % SOCIAL MEDIA EXPANSION
  25. 25. UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA „Social Media is the best invention there is!!! I use it all the time: check out my Pinterest, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn or WeChat! I even have a blog where I frequently post my fashion and food critiques. While in a traffic jam, all my friends text each other and share pictures, videos or music. I am always looking for the next new App coming out and I also love these guys doing their own shows on YouTube - the videos are so much fun.“ „Besides my LinkedIn profile, I don’t have any other social network connection yet. However, we increasingly use social media at our company. As more and more people in Indonesia are using these networks, it is important to promote your business also digitally. We were able to establish great business relationships with companies in the US and Europe through social media.“ „This is something my kids use, too. I don’t know much about it, but I know my sons and daughters spent a lot of time on these social networks. I hope they don’t forget their family and real life.“ SOCIAL MEDIA EXPANSION please note that these are imaginative statements
  26. 26. UPRISING CITIES
  27. 27. A visit to Indonesia’s capital Jakarta or to its other major cities, such as Surabaya, Bandung or Medan, leaves one baffled due to their enormous size, their chaotic and crowded streets full of cars, motorbikes and people and due to its energetic, rapidly changing urban landscape. Looking at current demographic and domestic migration trends however illustrates, that this is only the beginning. Over the coming years and decades, Indonesia’s cities will grow dramatically as more and more people move to urban areas looking for better economic opportunities. Many of today’s small cities will become large ones, contributing a much larger amount to the countries GDP. A higher population density and the uprising of new cities will pose a great amount of problems but could also introduce many business opportunities. Implications / Opportunities New Models of Public Transportation Relocation Services Logistics Estate Services New Economic Zones Domestic Travel Construction UPRISING CITIES
  28. 28. JAKARTA GROWS, BUT OTHER CITIES TOO: JAKARTA ANNUAL GROWTH RATE SINCE 2002: 5.8% MEDAN, BANDUNG, SURABAYA: 6.7 - 7% JAKARTA COULD BECOME A MEGACITY BY 2030 WITH 12.7m INHABITANTS JAKARTA’S SHARE OF GDP IS EXPECTED TO REMAIN AT 22%, WHILE THE SHARE OF OTHER LARGE AND MID-SIZED CITIES [2-10 mio] IS SET TO INCREASE FROM 17% TODAY TO 27% IN 2030 32m PEOPLE WILL MOVE FROM RURAL TO URBAN AREAS UNTIL 2030 - THE URBANIZATION RATE WILL THEN BE AT 71%, UP FROM 53% TODAY Source: McKinsey 2012b UPRISING CITIES
  29. 29. Source: McKinsey 2012b Pekanbaru Pontianak Balikpapan Medan Surabaya Bandung Jakarta 0 % 2,5 % 5 % 7,5 % 10 % 5,8 % 6,7 % 7 % 7 % 9 % 9,5 % 9,8 % ANNUAL AVERAGE GDP GROWTH RATE OF CITY GROUPS IN INDONESIA (ex. JAKARTA): LARGE CITIES [5-10 mio]: 9.1% MIDSIZE CITIES [2-5 mio]: 6.9% SMALL CITIES [150.000 to 2 mio]: 6.3% UPRISING CITIES
