Electric Power Plants Alberto Giménez Bejarano and María Megías Teijón 3ºA [2011/2012]
IndexTypes of conventional power plants:-Fossil fuels power plant-Hydroelectric power plant.Types of non-conventional power plants:-Solar Power Plant -Geothermal Power Plant.-Wind Power Plant. -Biomass Power Plant.-Photovoltaic Power Plant. -Ocean Power Plant.Enviromental impact.Waste treatment.Do you think a wind turbine can produce fresh water?
Definition of Electric Power PlantsElectric power plants are facilities where primary or secondary energy is transformed intoelectricity. Once electricity is generated, it must be transported to towns, cities, or industrials parks.
Conventional power plants: NuclearThis type of plant includes a nuclear fission reactor that produces the pressurised steam needed to move the turbine rotor.It can contaminate due to the radiation that it produces, its pollutants cannot be recicled, it is non-renewable although it has great capacity and high performance, but radioactive waste is very dangerous
Functioning of a nuclear power plant
Conventional power plants: Fossil FuelsThis type of power plant produces most of the electricity that we use. At this type of power plants, water is heated in a boiler by the heat generated from the combustion of a fossil fuel, usually natural gas or coal. The steam that is generated moves the turbine conected to the generator.
Functioning of a Fossil Fuel power plant
Conventional power plants: Hydroelectricity.This type of power plant uses the potencial energy provided by the height of the stored water in a dam, converting it into kinetic energy. This energy moves the blades of the turbine. Depending on the destination of the water, hydraulic power plants are divided into two types: Gravity or Pump.
Non-conventional power plants: WindThese power plants use the kinetic energy of the wind to move the blades of a rotor at the top of a tower; this is referred to as the wind turbine.Wind farms are a clean form of generating electricity. However, they can only be installed in places with appropiated wind conditions.
Non-conventional power plants: SolarThese plants use the energy from the sun. There are two main types of installations: Photo-thermal and Photovoltaic power plants.
Photovoltaic Power Plants
Photo-thermal Power Plants
Non-conventional power plants: GeothermalThese plants use the heat found at deep levels in the earth. This heat may reach the surface in the form of steam, gases or hot water.Geothermal energy may be used directly-hot water and heating-and indirectly-the heat generates steam, which produces electricity.
Non-conventional power plants: BiomassBiomass consists of all organic compounds that are produced through natural processes.It is subjected to different physical and chemical processes ir order to produce fuels such as charcoal, alcohol or biogas. This type of fuel is burnt at these power plants to produce electricity.
Non-conventional power plants: OceanThis power plants use the energy from the seas and the oceans. The concept is to use three types of energy from the sea: tidal, waves and oceans thermal gradient.This power plants are still in the experimental phase and their level of production is still very slow.
Waves power plant
Tidal power plant
Enviromental ImpactsThe next slide shows a table that reflects the enviromental impacts of the types of power plants shown above
Types of power Enviromental Type of energy Advantages Disadvantages and risksplants Impact consumedFossil fuel Gas pollution, Non-renewable Great capacity, Respiratory diseases, warm water high negative impact on release performance ecosystemsHydroelectric Change in Renewable Great capacity, Disaster if a dam breaks enviroment high performanceWind power Visual and Renewable Clean, possible Low performance, sound impact domestic accidents productionSolar Affects Renewable Clean, possible Low performance, high ecosystems for own use costsBiomass Beneficial Renewable Reduces Excessive exploitation dependenceOcean Power Enviormental Renewable Reduces High costs, low Changes dependence performance
Waste TreatmentTo reduce the waste produced by electric power plants, as well as their effects, several measures can be taken:Energy savings-Essential to reduce consuption in all forma of energy, without affecting our quality of life. Examples: using public transport or bikes, changing our habits,...Efficiency-Energy efficiency policies increase efficiency of everyday appliances and devices. Examples: low fuel comsuption cars, electric cars,...Energy diversification-Use of renewable sources of energy is fundamental, using them to produce more than conventional enrgies do.
Do you think wind turbines can produce fresh water?Yes, the French company Eole has discovered that their new turbine can produce 64 liters of water per day and this is a very good advence in this type of energy, because there are many places where there are not enough water but too much wind.