First two are teacher oriented and not student focused – they are not results orientedLast one focuses on student achievement.
First two are teacher oriented and not student focused – they are not results orientedLast one focuses on student achievement.
Last point is the difference between data and information.
1. Video We Are Your PLC
2. PLCs at Work: Practical Implications ofthe December SessionLaVette Ford, Dawn Singleton, Seth Brown, and Thomas Feller
3. Purpose and ObjectivesToday, principals will:…better understand the Dufour training attended by administrators and ICs on December 14-15, 2011;…identify practical suggestions for the implementation of PLCs at their respective schools
4. Most slides are taken from thehandout from the Triangle High Five Regional Partnership training, December 14- 15, 2011, held in Raleigh, NC.Training originally conducted by Dr. Rick and Becky DuFour.
5. Assumption #1: Teachers MatterRegardless of the research basis, it is clear that effective teachers have a profound impact on student achievement and ineffective teachers do not. In fact, ineffective teachers might actually impede the learning of their students (Marzano 2003, p 75)
6. Assumption #2: Schools Matter An analysis of research conducted over a thirty-five year period demonstrates that schools that are highly effective produce results that almost entirely overcome the affects of student backgrounds. (Marzano 2003)
7. What is a PLC: A Review
8. Definition of a PLC In the context of school improvement, Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) shift the focus of school reform from restructuring to reculturing. The PLC concept often is misused orimplied to describe a committee or any weekly meeting in which theparticipants undertake data-based decision making. However, a PLC is much more than that. It is an ongoing process used to establish a schoolwide culture that is based on a fundamental belief in building teacher leadership in school improvement efforts. Through participation in PLCs, teachers enhance their leadership capacity as they work asmembers of ongoing, high-performing, collaborative teams that focus on improving student learning. - The Center for Comprehensive School Reform & Improvement
9. The Crux of Work in a PLCThe heart of work in a PLC is when educatorscollectively analyze evidence of student learning to:Inform individual professional practiceImprove a team’s ability to achieve its SMARTgoalsIntervene on behalf of individual studentsThe other steps on the PLC journey aredesigned to help teams engage in thisessential work.
10. Professional Learning Communities Are they based on… Adherence to core principals OR individual autonomy? Strong administrative leadership OR teacher empowerment? Recognition and celebration of current efforts and achievements OR discontent with the status quo? Approaching school improvement with a sense of urgency OR demonstrating the patience to sustain an improvement initiative over the long haul?
11. The Tyranny of “or” vs. the Genius of “and” The tyranny of “or” is the rational view that cannot easily accept paradox, cannot live with two seemingly contradictory forces at the same time. It must be A or B, but not both.The genius of “and” is to embrace both of the extremes at the same time. This is not just a question of balance. Balance implies 50-50, going to the mid- point. Visionary leaders did not seek the gray of balance, but were determined to be distinctly both A and B at the same time. -Jim Collins & Jerry Porras
12. Simultaneous Loose AND Tight School CulturesSimultaneous loose and tight cultures establish clear parameters and priorities that enable individuals to work within established boundaries in a creative and autonomous way. They are characterized by “directed empowerment” or what Marzano and Waters refer to as “defined autonomy” – freedom to act and to lead within clearly articulated boundaries.
13. Group DiscussionShare with a partner how you create a simultaneously loose and tight school culture at your school. Give a specific example.
14. Establishing Goals
15. Results-Oriented Goals: Keys to Effective TeamsLeaders foster effective teams when they help teams establish specific, measurable, results-oriented, performance goals. Promoting teams for the sake of teams or focusing on team- building exercises does little to improve the effectiveness of the organization.“There is nothing more important than eachmember’s commitment to common purpose and a related performance goal to which the group holds itself jointly accountable.” – Katzenbach & Smith, 1999
16. SMART Goals (Chapter 6) Strategic and specific Measurable Attainable Results-Oriented Time-Bound - Conzemius & O’Neill (2000)
17. At your table, discuss which of the following are SMART Goals?Strategically aligned with the school-wide goal of improving student achievement, by the end of this school year we will:
18. At your table, discuss which of the following are SMART Goals? Develop & administer at least six common assessments. Implement the Common Core State Standards in 100% of our classrooms. Increase the percentage of students achieving and exceeding the target score (80% or higher) on each strand of our end- of-year assessment from 81% to 90%
19. Importance of Short-Term SMART GoalsPeople can become so caught up in big dreams that they don’t manage the current reality. Short- term gains are needed to establish credibility for a change initiative over the long haul. Major change takes time. Zealots will stay the course no matter what. Most of us want to see some convincing evidence that all the effort is paying off. Nonbelievers have even higher standards of proof. We want clear data indicating changes are working. -John P Kotter (1996), p118-119
20. The Key to Implementing PLCs
21. Team Learning Process1. Clarify 8-10 Essential Common Outcomes (skills, concepts, and dispositions) per semester by course/content area;2. Develop multiple Common Formulative Assessments for each course/content area by team
22. Common Formative Assessments (Chapter 3)Common formative assessments are the lynchpin of the collaborative team process in a PLC. At your table, complete the following: “Common” assessment means… “Formative” assessment means…
23. Why Common Assessments? Efficiency – by sharing the load, teachers save time Fairness – promotes common goals, similar pacing, and consistent standards for assessing student proficiency Effective Monitoring – provides timely evidence of whether the guaranteed and viable curriculum is being taught and learned
24. Why Common Assessments? Informs individual teacher practice – provides teachers with a basis of comparison regarding the achievement of their students so they can see strengths and weaknesses of their teaching Team capacity – collaborative teacher teams are able to identify and address problem areas in their program Collective response – helps teams and the school create timely, systematic interventions and enrichment for students.