  30. 30. UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA „My hometown Jakarta is great. It is the center of Indonesia with so many opportunities our young generation and everything is changing so fast here. Every year, more and foreign brands come and open a department store - I love the European fashion. However, I hate the traffic jams in this city. Hopefully soon we will have a better public transportation system like the one in Singapore.“ „The cities are booming and our company is expanding fast to new Indonesian cities that where almost unknown and small when I was a young kid. The opportunities are great, but the rapid pace also poses lots of problems when it comes to construction, public transport and so on. The cities need a better administration and less bureaucracy to deal with these issues. Nonetheless, I see the future of Indonesia in the cities.“ „So many people are moving into the urban areas, leaving us farmers almost alone. There is a lack of so many farm workers and services in the villages. I feel like I am left alone here, having to be supported by the money of my children. The government and businesses should do more for us and the people should not forget where they come from.“ please note that these are imaginative statements UPRISING CITIES
  31. 31. 2020 2025 2030 103m INTERNET USERS or 40% of the population US$25bn: Value of E-COMMERCE MARKET 33.8% of the population is using a SMARTPHONE 4G LTE becomes available in URBAN AREAS 110m SOCIAL NETWORK USERS Jakarta becomes MEGACITY [12.7m inhabitants] 71% URBANIZATION rate 67.5% URBANIZATION rate Population with WORKING AGE: 70% of total Population GREATER JAKARTA: 35m SOCIETY & TECHNOLOGY
  32. 32. RISING CONSUMPTION ENTREPRENEURIALISM NEW TOURISM MARKETS INFORMAL SECTOR TRANSFORMATION FUTURE TIMELINE ECONOMY TOP TRENDS IN INDONESIA ASEAN INTEGRATION
  33. 33. RISING CONSUMPTION
  34. 34. Since decades, Indonesia’s economy has been growing steadily, raising the net income of its citizens tremendously year to year. Its growing GDP, driven largely by domestic consumption, is expected to lift Indonesia into the top 10 of the world’s largest economies in the coming decade. One reason for such ambitious forecasts is the rapidly growing consuming class. While the number of households spending less than 1.5 million IDR per month are decreasing, we are seeing a massive increase in the net income of people and consequently a surge in household spending, especially from middle and upper middle income groups. Implications / Opportunities Higher Buying Power Luxury Products Leisure Services/Products Products for Middle Class Automobile Industry New Financial Services RISING CONSUMPTION
  35. 35. INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS SPENDING MORE THAN IDR2,000,000 PER MONTH WILL INCREASE FROM 74m IN 2012 TO 141m IN 2020 Sources: Boston Consulting Group 2013, McKinsey 2012b, International Enterprise Singapore 2013, Knight Frank 2013 THE INDONESIAN CONSUMING CLASS - THOSE WITH AN ANNUAL NET INCOME OF ABOVE US$3,600 - WILL GROW FROM 45m TODAY TO 135m IN 2030 CONSUMER SPENDING IS PROJECTED TO GROW BY 7.7% ANNUALLY FROM 2010-2030 - INDONESIA’S CONSUMER SECTOR IS PROJECTED TO BE WORTH US$1.1 trillion BY 2030 LUXURY PROPERTY PRICES IN 2012 JUMPED IN JAKARTA MORE THAN ANYWHERE ELSE IN THE WORLD BY 38%, THE ISLAND OF BALI IS SECOND WITH 20% GROWTH RISING CONSUMPTION
  36. 36. Source: McKinsey 2013 Annual consumer spending in Indonesia (CAGR, 2010-2030, in %) Financial services Leisure Health care Education Personal items Food and beverage Apparel Telecom Transportation Housing and utilities 0 % 2,2 % 4,4 % 6,6 % 8,8 % 11 % 4,5 % 4,6 % 4,7 % 5,0 % 5,2 % 5,3 % 6,0 % 6,2 % 7,5 % 10,5 % RAPID URBANIZATION, RISING INCOME LEVELS, FAVORABLE DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERNS AND CHANGING LIFESTYLE TRENDS ARE JUST SOME OF THE FACTORS THAT ARE BOOSTING CONSUMER SPENDING IN INDONESIA RISING CONSUMPTION
