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федеральное агентство по образованию

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  • 1. Федеральное агентство по образованиюГосударственное образовательное учреждениевысшего профессионального образованияšКузбасский государственный технический университетšКафедра иностранных языковCONDITIONALSУСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯМетодические указания по английскому языкудля аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов 1−2 курсавсех специальностейСоставители Т. К. РумасЛ. К. ЧадинаУтверждены на заседании кафедрыПротокол № 7 от 19. 05.2010Рекомендованы к печатиучебно-методической комиссиейспециальности 080502Протокол № 17 от 01.06.2010Электронная копия находитсяв библиотеке ГУ КузГТУКЕМЕРОВО 20101ПредисловиеМетодические указания "Conditionals" "Условные Предложения"предназначены для студентов 1–2 курсов всех специальностей, а такжеможет быть использована в качестве дополнительной литературы дляфакультативных и элективных курсов.Целью данных методических указаний является ознакомлениестудентов с правилами грамматики, закрепление их на упражнениях, атакже текстах и диалогах, что в свою очередь способствует развитиюнавыков чтения и говорения.Методические указания включают следующие разделы: "Три типаусловных предложений", "Смешанный тип условных предложений","Wish-конструкции", "Read and Talk", "Tests" and "Keys".Для успешного овладения материалом предлагаются грамматическиетаблицы, схемы, упражнения, тексты и вопросы, диалоги, задания,стимулирующие высказывание. Наличие ключей позволяет студентамсамостоятельно работать как в аудитории, так и дома.Авторы надеются, что использование материалов из зарубежныхисточников, и различного рода творческих заданий будет способствоватьдостижению поставленной цели.2Part I. CONDITIONAL SENTENCESУСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯПридаточное предложение Главное предложениеPresent SimpleV / V(e)sPresent SimpleV / V(e)sFuture Simplewill + VI типреальноеусловие
  • 2. (относится кбудущему)If I meet himЕсли я его встречаю,If I meet him tomorrowЕсли я встречу его завтра,If he is free next weekЕсли он будет свободен наследующей неделе,I usually speak to him.я обычно говорю с ним.I will speak to him.я поговорю с ним.we will go to the sea.мы поедем на море.Past SimpleVed / V2wouldshould + VcouldmightII типнереальноеусловие(относится кнастоящемуи будущему)If I saw him today (tomorrow)Если бы я увидел его сегодня(завтра),If he was / were2free nowЕсли бы он был сейчассвободен,I would (Id 1) speak to him.я бы поговорил с ним.we would go to the sea.мы бы поехали на море.Past Perfecthad + V3wouldshould + have V3couldmightIII типнереальноеусловие(относится кпрошлому)If I had seen him yesterday
  • 3. Если бы я видел его вчера,If he had been free last weekЕсли бы он был свободен напрошлой неделе,I would have spoken to him.я бы поговорил с ним.we would have gone to thesea.мы бы поехали на море.3Note:1В разговорной речи глаголы would, should, couldсокращаются до d (например: Id = I would; I should; I could).2Часто глагол "be" имеет форму "were" для всех лиц. Сравните:a) If he were free now wed go to the sea. (форма were звучит болееформально);b) If he was free now wed go to the sea. (является болееразговорной формой).I Type. Real Condition (referring to the present and future)I тип. Реальное условие(относящееся к настоящему и будущему)Ex. 1. Choose the right translation from Russian intoEnglish. Use the keys below and see your score.1. Я работаю в ресторане, но ямало зарабатываю. Если янайду более хорошую работу, яустроюсь на неё.a) I work in a restaurant, but Idont earn much. If I find a betterjob, Ill take it.b) I work in a restaurant, but Idont earn much. If I will find abetter job, Ill take it.2. Ты не станешь хорошимспортсменом, если не будешьусиленно тренироваться.a) You wont become a goodsportsman if you wont train hard.b) You wont become a goodsportsman if you dont train hard.3. Если лёд нагреть, то онпревращается в воду.a) Ice will turn into water if youheat it.b) Ice turns into water if you heatit.4. Если она не закажет комнатув гостинице, то она остановитсяу друзей.a) If she doesnt book a room atthe hotel she will stay at her
  • 4. friends.b) If she will not book a room atthe hotel she will stay at herfriends.5. Муж: Я не собираюсьсадиться на диету. С какойстати я буду садиться на диету?a) Husband: Im not going on adiet. Why should I go on a diet?Wife: But if you go on a diet you 4Жена: Но, если ты сядешь надиету, то похудеешь.will lose weight.b) Husband: Im not going on adiet. Why should I go on a diet?Wife: But if you will go on a dietyou will lose weight.6. Ольга возьмет выходной,если завтра будет чувствоватьсебя плохо.a) Olga will take a day off if shewill not feel well tomorrow.b) Olga will take a day off if shedoes not feel well tomorrow.7. Если я не позавтракаю, то вовремя занятий захочу есть.a) If I dont have breakfast I gethungry during class.b) If I dont have breakfast I willget hungry during class.Keys: 1a; 2b; 3b; 4a; 5a; 6b; 7b.Score: If you have 7 right answers you are a very attentiveperson. Congratulations!If your score is 6 it is good.If it is 5-4 be more attentive.If you have fewer than 4 right answers learn the rule and do thesame exercise again.Ex. 2 Translate type I conditional sentences into Russian.1. If you go now, you’ll catch the train. If you don’t go now, you’llmiss the train.2. If I have a big lunch, it makes me sleepy.3. If you mix yellow and blue, you get green.4. If the bus is overcrowded, they will walk to the station.5. Ill call you tonight if you dont mind.6. His parents will be happy if he marries her.7. What will you do tomorrow if the weather is fine?8. Tell him to ring me up if you see him.9. He is only sixteen but he wants to leave school at the end of theterm. – If he leaves school, he will be sorry afterwards.10. I’m not expecting any message, but if someone rings while I amout could you say that I’ll be back by 6.00?511. Our chief will take part in the discussions if he is not busy.