25. Why Common Assessments?Common formative assessments provide the most powerful stimulus for changing adult practice.To change schools we must change adult practice.
26. Keys to Formative Assessments To determine if an assessment is formative ask the following questions:1. Is it used to identify students who are experiencing difficulty in their learning?2. Are students who are having difficulty provided with additional time and support for learning?
27. Keys to Formative Assessments3. Are students given an additional opportunity to demonstrate their learning?4. Do teachers use the results to inform and improve their individual and collective professional practice?
28. Resources to Build Valid CFAs List of essential outcomes/pacing guides Recommendations from assessment experts (examples: Stiggins, Reeves, etc) Released items from standardized tests Websites www.nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/ www.masteryconnect.com Data from past indicators of achievement Methods of alternative assessments Example Rubrics Assessments from other high-performing teams/teachers
29. Two Essentials of Performance Based Assessments1. Can we agree on the criteria by which we will judge the quality of student work?2. Can we apply those criteria consistently (inter-rater reliability)?
30. Team Learning Process1. Clarify 8-10 Essential Common Outcomes (largely done for us in the new standards)2. Develop multiple CFAs for each course/content area3. Establish specific target/benchmark so rigorous it will lead to success on high stakes assessments (SMART Goals)4. Analyze Results5. Identify & Implement improvement strategies
31. We’ve Got the Data: Now What?
32. Informing & Impacting Professional Practice We must ensure all teachers receive: Timely and frequent information on the achievement of their students, In meeting an agreed-upon standard, On a valid assessment, In comparison to others.
33. Most Powerful Strategy to Improve Student Learning Teachers work together in collaborative teams to: Clarify what students must learn, Gather evidence of student learning, Analyze that evidence, Identify the most powerful teaching strategies. Reflecting teaching must be based on evidence of student learning and reflection is the most powerful when it is collaborative- John Hattie
34. Schools Suffer from DRIP Syndrome We are often Data Rich, but Information PoorData are not information; translating fact to understandingmeans relating data to something you know and can visualize.This typically requires comparison.- Robert Waterman
37. Analyzing the Data (Chapter 4) Refer to Your Handouts: Schedules
38. Data Analysis Softwarehttp://www.edoctrina.org (FREE) http://www.masteryconnect.com
39. Group Discussion As a table, create a double-bubble map identifying the similarities and differencesbetween a PLC meeting and a team meeting. Be prepared to share-out at the end.
40. Dealing With Resistance
41. The Sequence of Changing Attitudes (including your own) Attitude is shaped by Experience is a result of Behavior Attitude is seven times more difficult to change than behavior, so start by addressing behavior.
42. Keys to Responding to a Resister Assume good intentions Seek to understand Use strategies of persuasion Identify specific behaviors essential to the success of the initiative Focus on behavior, not attitude. Monitor behavior
43. Behaving Our Way to New AttitudesThere is a large literature demonstrating that attitudes follow behavior. Peopleaccept new beliefs as a result of changing their behavior. - Pfeffer and Sutton
44. Focus on BehaviorThe central challenge and core problem of all substantive change initiatives is changing people’s behavior. Change efforts must focus on what people do, and the need for significant changes in what people do. - John Kotter and Dan Cohen, The Heart of Change
45. Changing BehaviorWhich is most likely to persuade an educator to change? 1. Supervision and evaluation process 2. Workshops/Courses 3. A research article or book 4. Evidence of his/her skewed grade distributions
46. Persuading the Resistant Teacher Lever 1: Concrete Evidence of Irrefutably Better Results Nothing changes the mind like the hard cold world hitting it with actual real-life data (Patterson, et. al) Teachers have to feel there is some compelling reason for them to change practice, with the best direct evidence being that students learn better. The key to enduring change in teacher practice is demonstrable results in terms of student achievement (Richard Elmore, 2003) Transparency of results creates an aura of “positive pressure” – pressure that is actionable in that it points to solutions and pressure that at the end of the day is inescapable (Michael Fullan, 2008)
47. Persuading the Resistant Teacher Lever 2: Positive Peer PressureWhen seeking tools to influence, no resource is more powerful and accessible than the people who make up our social networks. The approval or disapproval of our fellow human beings can do more to assist or destroy our change efforts than almost any other source. (Patterson, et. al, 2008)
48. Summary & Conclusion
49. Systematic Intervention: By Name and By Need The most effective schools and school systems in the world monitor and intervene at the level of the individual student. The best systems take the process of monitoring student learning and intervention inside schools, constantly evaluating student performance and constructing interventions to assist individual students in order to prevent them from falling behind. (Barber and Mourshed, 2007)
50. A Crucial Caution No system of interventions can compensate for weak and ineffective teaching. At the same time a school is working to develop time and support for student learning, it must take steps to create the powerful collaborative teams and common assessments that contribute to adult learning.
51. Resources http://www.allthingsplc.info (look for “Evidence of Effectiveness” http://www.solution-tree.com
52. Critical Corollary Questions If we believe all kids can learn: What is it we expect them to learn? How will we know when they have learned it? How will we respond when they don’t learn it? How will we respond when they already know it?