  37. 37. Source: Boston Consulting Group 2013 Indonesian population divided into various income groups (2012-2020 in million) Elite Affluent Upper middle Middle Emerging middle Aspirant Poor 0 17,5 35 52,5 70 28,3 47,9 50,5 68,2 49,3 16,5 6,9 64,5 65,4 44,4 41,6 23,2 6,6 2,5 2012 2020 Monthly household expenditure* (IDR millions) Elite 7.5 and more Emerging middle 1.5 - 2.0 Affluent 5.0 - 7.5 Aspirant 1.0 - 1.5 Upper middle 3.0 - 5.0 Poor less than 1.0 Middle 2.0 - 3.0 RISING CONSUMPTION *Expenditures include regular household expenditures (food, utilities, transportation, communication, regular household supplies) and exclude discretionary spending
  38. 38. UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA „The dynamics in Indonesia, especially in the bigger cities, are great and very promising. Although my income is still pretty low, it is much higher than what the graduates before me earned. My boss promised me a raise if I stay another year at the company. Fingers crossed and I can move to an apartment flat in 2 years. All in all, I would say I am very optimistic about my future!“ „The average net income of our nation’s citizens has grown dramatically since I was born. People earn more and especially middle class is growing. This is great news for our business as almost all of our products are sold domestically. As our costumers earn more, we can introduce new higher-priced and more differentiated products which is a win-win situation for all.“ „That Indonesia is much richer today than 50 years ago, that I know. But the benefits for us here in the village are rather low. The company we sell part of our rice to, is doing great and they help us keeping up with the work. I hope people will appreciate the hard work we do and spent the increased income on the food we farm for them.“ please note that these are imaginative statements RISING CONSUMPTION
  39. 39. ENTREPRENEURIALISM
  40. 40. As illustrated in the section above, Indonesia’s future belongs to the ambitious younger generations that have been brought up in a post- Suharto, rapidly transforming, digital country. These young Indonesians are eager to start their own innovative businesses in order to shape the future of their country and to accelerate its growth. The lack of thorough government supervision and the convenience of starting a business in Indonesia helped create an environment where entrepreneurs can affordably and quickly transform their idea into a company. The attention Indonesia’s startup-scene has recently gotten from international investors and incubators emphasizes this trend. Implications / Opportunities Look at local Startups for Ideas Investors/Incubators are needed Co-Working Spaces Easy to Start, Fail and Start again Fast Idea-to-Market Computer Science Expertise ENTREPRENEURIALISM
  41. 41. DIGITALIZATION, THE YOUNG POPULATION AND PROMISING ECONOMIC PROSPECTS ARE PROPELLING THE ENTREPRENEUR LANDSCAPE IN INDONESIA, MAKING IT A HOTBED FOR TECH AND CONSUMER START-UPS Source: TheNextWeb 2013, BBC 2011 A BBC SURVEY OF MORE THAN 24,000 PEOPLE ACROSS 24 COUNTRIES CONCLUDED THAT INDONESIA IS THE BEST PLACE FOR ENTREPRENEURS THE INCREASED FLOCKING IN OF INTERNATIONAL INVESTORS AND INCUBATORS, BETTER INFORMATION CHANNELS AND BUSINESS INFRASTRUCTURE FOR NEW ENTREPRENEURS AND THE INDONESIAN ENTREPRENEURIAL AND COLLABORATIVE CULTURE INDICATE THE HUGE POTENTIALS THE COUNTRY HAS FOR ESTABLISHING A START-UP HUB THE INDONESIAN STARTUP SCENE DEVELOPED RAPIDLY FROM A STARBUCKS MEETING OF 30 FOUNDERS IN 2010 TO REGULAR MEETINGS OF 200-300 ENTREPRENEURS (#StartupLokal), HIGH-CLASS CONFERENCES (Startup Asia Jakarta 2013), CO-WORKING SPACES (vOffice) AND MANY BLOGS AND INFORMAL GROUPS - ALL IN JUST 4 YEARS ENTREPRENEURIALISM