  • 5. 12. If the bus is overcrowded, they will walk to the station.13. If she doesnt book accommodation (проживание) at the hotel,she will stay at her friends’.Ex. 3 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. Use I Typeconditional sentences. (self check)1. If I see him tomorrow I (give) him a lift.2. The table will collapse if you (stand) on it.3. If I find your passport I (telephone) you at once.4. If he (read) in bad light he will ruin his eyes.5. Someone (steal) your car if you leave it unlocked.6. If he (wash) my car I’ll give him 10$.7. What will happen if my parachute (not open).8. If you (not believe) what I say, ask your mother.9. If he (like) the house will he buy it?10. She won’t open the door unless she (know) who it is.11. I expect it will freeze tonight. – If it (freeze) tonight the roads(be) slippery tomorrow.12. If you (not know) the meaning of the words you may use adictionary.13. If Jack (refuse) to help we’ll have to do without him.14. If you (hear) from Tom will you please let me know?15. Water freezes if temperature (go) down below zero.Ex. 4 Translate into English type I conditional sentences.1. Если он сейчас в городе, он позвонит нам.2. Это будет дешевле, если вы поедете в Москву на поезде.3. Если он прав, тогда не прав я.4. Если они сейчас приедут, что мы им скажем?5. Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем к нашейбабушке.6. Если ты не придешь вовремя, то мы опоздаем на автобус.7. Если ты не знаешь его адрес, то позвони мне.8. Я куплю билеты, если у меня будет достаточно денег.9. Дорогой, если ты ляжешь спать в 9 часов, я поведу тебязавтра в цирк.10. Если ты не оставишь меня, я позвоню в полицию.611. Если ты будешь интересоваться иностранными языками вшколе, тебе будет легко учиться в университете.12. Если ты будешь пользоваться Интернетом, то у тебя будетмного друзей по переписке.13. Если климат изменится, то зима будет более холодная.14. Ребенок заболеет, если будет гулять без кепки.Type II. Unreal Condition (referring to the present or future)Тип II. Нереальное условие(относящиеся к настоящему и будущему)Ex. 5. Choose the right translation. Use the keys below and seeyour score.1. Если бы у меня было многоденег, я бы открыл свойсобственный ресторан.a) If I had a lot of money, Iwould open my own restaurant.b) If I have a lot of money, I will
  • 6. open my own restaurant.2. Если бы он работал болеемедленно, то он бы не сделалстолько много ошибок.a) If he worked more slowly, hewould not make so manymistakes.b) If he works more slowly, hewill not make so many mistakes.3. Если бы она по-другомупричесалась, она бы выгляделадействительно красивой.a) If she does her hairdifferently, she may look quitenice.b) If she did her hair differentlyshe might look quite nice.4. Если бы на земле не былокислорода, то не было бы ижизни.a) If there is no oxygen on earth,life will not exist.b) If there were no oxygen onearth, life would not exist.5. Если бы он был повышеростом, он бы смог статьполицейским, но он слишкоммаленького роста.a) If he were taller, he could be apoliceman, but hes too short.b) If he is taller, he can be apoliceman, but he is too short.6. Почему вы не возьмете кота?Если бы вы держали кота, тоa) Why dont you get a cat? Ifyou keep a cat the mice will not 7мыши бы повсюду не бегали. run about everywhere.b) Why dont you get a cat? Ifyou kept a cat the mice wouldnot run about everywhere.7. Если бы я выиграл в лотереюкрупный выигрыш, я бы бросилработу.a) If I won a big prize in thelottery Id give up my job.b) If I win a big prize in thelottery Ill give up my job.Keys: 1a; 2a; 3b; 4b; 5a; 6b; 7a.Score: If you have 7 right answers you are a very attentiveperson. Congratulations!If your score is 6 it is good.If it is 5-4 be more attentive.
  • 7. If you have fewer than 4 right answers learn the rule (page 2)and do the same exercise again.Ex. 6. Translate type II conditional sentences (referring to thepresent and future).1. If I had a lot of money, Id travel around the world.2. If the weather were nice now, I would go to the beach.3. If I were you, Id apply for a job.4. What would you do if you were me?5. If I won a lot of money, I might stop working.6. I could repair the car myself, if I had the right tools.7. That watch wouldnt be so cheap if it were made of gold.8. If I had a computer, I would type the letter myself.10. What would you do, if you failed in an exam?11. If I knew her name, I would tell you.12. If only I had your talent, I would become a film star.Ex. 7. Translate type II conditional sentences and put the verbs inbrackets into the correct forms. (self check)1. If I (know) his address Id give it to you.2. He (look) a lot better if he shaved more often.3. I shouldnt drink that wine if I (be) you.84. More tourists would come to this country if it (have) a betterclimate.5. If someone (give) you a helicopter what would you do with it?6. I (buy) shares in that company if I had some money.7. He might get fat if he (stop) smoking.8. I could get a job easily if I (have) a degree.9. If you (change) your work, would it affect your pension?10. Of course Im not going to give her a diamond ring. If I (give)her a diamond ring she (sell) it.11. He is staying at the Savoy in London. − Is he very rich? − Isuppose he is. If he (be) a poor man he (not stay) at the Savoy.12. It is cold today. If it (be) not cold today, I (go) swimming.13. Ann: George is fourteen. Tom: He must be older than that. He isin full time job. If he (be) only fourteen he still (be) at school.14. A university degree is a useful thing. If I (have) a universitydegree I now (sit) in a comfortable office instead of standing at astreet corner selling newspapers.Ex. 8. Match English sentences with their Russian translations.I. 1. If he were free now, hecould help us.2. If he is free now, he canhelp us.а) Если он сейчас свободен,то он сможет нам помочь.б) Если бы он был сейчассвободен, он бы смог нампомочь.II. 1. If you press the button, thedevice will start working.2. If you pressed the button,the device would startworking.
