History of Computer Art X, Computer and Video Games

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Illustrations of the "History of Computer Art",
chap. VII.1, URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/links/GCA-VII.1e.html

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History of Computer Art X, Computer and Video Games

  1. 1. 1 History of Computer Art Part X: Computer and Video Games Seminar, 28nd April 2014 Danube University Krems Department for Arts and Image Science MediaArtHistories: Masters of Art Thomas Dreher URL: http://dreher.netzliteratur.net URL: http://iasl.uni- muenchen.de/links/GCA_Indexe.html
  2. 2. 2 Early Computer Games (I) Left and Middle: Condon, Edward U./Derr, Willard A./Gereld L. Tawney: Nimatron, 1940. Left: Realisation by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, spring 1940, New York World´s Fair (source: The American Mathematical Monthly. Vol 49. January 1942, p.42ss.) Image source: URL: http://www.goodeveca.net/nimrod/nimatron.html Middle: Illustration of U.S. Patent 2,215,544. Image source: URL: http://www.1939nyworldsfair.com/ftp/MACHINE_TO_PLAY_GAME_OF_NI M.pdf Right: Redheffer, Raymond: Nim, box realised in using blue plexiglass, signed with "Raymond Redheffer MIT" (film by Mike Mozart, including some not quite correct informations according to the current level of knowledge). Image source: URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NWnmvMOqS0
  3. 3. 3 Early Computer Games (II) Left and Middle: Bennett, John/Stuart- Williams, Raymond: Ferranti Nimrod, 1951. Left, top and bottom: Industrial Exhibition, fair grounds, Charlottenburg/Berlin, opening day 6th October 1951, Federal Minister of Economic Affairs Ludwig Erhard (left bottom, at the centre) plays against Nimrod and looses three times (Borchers: Jahre 2001. Source of the images: Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum, Paderborn. URL: http://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Vor-50- Jahren-fing-alles-an-das-erste-Elektronenhirn-in- Deutschland-51722.html). Middle: Exhibition of Science, Science Museum, South Kensington/London, Part of the Festival of Great Britain, London 1951. Image source: URL: http://goodeveca.net/nimrod/ UR Right, bottom: Goldsmith Jr., Thomas T./Grove,Cedar/Mann, Estle Ray: Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device. U.S. Patent #2,455,992. 1948, Sheets 1 and 2, fig.1 - 4. Image source: URL: http://www.pong- story.com/2455992.pdf
  4. 4. 4 Early Computer Games (III) UR Left: Douglas, Alexander S.: Tic Tac Toe, 1949, game for the Mainframe Computer EDSAC (illustration: Tic Tac Toe in the EDSAC emulator). Image source: URL: http://img.index.hu/cikkepek/0506/tech//oxo.jpg Right, top and bottom: Higinbotham, William: Tennis for Two, 1958, Systron Donner Analog Computer, Germanium transistors, oscillograph (diameter: 5 inches), 2 boxes with turning knobs and press keys. Exhibited at the visitor´s day of the Instrumentation Division at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Upton/Long Island ("Tennis for Two" is presented enlarged in the wider circle. Image source: Brookhaven National Laboratory). Image sources: Right, top: URL: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/2732 8345#.UHa_rY56STs Right, bottom: URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= s2E9iSQfGdg
  5. 5. 5 Early Computer Games (IV) Left and right: Edwards, Dan/Graetz, Martin J./Kotok, Alan/Russell, Stephen R./Sampson, Peter/Wytanen, Wayne: Spacewar!, 1962, computer game for the minicomputer PDP-1, screen with two spaceships. Left: Monitor. Image source: URL: http://medienwissenschaft.uni- bayreuth.de/assets/Uploads/Koubek/forschung/KoubekSpielegesc hichte.pdf Right: console. Image source: URL: http://spacewar.zorg.org/origins-of- spacewar.php
  6. 6. 6 Arcade Games and Consoles (I) Baer, Ralph: Tennis, one of the twelve games included in the Odyssey Home Entertainment System, Magnavox, 1972. Players with the console being connected to the TV. Image source: http://www.pong- mythos.net/index.php?lg=de &main=Odyssey-1972- &site=01:01:02 UR Bushnell, Nolan: Computer Space, Nutting Associates, 1971, arcade game. Left: the case. Image source: URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nutting_ComputerSpace -Blue.JPG Right: the screen. Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nutting_ComputerSpace -Blue-Screen.JPG Nishikado, Tomohiro: Space Invaders, Taito, 1979, arcade game. Image source: URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QObneYZIdKI