  42. 42. UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA „I love this new startup trend here in Jakarta! I first learned about it at our University, where they had some workshops on how to build a business, but nowadays there are startup events all over the city from time to time. I actually thought about making a startup out of fashion and food blog and hiring more writers, but I don’t really have the expertise for it.“ „This is still a small and somewhat unknown trend, mainly in Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya. But what these young Indonesian entrepreneurs are doing is great. The website Kaskus is just one great example for this. We as business leaders have to encourage these people and provide them with resources. They are the future of Indonesia.“ „I don’t know much about this.“ please note that these are imaginative statements ENTREPRENEURIALISM
  43. 43. NEW TOURISM MARKETS
  44. 44. While the renowned island of Bali is still seeing promising growth, predominantly driven by tourists from Australia, new tourism regions are becoming evermore popular. Furthermore. Indonesia’s government is increasingly pursuing the development of new tourism markets in formerly unknown regions. Here, uncrowded beaches, vast coastlines and still comparably cheap and property costs are boosting investments. With giant infrastructure projects such as new airports, roads and railways in development all over the archipelago, domestic as well as international travel are expected to grow substantially. This poses great opportunities for Indonesian and international companies, especially in the hospitality and travel industry. Implications / Opportunities Hospitality Industry Travel Agencies Construction Rail and Bus Travel Aviation Industry / New Airline Services Increased Domestic Travel NEW TOURISM MARKETS Leisure Services
  45. 45. IN 2011, BEACHFRONT LAND IN LOMBOK COST IDR1-2m PER 100m2 , TODAY IT COSTS MORE THAN IDR15m (US$1.600) Sources: Euromonitor 2013, Property Magazine 2010, Property Report 2012, AirlineLeader 2013, Timetric 2013 NEW TOURISM MARKETS IN THE OVER 17.000 ISLANDS RICH ARCHIPELAGO ARE RISING, IN PARTICULAR ON THE ISLANDS EAST OF BALI. HERE, UNCROWDED BEACHES, VAST COASTLINES AND STILL COMPARABLY CHEAP LAND AND PROPERTY COSTS ARE BOOSTING DEVELOPMENT THE INDONESIAN GOVERNMENT HAS IDENTIFIED 16 PRIORITY TOURIST DESTINATIONS TO BE DEVELOPED IN THE COMING YEARS. AMONG OTHERS: LAKE TOBA (Sumatra), PANGANDARAN (West-Java), LOMBOK AND THE RINJANI VOLCANO, PULAU WEH (Aceh), FLORES, DERAWAN ISLANDS (East Kalimantan), TORAJA (Sulawesi),… INDONESIAN AIRLINES ARE INTRODUCING MORE AND MORE AIRLINE ROUTES: INDONESIA’S DOMESTIC AIRLINE MARKET IS EXPECTED TO GROW BY 20% ANNUALLY, REACHING 180m PASSENGERS IN 2021 NEW TOURISM MARKETS
  46. 46. Sources: Mandalika Resoort, The Development Advisor 2014 AT THE SOUTHERN COAST OF LOMBOK, A 1,200 HECTAR BIG RESORT AREA IS BEING BUILT. OVER THE NEXT TWO YEARS, FIVE TOP-NOTCH INTERNATIONAL HOTELS WILL CONSTRUCT LUXURY RESORTS, THEME PARKS, A GOLF COURSE AND EXCLUSIVE VILLAS IN THE AREA, WHICH IS JUST 20 MINUTES AWAY FROM LOMBOK’S NEW INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT NEW TOURISM MARKETS