  • 8. а) Если ты нажмешь кнопку,то прибор начнет работать.б) Если бы ты нажал кнопку,то прибор бы заработал.III. 1. You will get good results,if you apply new methods ofcalculation.2. You would get goodresults, if you used newmethods of calculation.а) Если бы вы использовалиновые методы вычисления, тополучили бы хорошиерезультаты.б) Если вы будетеиспользовать новые методывычисления, то получитехорошие результаты.9IV. 1. If you help me, I willrepair the car in an hour.2. If you helped me, I wouldrepair my car in an hour.а) Если вы мне поможете, то яотремонтирую машину черезчас.б) Если бы вы мне помогли,то я бы отремонтировалмашину через час.V. 1. We would come to theconcert in time, if we took ataxi.2. We will come to theconcert in time, if we take ataxi.а) Если мы возьмём такси, тоне опоздаем на концерт.б) Если бы мы взяли такси, тоне опоздали бы на концерт.VI. 1. If they leave in an hour,they will catch the train.2. If they left in an hour, theywould catch the train.а) Если бы они уехали черезчас, они бы успели на поезд.б) Если они уедут через час,то они успеют на поезд.VII. 1. If I had a dog, I would bethe happiest man.2. If have a dog, I will be thehappiest man.а) Если бы у меня быласобака, я бы был самым
  • 9. счастливым.б) Если у меня будет собака, ябуду самым счастливымчеловеком.VIII. 1. If our children knewEnglish well, they would goto the USA.2. If our children knowEnglish well, they will go tothe USA.а) Если наши дети будутхорошо знать английский, тоони поедут в США.б) Если бы наши дети зналианглийский хорошо, они быпоехали в США.Ex. 9. Translate into English sentences with real and unrealcondition referring to the present and future.1. a) Если у меня будет завтра вечером свободное время, япойду гулять в парк вместе с друзьями.б) Если бы у меня было завтра вечером свободное время, ябы пошла гулять вместе с друзьями в парк.2. а) Если я завтра встречу одноклассников, то мы, конечно,сходим в нашу школу. 10б) Если бы я завтра встретила своих одноклассников, мы бы,конечно, сходили в нашу школу.3. а) Если мои родители поедут в Америку, я поеду с ними.б) Если бы мои родители поехали в Америку, я бы поехал сними.4. а) Если я буду знать много слов, я буду переводить безсловаря.б) Если бы я знал много слов, я бы переводил без словаря.5. а) Если она сейчас находится в офисе, мы обсудим всевопросы.б) Если бы она сейчас находилась в офисе, мы бы обсудиливсе вопросы.6. а) Мы будем больше знать о художниках и их картинах,если будем ходить в музеи.б) Мы бы больше знали о художниках и их картинах, еслибы чаще ходили в музеи.7. а) Я много путешествую, если у меня есть деньги.б) Я бы много путешествовала, если бы у меня были деньги.8. а) Если Виктор позвонит, я приглашу его.б) Если бы Виктор позвонил, я бы пригласил его.III Type. Unreal Condition (referring to the past)III Тип. Нереальное условие (относящееся к прошлому)Ex. 10. Translate III type conditional sentences (referring to thepast).1. If the weather had been nice yesterday, I would have gone to thebeach.2. If Id studied hard last term, I would have passed my exam well.3. If you hadnt missed your bus, you wouldnt have been late for
  • 10. the lecture.4. I could have repaired the car, if I had had the right tools.5. He was not very happy at school because he was a bookish boy,not at all interested in games. If he had played games like theother boys, he would have had a much better time.6. My wife and I met on a cruise. I was on it because I wasrecovering from my illness, and she was a doctor. Just think! If Ihad not been ill, and if she had not been the doctor, we wouldnt 11have met, we wouldnt have got married, and our childrenwouldnt have been born! What a thought!7. Last night Alex ruined his sweater when he washed it. If he hadread the label, he wouldnt have washed it in hot water.8. If I had seen the signal, I would have stopped.9. I would have called you if I had known your telephone number.10. If it hadnt rained I would have taken my children to the beach.11. He wouldnt have locked the car with the keys inside if he hadnot been in a hurry.Ex. 11. Analyze the sentences and choose the right translation. Usethe keys below an see the score.1. Если бы я была старше (тогда),я бы взяла детей своей сестры.a) If I were older, I would takemy sisters children.b) If I had been older, I wouldhave taken my sisters children.2. Если бы у меня был компьютер(тогда), я бы сама все сделала.a) If I had had a computer, Iwould have done everythingmyself.b) If I had a computer, I woulddo everything myself.3. Если бы он был хорошимэкономистом, он бы дал намхороший совет. (когда мы с нимвстречались)a) If he had been a goodeconomist, he would have givenus a piece of good advice.b) If he were a good economist,he would give us a piece ofgood advice.4. Если бы вы учились в однойшколе (в детстве), вы бы зналидруг друга.a) If you had studied at thesame school, you would haveknown each other.b) If you studied at the sameschool, you would know eachother.5. Если бы она тебя любила, то вы
  • 11. бы не расстались. (2 года назад)a) If she loved you, you wouldnot part.b) If she had loved you, youwouldnt have parted.126. Если бы я (в тот вечер) былдома, я бы позвонил в полицию.a) If I were at home, I wouldphone to the police.b) If I had been at home, Iwould have phoned the police.7. Если бы у них была машина(прошлым летом), они бы моглипоехать на юг.a) If they had a car, they coulddrive to the south.b) If they had had a car, theycould have driven to the south.Keys to ex. 11.1b; 2a; 3a; 4a; 5b; 6b; 7b.Score: If you have 7 right answers you are a very attentiveperson. Congratulations!If your score is 6 it is good.If it is 5-4 be more attentive.If you have fewer than 4 right answers learn the rule (page 2)and do the same exercise again.Ex. 12. Translate type III conditional sentences and put the verbsin brackets into the correct forms. (self check)1. If I had seen the movie, I _______ (tell) you about it last night.2. If Bob had not interfered (вмешиваться) in his sister’s maritalproblems, there _______ (be) peace between them.3. If they had left the house earlier, they _______ (not be) so lategetting to the airport.4. If they had arrived at the sale early, they _______ (find) a betterselection.5. If we _______ (know) your address, we would have written youa letter.6. If he _______ (come) already, he would have called us.7. If they _______ (know) him, they would have talked to him.8. He _______ (understand) it if you had explained it to him moreslowly.9. It would have been better if you _______ (learn) to drive a car.10. What would have happened if he _______ (miss) the train?11. If I had known that you needed help I _______ (help) you.13Ex. 13. Analyze the sentences and translate them.1. If you go to the exhibition, you’ll see quite a few masterpieces.If you went to the exhibition, you would see quite a fewmasterpieces. If you had gone to the exhibition, you would haveseen quite a few masterpieces.2. If you confirm my message by letter, I will be grateful to you. Ifyou confirmed my message by letter, I would be grateful to you.If you had confirmed my letter by message, I would have been