  7. 7. 7 Arcade Games and Consoles (II) Top, Left and middle: Rains, Lyle/Logg, Ed: Asteroids, Atari, 1979, arcade game. Image source: URL: http://www.retroland.com/asteroids/#.U2f0B2tsHc0 Alcorn, Allan: Pong, Atari. Bottom, left and middle: arcade game, 1972. Image sources: left: screenshot, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nu_L8uEzJw#t=221; middle: by ProhibitOnions, URL: http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Datei:PongVideoGameCabinet.j Top, right: Alcorn, Allan/Brown, Bob/Lee, Harold: Home Pong, Atari, 1975, game console. Image source: URL: http://www.pong- mythos.net/index.php?lg=de&main= Atari_Home_Pong&site=01:01:04
  8. 8. 8 Ego Shooter (I) Colley, Steve/Palmer, Howard/Thompson, Greg: Maze War, 1973-74, game for the minicomputer Imlac PDS- 1. Left: printout of a screenshot (from an implementation on the personal computer Xerox Star 8010), 1985-86. Image source: URL: http://www.digibarn.com/collections/games/xerox-maze- war/maze-war.jpg Right: child playing Maze War on an Imlac PDS-1, 30th Maze War Anniversary Event, DigiBarn Computer Museum, Mountain View/California 6th-7th November 2004. Image source: URL:http://www.digibarn.com/history/04-VCF7- MazeWar/imlac-maze-kids/DSC00804.JPG Bowery, James Allan: Spasim, 1973-74, multiplayer online game for the PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations) system. Screenshot from: URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMZv5Akcum8
  9. 9. 9 Ego Shooter (II) Rotberg, Ed/Hoff, Morgan: Battlezone, Atari, 1980, arcade game. Screenshot from URL: http://www.atari.com/play/atari/battlezone Kellner, Charlie/Seleme, Lance: The Eidolon, Lucasfilm Games/Epyx, 1985, computer game. Image source: URL: http://www.mobygames.com/game/atari-8- bit/eidolon/screenshots/gameShotId,150348/
  10. 10. Ego Shooter (III) Right: Xanth Software F/X: Midi Maze, Hybrid Arts, 1987, computer game. Screenshot from URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29sT ZedLcWk Left: id Software (Romero, John/Carmack, John/Hall, Tom): Wolfenstein 3D, Apogee Games, 1992, computer game. Image source: URL: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SYEzMIBe57kC&pg=PT7 4&dq=IE+2009+Proceedings+Australasian+Conference+Inte ractive+Entertainment&hl=de&sa=X&ei=oKJoU5_WLYmgyQP aqoGQDg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=IE%202009 %20Proceedings%20Australasian%20Conference%20Interact ive%20Entertainment&f=false
  11. 11. 11 Ego Shooter (IV) id Software (Romero, John/Carmack, John/Hall, Tom): Doom, Cdv Software Entertainment, Pearl Agency, 1993, computer game. Image source: URL: http://www.mobygames.com/game/dos/doom/screenshots/gameShotId, 369142/ Montgomery, Robert: Lady in the Lake, 1947, movie. Screenshot from URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v04AKDw2wi5l
  12. 12. 12 Strategy Games/God Games (I) Left: Center for Educational Services and Research of the Board of Educational Services (BOCES)/William McKay (IBM): The Sumerian Game 1962-64, computer game for a timesharing system (Wing: Economics 1966, p.33). Right: Ahl, David H.: Hammurabi (Ahl: BASIC 1978, p.78).
  13. 13. 13 Strategy Games/God Games (II) Daglow, Don: Utopia, Mattel Electronics, 1981, game for the console Mattel Intellivision (since 1980). Screenshot from URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DS6fMMDAplk Right, top and bottom: Crane, David/Gold, Rich: Little Computer People, Activision, 1985, computer game. Images from Apple II version, top: URL: http://www.mobygames.com/game/apple2/little-computer- people/screenshots/gameShotId,191391/; bottom: http://www.mobygames.com/game/apple2/little-computer- people/screenshots/gameShotId,191390/
  14. 14. 14 Strategy Games /God Games (III) Left: Favaro, Peter J.: Alter Ego, Activision, 1986, computer game. Images of the Commodore 64 version, above: URL: http://www.mobygames.com/game/c64/alter- ego/screenshots/gameShotId,240198/; bottom: URL: http://www.mobygames.com/game/c64/alter- ego/screenshots/gameShotId,240199/ Right: Bullfrog Productions: Populous, Electronic Arts. 1989, computer game. Image source: URL: http://www.kultpower.de/archiv/heft_powerplay_1989- beste-spiele_seite76
  15. 15. 15 Strategy Games/God Games (IV) Left, top and bottom: Wright, Will/Maxis: Sim City, Electronic Arts, 1989, computer game. Images of the Windows version, URL: http://www.mobygame s.com/game/win3x/sim city/screenshots Right, top and bottom: Meier, Sid/Shelley, Bruce: Civilization, Micro Prose, 1991, computer game. Images of Amiga version, URL: http://www.mobygames.com/game/amiga/sid-meiers- civilization/screenshots
  16. 16. Literatur 8 Bibliography with informations about the abbreviations used in the captions: Dreher, Thomas: History of Computer Art. Chap. Bibliography. In: URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/links/GCA- IXe.html

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