  47. 47. UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA „It is so cool. Every year new flight routes are coming to the budget airlines. I have already travelled through East-Sumatra and I also was in Bali with some friends (so many foreigners there). Sometimes they have really cheap fares to the Eastern Indonesian islands, like Lombok. I really want to visit all Indonesia, but I am also saving for a trip to Europe.“ „Another great potential for our great country. By developing the right infrastructure we could tremendously increase the amount of GDP gained by our tourism industry. My business trips are much more comfortable now that there exist more airlines and more flight routes. I hope our government will prioritize infrastructure investments as they could also bring lots of benefits for our industry.“ „Yes, the travelers and tourists are everywhere in Indonesia these days. Now, even Bule (foreigners) are visiting our village. My husband sometimes takes them through our rice fields and sells them some of our handmade stuff. We can easily make some extra money through that. I also love watching the TV shows about traveling through Indonesia. So many nice places in our country.“ please note that these are imaginative statements NEW TOURISM MARKETS
  48. 48. INFORMAL SECTOR TRANSFORMATION
  49. 49. Rising incomes, the subsequently increased spending power as well as changing lifestyles and new governmental regulations are driving an informal sector transformation. What used to be a vaguely legal small business becomes a formal business or gets eaten by larger companies. Informal markets and street vendors are closed or integrated into food squares, malls, supermarkets or convenience stores. The same is happening with informal public transportation, the housing market and other industries. The mainly chaotic, disorganized services pose many opportunities as improvements to current processes are increasingly demanded and rather easy to implement (such as e.g. food courts or a bus line for a certain housing district). Implications / Opportunities Consulting Expertise Real Estate Construction Food and Beverage Industry Impl. for low-income group Street Vendors INFORMAL SECTOR TRANSFORMATION
  50. 50. Sources: ILO n/s, International Markets Bureau 2012, SMERU Research Institute 2007, USDA Foreign Agriculture Service 2010, Euromonitor 2013 INDONESIA HAS A HUGE POTENTIAL FOR MODERN GROCERY RETAILERS SUCH AS SUPERMARKETS, HYPERMARKETS AND CONVENIENCE STORES, AS APPROX. 80% OF GROCERY SALES ARE STILL COMING FROM TRADITIONAL RETAILERS. SEVERAL STUDIES INDICATE THAT THIS IS ABOUT TO CHANGE OVER THE MEDIUM TERM. THE SHARE OF TRADITIONAL OR INFORMAL MARKETS IS DECLINING DUE TO… NEW INFRASTRUCTURE, STRONG GROWTH OF PACKAGED FOOD AND BEVERAGE SALES (92.2% FROM 2006 TO 2011), RISING INCOMES, CHANGING LIFESTYLES AND HUGE POTENTIALS IN UNSATURATED MARKETS SUCH AS NEW EMERGING CITIES AND REGIONS IN EAST INDONESIA SALES FROM MODERN FOOD RETAILERS INCREASED FROM US$1.5bn IN 1999 TO OVER US$5.6bn IN 2009 INFORMAL SECTOR TRANSFORMATION TODAY, 68% OF THE INDONESIAN POPULATION IS STILL EMPLOYED IN THE INFORMAL SECTOR
  51. 51. UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA „So many new Mini Markets and even one 7Eleven opened in my neighborhood. We sometimes hang out there in the night, they have many cool food and drinks. I also really like the new, european style restaurants and cafes in the malls, we often go there. However, my favorite food is still Mie Ayam that is sold by a hawker right in front of my kost.“ „I see some opportunities here. Indonesia however has to be careful not to let too many western companies into the country. There is lots of money to be made by transforming the informal sector. My brother now operates 20 food courts near business buildings. All the vendors come from the nearby area and sell during morning and lunch. They have a constant income and my brother gets earns a percentage of their daily profits.“ „When they opened the first Indomaret (supermarket) in our village, this really changed a lot. My husband and I aren't selling that much anymore on the village market and we are compelled to sell a larger portion of our yields to the our distributor. That of course makes us more dependent on him.“ please note that these are imaginative statements INFORMAL SECTOR TRANSFORMATION