  • 12. grateful to you.3. If I didn’t tell him, he would never know about his relativesabroad. If I hadnt told him, he would have never known abouthis relatives abroad. If I dont tell him, he will never know abouthis relatives abroad.4. If the international conference takes place next month, I won’tbe able to take part in it. If the international conference took partnext month, I wouldnt be able to take part in it. If theinternational conference had taken place last month, I wouldnthave been able to take part in.5. If he had managed to book the tickets for the match, he’d havegiven you one. If he will manage to book the tickets for thematch, I will give you one. If he managed to book tickets for thematch, I would have given you one.6. If their goalkeeper were excellent, they would win the game. Iftheir goalkeeper is excellent, they will win the game. If theirgoalkeeper had been excellent, they would have won the game.7. If you weren’t so angry, you wouldn’t hurt him. If you arent soangry, you will not hurt him. If you hadnt been so angry, youwouldnt have hurt him.8. If they guaranteed success, I’d join them. If they guaranteesuccess, I will join them. If they had guaranteed success, I wouldhave joined them.9. If he comes tomorrow, I will have time to see him. If he cametomorrow, I would have time to see him. If he had comeyesterday, I would have had time to see him.10. If it were his fault, he would do his best to help them. If it hadbeen his fault, he would have done all his best to help them. If itis his fault, he will do all his best to help them.1411. If he were here, hed take part in our conference. If he had beenhere, he would have taken part in our conference. If he is here,he will take tart in our conference.Ex. 14. Translate into English. Mind conditionals.1. Если я найду её адрес, я напишу ей. Если бы я сейчас нашёлеё адрес, я бы написал ей. Если бы я нашёл её адрес, я бы ейвчера написал.2. Если бы вы знали грамматику лучше, вы бы не делалистолько ошибок в ваших упражнениях. (в прошлом)3. Если бы я не был так занят на прошлой неделе, я бы тожепоехал с вами на экскурсию.4. Если завтра будет очень холодно, мы не пойдем на стадион.5. Если бы ты пришел вчера на собрание, ты бы услышалочень интересный доклад.6. Если бы мы вчера взяли такси, мы бы не опоздали на поезд.7. Если я завтра получу зарплату, то я куплю новый ноутбук.Если бы я завтра получил зарплату, я бы купил новыйноутбук.8. На твоём месте я бы сейчас пошла, работать в супермаркет.9. Что ты будешь делать, если не поступишь в университет?10. Ребёнок упал в реку. Этого бы не случилось, если бы выбыли там.11. Мне понадобилось много времени, чтобы перевести эту
  • 13. статью. Если бы у меня был хороший словарь, я бы перевелеё гораздо быстрее.12. Мы посмотрим матч, если купим билеты. Если бы у нассейчас были билеты, мы бы посмотрели матч на стадионе.Если бы мы вчера купили билеты, мы бы посмотрели матч.Союзы в Условных Придаточных ПредложенияхОсновными союзами условных предложений являются:1. if − еслиIf you wait for me, we will go together.Если ты подождёшь меня, то мы пойдём вместе.2. unless − если … неHe will not write a report in time unless you help him.Он не напишет отчет вовремя, если ты ему не поможешь.153. provided / providing − (при условии) еслиWe will start out at seven sharp, provided everybody come in time.Мы отправимся ровно в 7, (при условии) если все придутвовремя.Ex. 15. Translate into Russian paying attention to conjunctions"if", "provided / providing", "unless".1. If a solid body or a liquid is heated, it will usually expand.2. Providing mercury did not expand when heated, it would not beused for taking temperatures.3. The measurements were always correct provided the necessaryinstruments were used.4. Unless the temperature rises, the speed of the motion of themolecules will not increase.5. Provided the operators cabin had been equipped with electroniccontrol, he would have been able to work faster.6. The manned spaceships might not have been launched into thecosmos unless scientists had studied the information receivedfrom the space satellites.7. Provided the Earths mass were twice as great as it is, it wouldattract any body twice as strongly.8. It would have been impossible to send up sputniks unless thelaws of motion of planets had been studied.9. Youll fail in your exam unless you work harder.10. Mary will go with us unless she changes her mind.11. Im playing tennis tomorrow unless it is raining.12. George doesnt trust anybody. He wont lend you money unlessyou promise in writing to pay him back.13. Children can stay here providing they dont make much noise.14. I wouldnt have gone unless it had been necessary.15. If I were you, I would buy a smaller house.Инверсия в Условных ПредложенияхВ условных предложениях II и III типов союзы if, providedмогут быть опущены, а в придаточном предложении глагол(were, had, could и др.) ставится перед подлежащим. Инверсиявстречается в книжно-письменной речи.16Условное предложениес союзомИнверсия.Предложения без союза
  • 14. If the engine had been repairedyesterday, we would have left theport. − Если бы двигатель былвчера отремонтирован, мы быпокинули порт.Had the engine been repairedyesterday, we would have left theport. − Если бы двигатель былвчера отремонтирован, мы быпокинули порт.Ex. 16. Change the sentences according to the model:Model: If I were in your place, I would do this work myself.Were I in your place, I would do this work myself.1. If there were any letters from him, his sister would phone me.2. If these books were available in our library, we would be able tomake a good report.3. If the earth were not rotating, the satellite would cover 360degrees in longitude in 1-4 hours.4. If the engineer had been informed of the results before, he wouldhave allowed you to repeat the test.5. If we had used new methods, we would have saved a lot of time.6. If the mechanic were here, he would repair the equipment.7. If they had met with such problems before, they would haveknown what to do.8. If I were you, I would enter one of the Russian universities.9. If you had planned your time better, you wouldnt have come tothe station one minute before the train departure.10. If the road had been better after snowstorms, we would havebeen here in time.11. If you had left message for me, I would have called you.12. If you had looked after your children, they would have studiedbetter.WISH-КонструкцииA) В изъявительном наклонении wish выражает пожелание:to wish somebody something − пожелать кому-то что-тоModel: I wish you health (success, many years of happiness,etc.) Я желаю Вам здоровья (успеха, много счастливых летжизни и т. д.)17I wish you a Happy New Year! Поздравляю с Новым Годом!He wished them a happy journey. Он пожелал им счастливогопути.В) В условных предложениях II и III типов глагол wish восновном своем значении выражает не слишком реальноетрудновыполнимое желание, или желание на уровне мечты −"хотел бы", "жаль, что"В условных предложениях wish используется, когда мыхотели бы, чтобы реальность была иной, чем на самом деле (внастоящем, прошлом или будущем).Model: 1) referring (относится) to the present and futureI wish it were summer now. Хотел бы я, чтобы сейчас былолето. (Жаль, что сейчас не лето.)2) referring to the past (относится к прошлому)
  • 15. I wish I had known it earlier. Жаль, что я не знал этогораньше.Wish + would − используется:1) когда выражаем недовольство, раздражение из-за того,что что-то происходит или, наоборот, не происходит; в русскомязыке это передается оборотом "хоть бы".Model: She is too talkative. I wish she would be quiet! Онаслишком много говорит. Хоть бы она помолчала!2) при обращении к собеседнику это может означатьпросьбу, в форме пожелания, чтобы человек перестал делать то,что нам не нравится (но не в приказном тоне) "я бы хотел".I wish you would stop smoking. Я бы хотел, чтобы тыперестал курить.Ex. 17. Translate these "wish" sentences into Russian.a) 1. We congratulate you on your birthday and wish you be healthy,wealthy and wise. 2. We wish you all the happiness in the world. 3. Iwish you good health and I wish you merry Christmas. 4. I wish yousuccess in your research. 5. I wish everybody well. I dont wishanybody ill. 6. They wished us good luck. 7. I wish you both a very 18good trip. 8. They wished us all the best in our life. 9. We wished hima happy birthday.b) I wish I were younger. 2. I wish I knew who told you about it. 3. Iwish it were not raining now. I wish the weather were fine so that wemight go to the country. 4. We all wish you were not leaving. 5. I wishI knew what is wrong with my car. 6. I wish he wouldnt spend somuch time on sports. 7. I wish I had a lot of brothers. 8. I wish Oleghad an artistic occupation. 9. I wish I had a better education.10. I wish she were not so light-minded. 11. I wish it were spring now.12. She wishes she were not so hot-minded. 13. I wish she had a senseof duty. 14. I wish I knew what is happening.c) 1. I wish you hadnt promised them anything. 2. Now she wishesshe had gone to college. 3. I wish you had given him my telephonenumber. 4. They wished they had gone to Moscow by plane; theywould have saved a lot of time. 5. I wish they hadnt refused ourinvitation. 6. I wish they had congratulated him. 7. I wish I had beenon holiday last month. 8. I wish I had known about his troubles. 9. Iwish you had come earlier. You would have seen the director. 10. Iwish I had borrowed some money then and bought the dictionary. Itisnt on sale now. 11. I wish I had followed his advice. 12. I wish I hadtaken part in that excursion. They say it was very interesting. 13. Theweather was so bad, that I wished I hadnt left home. 14. I wished youware a warm coat. 15. I wished you had brought your camera. 16. Iwish you could come to the party.Ex. 18. Translate "wish + would" sentences.1. I wish Jack would come soon. 2. I wish somebody would turnthat loud music down. 3. I wish you wouldnt drive so fast. It makesme nervous. 4. I wish you wouldnt tell anybody about my futuremarriage. 5. I wish that rain would stop. 6. I wish that baby would stopcrying. 7. I wish my boss would offer me a higher position in thecompany. 8. I wish my neighbour wouldnt play the piano in themiddle of the night. 9. I wish you wouldnt leave the door open. 10. Iwish people wouldnt drop litter in the street. 11. I wish you would
  • 16. stop interrupting me. 12. I wish you would keep your things in order.)13. I wish you wouldnt be so absent-minded.19Conditional Sentences: Type II and Type III mixedСмешанный Тип Условных ПредложенийВ условных предложениях смешанного типа условие можетотноситься к прошлому времени (III тип), а следствие кнастоящему или будущему (II тип) или наоборот.Model: If he had taken my advice (III), he would be a famoussinger now (II). Если бы он последовал моему совету (в прошлом),он был бы знаменитым певцом сейчас.If he were not so lazy (II), he would have done it long ago.Если бы он не был таким ленивым (вообще), он бы давносделал это (в прошлом).Ex. 19. Translate the mixed type conditional sentences.1. He wouldnt be making so many mistakes now if he hadntmissed so many lessons.2. You wouldnt be hungry now, if you had had a good breakfast inthe morning.3. It was the drug, not the disease, which killed him. He would stillbe alive today if he hadnt taken that drug.4. You are not practical. If you were practical, you wouldnt havebought such a useless thing.5. She looks tired. If she hadnt been working so hard all the timeshe would not look so tired now.6. I overslept; thats why Im late. If my telephone hadnt rung at 9oclock, I might still be in bed.7. If you hadnt helped me, I wouldnt be here now.8. If George had sent a telegram yesterday, I would meet him at thestation now.9. You would be feeling well today, if you had taken the medicineyesterday10. If you were me, you would have done the same.11. If he had a sense of humour he wouldnt have got offended(обижаться).12. Why are you in such a bad temper (настроение)? − BecauseIve been waiting for 40 minutes in an icy wind. If you had beenwaiting 40 minutes in an ice wind, you would be bad-temperedtoo.2013. The room is full of mosquitoes because you left the door open.If you had closed the door, there would be no mosquitoes now.14. If you hadnt been late for the plane yesterday, you would swimin a warm sea today.Part II. READ AND TALKEx. 20. Read the text and retell it.IFThere used to be a race named the Laconians. They lived inancient Greece. Sparta was their capital. They were noted(известный) for their courage and concise (краткий, точный) speech.Their motto (девиз) was "Actions speak louder than words". Oncewhen an Athenian herald (вестник) told them: "If we come to yourcity we will destroy it completely". The Laconians didnt getfrightened (испугаться). Their answer was "If".