  52. 52. ASEAN INTEGRATION
  53. 53. Partly based on the European Union, ASEAN is - like its role model - increasingly integrating in recent years. In 2007, the ASEAN member states signed a charter giving each of them a legal identity, a first step towards the planned free trade zone in 2015, called the ASEAN Economic Community or AEC. Such an AEC would substantially boost the economies of all 10 member states in the coming years and further drive inter-ASEAN migration. In addition to that, ASEAN is trying to establish trading blocs with its Asian neighbors. However, besides economic integration, the ASEAN member states are also trying to come together on political, societal and environmental issues by handing over more power to the ASEAN Interparliamentary Assembly the AIPA or by creating special ASEAN Initiatives Implications / Opportunities GDP Boost Geopolitical Changes Increased Trade Sustainability Awareness ASEAN INTEGRATION New Synergies Rising Intern. Significance
  54. 54. Sources: ASEAN 2013, The Diplomat 2013, EastAsiaForum 2012, ATUC 2012, Deinla 2013 , ASEAN n/s IN 2007, THE ASEAN COMMUNITY AGREED TO ESTABLISH AN ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (AEC) BY THE YEAR 2015 TO TRANSFORM ASEAN INTO A SINGLE MARKET WITH FREE MOVEMENT OF GOODS, SERVICES, INVESTMENT, SKILLED LABOUR, AND FREER FLOW OF CAPITAL ASEAN INTEGRATION ASEAN MEMBER STATES ARE CURRENTLY ALSO INTO NEGOTIATIONS WITH AUSTRALIA, CHINA, INDIA, JAPAN, SOUTH KOREA AND NEW ZEALAND FOR WHAT WOULD BE THE WORLD’S LARGEST TRADING BLOC. THE REGIONAL COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP (RCEP) IS SET TO START IN 2015 AND WILL INCLUDE 16 NATIONS, 3 BILLION PEOPLE WITH A COMBINED GDP OF US$17 TRILLION AND ACCOUNT FOR OVER 40 % OF WORLD TRADE ASEAN’S GDP IS FORECAST TO GROW FROM US$2.3 TRILLION IN 2012 TO US$10 TRILLION IN 2030 - WITH INDONESIA ACCOUNTING FOR 40% OF THE TOTAL ASEAN INTEGRATION IS SLOWLY BUT STEADILY TAKING PLACE IN OTHER AREAS SUCH AS POLITICS (SEE AIPA) AND ENVIRONMENT (E.G. ASEAN INITIATIVE ON PROMOTING ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE CITIES)
  55. 55. ASEAN founded through the Bangkok Declaration by the five founding member countries: Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand First ASEAN SUMMIT in Bali First ASEAN Parliamentary Meeting (APM) in Jakarta First ASEAN-EU Economic Community ministerial meeting in Brussels Brunei Darussalam joins ASEAN ASEAN establishes the ASEAN Regional Forum Vietnam joins ASEAN Laos and Myanmar join ASEAN First Meeting of ASEAN +3 (China, Japan, South Korea) Cambodia joins ASEAN First Meeting of ASEAN +6 (China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand) ASEAN signs charter giving its 10 members a legal identity, a first step towards its aim towards a free trade zone in 2015 Free Trade Agreement with Australia and New Zealand signed Negotiations start on Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Envisaged launch of ASEAN Economic Community Inception of AIPO (ASEAN Inter- Parliamentary Organization) 23rd ASEAN SUMMIT held in Brunei Darussalam 1967 1975 1976 1977 1978 1984199419951997 1999 2005 2007 2009 20132015 ASEAN INTEGRATION