  • 17. Thus, the name Laconia gave birth to the word "laconic"Ex. 21. Read the dialogue and answer the questions below. Mind Itype conditional sentences.Dont Worry, MumJack and his friend Anthony are going to fly to Istanbul. Jacksmother is very worried.Mum: Oh, dear! I hope everything will be all right. Youvenever been abroad before.Jack: Dont worry mum. Ill be OK. I can look after myself.Anyway, I will be with Anthony. We wont do anything stupid.Mum: But what will you do if you run out of money?Jack: Well get a job of course!Mum: Oh, what about if you get lost (заблудиться)?Jack: If we get lost, well ask someone the way, but we wontget lost.Mum! But how will I know that you are all right?Jack: When we get to a big city, Ill send you a postcard.Mum: Oh. But Jack, its such a long flight to Istanbul!Jack: Mum, as soon as we arrive in Turkey, Ill give you a ring.Mum: Ill be worried until I hear from you.Jack: Ill be OK, Mum. Honest!21Questions:1. Where are Jack and Anthony flying?2. Have they ever been abroad before?3. Is Jacks mother worried?4. What will the boys do if they run out of money?5. What will they do if they get lost?6. What will Jack do as soon as he arrives in Turkey?Ex. 22. Read and say your opinion. Whose part do you agreewith? Mind the II type conditionals.If I Were ...− If I were you, I wouldnt see too much of young Brown.− Why shouldnt I Dad? Whats wrong with him?− Well, Kate, if you were older, youd understand.− And if you were younger, perhaps you might like him.− If I were in you place, Id be very careful in choosing yourfriends.− If you were in my place, you wouldnt choose differently.− Young people arent what they used to be. If I were Minister ofEducation, Id do something about it.− If I were Queen, Id have a young Minister of Education.Ex. 23. Read the text and be ready to answer the questions below.Mind the II type conditionals.North Sea OilGood evening. This is London Radio. Welcome to "Man in theStreet".Our programme tonight is about North Sea oil. Oil was firstdiscovered beneath the North Sea in the late 1960s. Since then moreand more oil has been found off the coasts of Britain and is beingbrought ashore. We arent going to become very rich, but we mustdecide how to spend the oil revenues (годовой доход).Our interviewer went into the streets to ask people their opinion.
  • 18. He asked: "If you were the Prime Minister what would you do withthe money?"The first speaker: "Well of course. Im not the Prime Minister,but if I were Id spend the money on more hospitals and schools. We 22need more doctors, nurses and teachers. Classes are too big. If classeswere smaller, children would learn more. And there arent enoughnurses either, because salaries are too low. If the salaries were highermore people would become nurses. Money which is spent oneducation and health is an investment for the future."The second speaker: "I think the answer is quite simple. Taxesare too high in this country, arent they? I would reduce them. If wereduced taxes people would have more money. If they had moremoney, theyd spend more. Industry would have to produce more, so itwould need more workers. There would be more jobs, and we wouldall be richer."The third speaker: "Im very worried about inflation. Id try tocontrol prices. If I were the Prime Minister Id reduce the price of gas,coal and electricity. If we did that, everybody would benefit, wouldntthey? Food is much too expensive. Id encourage the farmers toproduce more food, more cheaply. However there are some things thatI certainly wouldnt do: I certainly wouldnt build more roads, and Iwouldnt spend money on guns and tanks and warplanes."The forth speaker: "Theres too much crime and violencenowadays. There arent enough policemen on the streets. Id increasethe size of the police force, and Id increase their salaries. If we hadmore policemen, wed all feel safer. Id also increase old age pensions.Ive worked hard all my life and I should have a reasonable standardof living."Questions:1. What radio programme is this?2. What is tonights programme about?3. When was oil discovered beneath the North Sea?4. What question did the interviewer ask the people in the streets?5. What did the first / second / third / fourth speaker say?6. What would you say if you were the Prime Minister?Ex. 24. Read the text and be ready to answer the questions below.What Would You Do If You Won Ten Million Dollars?Radio Reporter: Good morning! Im Jane Taylor with WELTradio. Im interviewing people on the street this morning, asking thequestion: "What would you do if you won ten million dollars in the 23lottery?" Lets start with this person here. Excuse me, whats yourname?Linda: Linda.Reporter: Linda, what would you do if you won ten milliondollars?Linda: Ten million dollars? Well, first Id pay for my brotherscollege education, and then Id buy a nice house for my parents, andId probably give the rest to charity.Reporter: OK. Thank you. And you, sir, whats your name?Robert: My names Robert.Reporter: Well, Robert, what would you do if you won tenmillion dollars?
  • 19. Robert: Hmmm ... , I think Id use the money to start my ownbusiness. Ive always wanted to do that.Reporter: Oh? What kind of business?Robert: Id start my own recording company.Reporter: That sounds interesting, thanks! And you, sir, could Ihave your name please?Scott: Scott.Reporter: Scott, what would you do if you won ten milliondollars?Scott: Well, first Id pay for all my credit cards. Then Id buy ajet and learn to fly it.Answer the following questions:1. What question does the radio reporter ask?2. What would Linda do if she won ten million dollars?3. What would Robert do with the money?4. And what about Scott?5. What would you do if you won a lot of money? Why?Ex. 25. Read the text. Mind the III type conditional sentences.A) Are You Influenced by Advertising?Jenny has asked people if they are influenced by advertising.Here are some of the answers.Bill: No, I dont think so. I bought this watch last week. I hadseen a commercial for it on TV, but its a good reliable (надежный)watch. I would have bought it even if I hadnt seen the commercial.24Rob: Yes, Im sure that I am. Yesterday I bought these trainers. IfI hadnt read about them, I wouldnt have paid so much money if thead hadnt influenced me.Pat: I think everybody is influenced by advertising. Last week Ibought a new shampoo. If I hadnt seen a magazine ad for the productI wouldnt have tried it.Ann: No. I buy whatever is the cheapest. But its not always agood idea. Last week I bought a cheap red jumper and the colour cameout. If I had bought a better jumper, it would have kept its colour.B). Look through the text again and say if the followingsentences are true or false. Correct the false statements.Model: Bill wouldnt have bought the watch if he hadnt seen acommercial on TV.False. He would have bought the watch anyway.1. Rob would have bought a cheaper pair of trainers if he hadntread an ad for the expensive pair.2. Rob would have bought the expensive trainers anyway.3. Pat would have tried a new shampoo, even if she hadnt readabout it.4. Anns jumper would have lost its colour, even if she had paidmore.5. Bill would have bought the watch even if he hadnt seen thecommercial.6. Rob would have paid more money if he hadnt seen the ad.Ex. 26. Tom is overweight. Write in what cases he would loseweight. Use if-sentences of unreal condition (III type).Model: Tom never gets any exercise.If Tom got some exercise he would (might) lose some weight.
  • 20. 1. Tom never walks to his work.2. Tom never plays football.3. Tom likes cakes and sweets.4. Tom puts a lot of sugar into his coffee and tea.5. He eats a lot of chocolate and jam.6. Tom often drinks beer.257. Tom always eats a lot of fattening things.8. Tom is used of eating after 9 oclock in the evening.9. Tom avoids going for outings on Sundays.10. Tom doesnt like swimming in the waterpool.11. He never plays outdoor games.12. Tom likes to lie on the sofa.13. Tom usually has his dinner in good restaurants.Ex. 27. A) Complete the sentences on the left with the informationon the right;1. If they banned smoking on allplanes,a) …the streets will be a lotcleaner.2. If people used their cars onlyon week days,b) …some people would travel bytrain.3. If they build a good subwaysystem,c) …they would probably be a lothealthier.4. If people ate less meat, d) …there would be less pollutionin cities.5. If the city passes a lawagainst keeping dogs as pets,e) … more people might get rid of(избавляться) of their cars.B) Complete the sentences on the left with your own information.Ex. 28. Read the dialoque and do the task below.Jane: I just got a postcard from a friend who lost all his moneyon vacation in Europe. Isnt it terrible?Burt: Yeah, thats horrible.Kate: Jane, what would you do if you were on vacation overseasand lost all your money and credit cards?Jane: Well, Id probably phone my parents and ask them to sendsome money right away.Burt: Yeah, Id probably do the same thing ... although maybe Idtry going to American Express Office to see if I could get a loan orsomething. What about you, Kate?Kate: Well, I think Id probably sell my watch and camera... or Imight get a job as a waitress somewhere till I made enough money tobuy a plane ticket.26Ex. 29. Now advise these people using the second conditional.Model: −Ive got a headache.−If I were you, I’d take an aspirin.see a doctor.
  • 21. have a rest.go for a walk, etc.1. I cant sleep at night.2. Ive been bitten by a snake (змея).3. Ive lost my passport.4. I want to win an Olympic medal.5. Ive cut myself.6. Ive just seen an accident.7. I need some money and the banks are shut.8. I want to stop smoking.9. I want to be a millionaire.10. Ive been robbed (грабить).11. I want to buy a pet.12. I want to buy a car.13. I have a high temperature.14. I’ve found a new mobile telephone in a lecture room.15. I forgot to send birthday greetings to my boy / girlfriend and he/ she got offended.Ex. 30. Give your advice to the following people:Use: “If I were you, I’d…”1. A woman who always goes to bed very late.2. A friend who smokes more than 50 cigarettes a day.3. A man who is very thin and unhealthy.4. A man who is very thick and unhealthy.5. A friend with a bicycle that often goes wrong (ломается).6. A man who is very unhappy in his job.7. Someone with very bad toothache.8. A friend who has just bought a new car and the car has justbroken down.9. A man who wants a job in Sweden, but can’t speak Swedish.10.Your best friend who fell in love with the boy / girl you love?27Ex. 31. Group work.What would you do in the situations below? Begin like this:A: What would you do if …?B: I think I’d… .C: I’m not sure, but I might… .− you were on vacation overseas and lost all your money andcredit cards− you won a lot of money in a lottery− a friend borrowed money from you and didn’t return it− you found a valuable piece of jewelry on a park bench− you saw two people fighting on the street− you discovered your friend had a drinking problem− someone stole your clothes on the beach while you wereswimming− you left your handbag in a taxi.− you lost your airticket− you lost your passport− you found a wallet (кошелёк) full of money on a bus− you found a photo of a beautiful girl / boy in a lecture room− your friends were attacked by hooligans in the street.Ex. 32. Answer the questions.
  • 22. 1. Where would you be right now if you werent in class now?2. What would you have done yesterday if you hadnt come toclass?3. What would you do if there were a fire in the building?4. If you had a private plane, where would you go for dinnertonight?5. Could ships go around the world if the earth were flat?6. What would happen if there were a nuclear war?7. If you could have a free service for the rest of your life from achauffeur, cook, housekeeper, or gardener, which would youchoose? Why?8. If you had to leave your country and build a new life elsewhere,where would you go? Why?9. If you could stay one particular age for a span of 50 years, whatage would you choose? Why?2810. You have promised to spend an evening with your best friend.But you discover you have the chance to spend the evening witha film star. Your friend is not invited. What would you do?Why?11. Assume (допустим) that you have a good job. Your boss toldyou to do something that you think is wrong, would you do it?Why or why not? You understand that if you dont do it, youlllose your job.12. You had to choose among good health, a loving family, andwealth (and you could have only one of the three during yourlife) which would you choose? Why?13. Under what conditions, if any, would you ...a) exceed (превышать) the speed limit while driving?b) lie (лгать) to your best friend?c) disobey an order from your boss?d) steal food?e) carry a friend on your back for a long distance?f) not pay your rent (плата за аренду жилья)?g) cry and laugh in the street at nighth) cross the street when the light is redi) miss your English classj) write a e-mail letter to the President of Russiak) make up other conditions for your groupmates todiscuss.TESTS ON CONDITIONALSEx. 33. Do the following test.Test Ia) Translate the sentences. Mind the conditionals.1. If we had any trouble with the equipment, we would replace it.2. If you had given me this book before, my report would havebeen much better.3. If you had informed us before about it, we would not havereserved the hotel.4. If you had made an appointment with Mr. Bentley last week, itwould be possible to settle the matter today.5. If the weather doesnt change, well go boating tomorrow.296. "Were he talented, I would teach him", said the old pianist.