  56. 56. Sources: investvine 2013, Xinhuanet 2013 ASEAN IS MORE AND MORE BECOMING A MAJOR PLAYER ON THE WORLD TRADING FIELD: TRADE BETWEEN ASEAN AND CHINA JUMPED FROM JUST US$54.8bn in 2002 TO US$400.1bn IN 2012 AND IS FORECAST TO HIT US$500bn IN 2015 AND US$1 TRILLION IN 2020 Bilateral trade between ASEAN and China in billion US$ 0 250 500 750 1000 2002 2012 2015* 2020* 1.000 500 400,1 54,8 ASEAN INTEGRATION
  57. 57. UNIVERSITY GRADUATE BUSINESS DAD CARING GRANDMA „I am looking forward to the free trade zone. Finally, I don’t have to endure this long visa application procedure to travel to Singapore or Thailand. I think, we as a modern country have to move beyond our boundaries and cooperate with other nations. Nowadays, everything is global and Indonesia should become a player in this connected world.“ „I see lots of benefits resulting from an increased ASEAN integration. The AEC will give a boost to the business and hour nation and this will ultimately make us more popular and powerful on the global economic stage. We should be proud of our nation and show our values to the world. Indonesia as the biggest ASEAN country should lead the organization into a brighter future. We need strong and capable politicians to do just that.“ „I heard about this on the TV. I just hope we don’t loose our traditions, our beliefs and the family values we all have. Indonesia should not become weak against our neighbors.“ please note that these are imaginative statements ASEAN INTEGRATION
  58. 58. 2020 2025 2030 CONSUMING CLASS tops 135m people HOUSEHOLDS spending >IDR2m in non- discretionary goods will rise to 141m GDP per capita: $15,000 GDP per capita: $8,883 7th largest ECONOMY in the World CONSUMER SPENDING at $1.1 trillion/a Indonesia enters TOP TEN ECONOMIES ECONOMY 180m domestic AIRLINE PASSENGERS BBC Survey: INDONESIA BEST PLACE FOR ENTREPRENEURS
  59. 59. ABC 2012: Indonesian Gen Y ready for change. Available: http://ab.co/OyBbKw AirlineLeader 2013: Indonesian growth skyrockets amidst a highly fragmented market. Available: http://bit.ly/1fnbIyu AnataraNews 2012: Demo Jakarta. Available: http://bit.ly/1cjU5db ASEAN 2013: ASEAN Economic Community Factbook. Available: http://bit.ly/Nrqecx ASEAN n/s: ASEAN Initiatives on Promoting Environmentally Sustainable Cities. Available: http://bit.ly/1mrrB7n ATUC 2012: ASEANS rise as the next economic superpower. Available: http:// bit.ly/1eawBLR Bayu Syerli Rachmat 2013: Digital Marketing Landscape in Indonesia 2013. Available: http://bit.ly/1cHz53b BBC 2011: Entrepreneurs face global challenges - Indonesia ‚top‘ for entrepreneurs. Available: http://bbc.in/ 1fNpsxi Boston Consulting Group 2013: Indonesia’s rising middle-class and affluent consumers. Available: http://on.bcg.com/1dI9zLe Chocolate & Mint 2014: Cheering Up. Available: http://bit.ly/1mw0Hvg CNN 2012: Cell phone culture: How cultural differences affect mobile use. Available: http://bit.ly/1bJ3gJ6 Cyclonesia 2009: Night Riding and Roti Bakar. Available: http://bit.ly/1hlJoer Deinla, Imelda 2013: Giving the ASEAN Inter- Parliamentary Assembly a Voice in the ASEAN Community. Available: http:// bit.ly/1hplPju East Asia Forum 2012: Asia’s Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership. Available: http://bit.ly/1epxRX0 Eat and Treats 2014: Otterhound Jakarta. Available: http://bit.ly/1k7cHFd eMarketer 2013a: In Indonesia, a New Digital Emerges. Available: http://bit.ly/ NrqJTP eMarketer 2013b: Smartphone Penetration Doubles in Indonesia. Available: http:// bit.ly/NrqNmL Euromonitor 2013: Travel and Tourism in Indonesia - Country Report. Available: http://bit.ly/1k3TZLp Euromonitor 2013: Grocery Retailers in Indonesia. Available: http://bit.ly/1c1dXr0 Goethe Institut 