  • 23. 7. If it hadnt been raining last Saturday, we could have gone on apicnic.b) Open the brackets. Mind the conditionals.1. If we _______ (apply) this method, the productivity will grow.2. If we applied this method, the productivity _______ (grow).3. If we had applied this method, the productivity _______ (grow).4. I wish they _______ (know) about your arrival.5. He smokes too much. If he smoked less, he _______ (be)healthier.c) Translate into English. Mind the conditionals.1. Если она напишет статью, то она принесёт её.2. Если бы она написала статью завтра, она бы принесла её.3. Если бы она написала статью на прошлой неделе, она бы еётогда и отправила.Ex. 34. Do the following test.Test IIa) Translate the sentences. Mind the conditionals.1. Everything might have been settled yesterday if you had come.2. If you had lent him the textbook the day before yesterday, hewould be prepared for todays lesson.3. It was the drug, not the disease, that killed him. He would still bealive today if he hadnt taken that drug.4. Had one of the engines failed, the plane would have been able tocontinue the flight.5. Would you recognize your friend at once if you hadnt seen himfor ten years?6. If you had told me we had run out of bread Id have boughtsome.7. He didnt tell me that he was a vegetarian. If he had told meearlier, I would have cooked something suitable for him.b) Open the brackets. Mind the conditionals.1. If he (study) English well, he will not fail in his exam.2. If he studied English well, he (not fail) in his exam.303. If he had (study) English well, he would not have failed in hisexam.4. Mike wishes that the teacher _______ (permit) him to take hisexam.5. My dog always wakes me up if he _______ (hear) strangenoises.c) Translate into English. Mind the conditionals.1. Если ты его попросишь, то он сделает это.2. Если бы ты его сейчас попросил, он бы сделал это.3. Если бы ты его попросил, то он бы сделал это еще вчера.KEYSEx. 35. Keys to ex. 31. will give 2. stand 3. will telephone 4. reads5. will steal 6. washes 7. doesnt open 8. dont believe9. likes 10. knows 11. freezes; will be 12. dont know13. refuses 14. hear 15. goesEx. 36. Keys to ex. 41. If he is in town now, he will call us.2. It will be cheaper if you go to Moscow by train.
  • 24. 3. If he is right, then I am not.4. If they come now, what will we tell them?5. If the weather will be fine tomorrow, we will go to our granny.6. If you dont come in time, we will be late for the bus.7. If you dont know his address, ring me up.8. Ill buy tickets, if I have enough money.9. Darling, if you go to bed at 9 oclock, Ill take you to the circustomorrow.10. If you dont leave me, Ill call the police.11. If youre interested in foreign languages at school, it will beeasier for you to study at the university.12. If you use internet, you will have a lot of pen-friends.13. If the climate changes, then winter will be colder.14. The child will get cold, if he walks without a cap.31Ex. 37. Keys to ex. 71. knew 2. would look 3. were / was4. had 5. gave 6. would buy7. stopped 8. had 9. changed10. gave; would sell 11. were / was;would not stay12. were / was;would go13. were; would still be 14. had, would sitEx. 38. Key to ex. 8I. 1б, 2а II. 1a, 2б III. 1б, 2а IV. 1a, 2бV. 1б, 2а VI. 1б, 2а VII. 1a, 2б VIII. 1б, 2аЕx. 39. Keys to ex. 91. a) If I have free time tomorrow evening, I will go with myfriends for a walk to the park.б) If I had free time tomorrow evening, I would go with myfriends for a walk to the park.2. а) If I meet my classmates tomorrow, well certainly go to ourschool.б) If I met my classmates tomorrow, we would certainly go toour school.3. а) If my parents go to America, I will go with them.б) If my parents went to America, I would go with them.4. a) If I know many words, I will translate without a dictionary.б) If I knew many words, I would translate without a dictionary.5. a) If she is at the office now, well discuss all the questions.б) If she were at the office now, we would discuss all thequestions now.6. a) We will know more about painters and their paintings if wego to museums.б) We would know more about painters and their paintings if wewent to museums7. a) I travel a lot, if I have money.б) I would travel a lot, if I had money.8. a) If Victor calls, I will invite him.б) If Victor called, I would invite him.32Ex. 40. Keys to ex. 121. would have told you 2. would have been
  • 25. 3. would not have been 4. would have found5. had known 6. had come7. had known 8. would have understood9. had learned 10. had missed11. would have helpedEx. 41. Keys to ex. 141. If I find her address, I will write to her. If I found her addressnow, I would write to her. If I had found her address, I wouldhave written to her yesterday.2. If you had known grammar better, you wouldn have done somany mistakes.3. If I hadnt been so busy last week, I would have gone with you tothe excursion too.4. If it is very cold tomorrow, we will not go to the stadium.5. If you had come to the meeting yesterday, you would have hearda very interesting story.6. If we had taken a taxi yesterday, we wouldnt have been late fora train.7. If I get a salary tomorrow, I will buy a new notebook. If I got asalary tomorrow, I would buy a new notebook.8. If I were you, I would work in a supermarket now.9. What will you do if you dont enter a university?10. A child fell down into the river. It wouldnt have happened ifyou had been there.11. It took me a lot of time to translate this article. If I had a gooddictionary I would have translated it much quicker.12. We will see the match if we buy tickets. If we had tickets now,we would see the match on the stadium. If we had bought ticketsyesterday, we would have seen the match.33List of books used by the authors for ideas and examples:1. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. – CambridgeUniversity Press, 1988. – 328 c.2. Христорождественская, Л. П. Intermidiate English Course 1. –Минск, ПЛОПРЕСС, 1998. – 462 с.3. Игнатова, Т. Н. Английский язык. Интенсивный курс. – М.ВШ., 1988. – 254 с.4. Блинова, С. И. Практика английского языка. Сборникупражнений по грамматике / С. И. Блинова, Е. П. Чарекова, Г. С.Чернышева, Е. И. Синицкая. – С.-Петербург : Феникс, 1999. –384 с.5. Моисеев, М. Д. Справочник школьника по английскому языку.– Киров: ГИППВ, 1997. – 270 с.6. Полякова, Т. Ю. Английский язык для инженеров. / Т. Ю.Полякова, Е. В. Синявская, О. И. Тынкова, Э. С. Улановская. –М.: Высшая школа, 2008. 463 с.7. Хведченя, Л. В. Английский язык для поступающих в вузы. –Минск: Вышейшая Школа, 2000. 431 с.34СоставителиТамара Кузьминична РумасЛюбовь Кузьминична ЧадинаCONDITIONALSУСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
  • 26. Методические указания по английскому языкудля аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов 1−2 курсавсех специальностейРецензентИрина Витальевна ГраборскаяПодписано в печать 22.05.2010. Формат 60Â84/16.Бумага офсетная. Отпечатано на ризографе.Уч.-изд. л. 1,8. Тираж 150 экз. ЗаказГУ КузГТУ. 650000, Кемерово, ул. Весенняя, 28.Типография ГУ КузГТУ. 650000, Кемерово, ул. Д. Бедного, 4а

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