2010: Values, Dreams, Ideas - Muslim Youth in Southeast Asia. Available: http://bit.ly/1dusqGG ILO n/s: Informal economy in Indonesia Available: http://bit.ly/1cgbrHH International Enterprise Singapore 2013: Indonesia’s Consumer Sector: Tapping the Consumer Dollar in Food and Retail. IE Insights Vol. 13. Available: http://bit.ly/ 1bF9UAa investvine 2013: China-ASEAN trade forecast to hit $500b by 2015. Availabe: http:// bit.ly/1fnctrn International Markets Bureau 2012: Modern grocery retailing in major ASEAN markets. Available: http://bit.ly/1hhpqS4 Jakarta Globe 2012: Raising Legal Marriage Age to 21 in Indonesia will address Social Woes: BKKBN. Available: http://bit.ly/ 1fQIIKs Jakarta Post 2013: Facebook has 64m active Indonesian users. Available: http://bit.ly/ MoisPK Knight Frank 2013: The Wealth Report 2013. Available: http://bit.ly/18CUwT6 Mandalika Resort n/s: Mandalika Resort Map. Available: http://bit.ly/1bFbdPi McKinsey 2012a: The new Indonesian consumer. Available: http://bit.ly/1cLIHdt McKinsey 2012b: The archipelago economy: Unleashing Indonesia’s potential. Available: http://bit.ly/1a9V8yJ McKinsey 2013: Understanding the diversity of Indonesia’s consumers. Available: http://bit.ly/1eayb09 Property Magazine 2010: Lombok comes of age. October 2010. Available: http:// bit.ly/MU2gGT Property Report 2012: In depth: Lombok: Paradise found? Available: http://bit.ly/ 1fNqb1x Redwing Asia 2012a: Indonesia’s Mobile- Driven Telecoms Market. Available: http:// bit.ly/1cgcaZt Redwing Asia 2012b: Which Segments Use the Internet in Indonesia? Available: http:// bit.ly/MU2qhz Redwing Asia 2012c: Indonesia’s Love Affair With Social Media. Available: http:// bit.ly/1cgcdEA Research and Markets 2012: Indonesia Information Technology Report Q1. Available: http://bit.ly/1eayAQr Semiocast 2012: Geolocation analysis of twitter accounts and tweets. Available: http://bit.ly/1gEt2No SOURCES
  60. 60. SMERU Research Institute 2007: Impact of Supermarkets on Traditional Markets and Retailers in Indonesia’s Urban Centers. Available: http://bit.ly/1fxfeF2 statista 2014a: Number of Social Network Users in Indonesia. Available: http://bit.ly/ 1hhqhlA statista 2014b: Online activities of mobile internet users in urban Indonesia. Available: http://bit.ly/1fhUDAb TechinAsia 2014: Ayo Vote encourages Indonesia’s youngsters to cast their vote. Available: http://bit.ly/Otyny6 TechinAsia 2012: The Story and Future of Kaskus. Available: http://bit.ly/1etbZKk The Development Advisor 2014: Lombok- Mandalika Resort Development. Available: http://bit.ly/1c1f0qJ The Diplomat 2013: Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) issues and way forward. Available: http://bit.ly/ 1cgcF5V The Next Web 2013: Chartered: 70 deals and exits from Indonesia’s fast-growing start-up scene. Available: http://tnw.co/1k5fOgQ Timetric 2013: Indonesia Travel and Tourism Market 2017. Available: http://bit.ly/ 1c1f5Lb USDA Foreign Agriculture Service 2010: GAIN Report - Indonesia Retail Food Sector. Available: http://1.usa.gov/1dp3yA8 We are Social 2011: Social, Digital and Mobile in Indonesia. Available: http:// bit.ly/1epz3JH World Bank 2013: World Development Indicators: Population dynamics. Available: http://bit.ly/1lj3VUT Xinhuanet 2013: China, ASEAN aim to boost trade to 1tln USD by 2020. Available: http://bit.ly/1k3Wq0A Youth Lab n/s: Youth Lab Indonesia - Presentation. Available: http://bit.ly/ 1c4G7RU SOURCES
  61. 61. TOP TRENDS IN INDONESIA T thomas.klaffke@gmail.com …for more reports, additional information and/or inquiries, please see… www-tomcatfuturist.com © Thomas Klaffke 2014

×