Teacher Technology Change:
How Knowledge, Confidence,
Beliefs, and Culture Intersect
Peggy A. Ertmer
&
Anne T. Ottenbreit-...
Technology Integration for 21 "-
Century Learners
Professionals of the 21st century think and act
differently than those o...
Police
DoctorMechanic
Communication
Task, 86%
Administrative
Task , 88%
Communication
with Colleagues
& Parents, 93%
Teachers use the technology...
we have yet not achieved high levels of effective
technology use, either in the United States or internationally
(Kozma, 2...
Issues cont..
uses still tend to be "low- level" (Maddux 8c Johnson,
2006; Russell, Bebell, O'Dwyer, 8c O'Connor, 2003)- t...
Why change is important?
teachers' mindsets must change to include the idea
that "teaching is not effective without the ap...
What are the necessary characteristics, or
qualities, that enable teachers to leverage
technology resources as meaningful
...
the lack of relevant
knowledge (Lawless &
Pellegrino, 2007),
low self-efficacy (Mueller et
al, 2008)
existing belief syste...
Addressing Teacher Change
Knowledge as a Key Variables
• Know how to teach
specific content to
specific learners
• Curricular
Knowledge
• Learner Kn...
Additional Knowledge
• Teachers need knowledge of the technology itself
• Teaching with technology requires teachers to ex...
Technology
Content
Pedagogy
Angeli 8c Valanides,( 2009)
The common principle
for effective technology
integration
To achieve technology integration that targets student
learning, teachers need knowledge that enables them to:
• Identify ...
Self-Efficacy as a Key Variable
Personal Mastery
Vicarious
Experience
Teachers
Building Self-efficacy
1. Giving teachers time to play with the technology (Somekh, 2008)
2. Focusing new uses on teachers...
Pedagogical Belief as a Key Variable
"Belief systems consist of an eclectic mix of rules of
thumb, generalizations, opinio...
Subject and School Culture as a Key Variable
Challenges
Teachers are not 'free agents' and their use of ICT for teaching a...
The Intersection of Knowledge, Beliefs, and
Culture: Implications for Practice
(a) during
teacher
education
programs
(b) d...
Knowledge New Learning Definition (engagement, participation, knowledge creation)
Know how to facilitate Learning
Know how...
Implication for Professional Development
Knowledge
Change
Combining the prior knowledge with the technology
The need to co...
to be discussed..
a. How pedagogical belief
and culture influence the
use of ICT for teaching and
learning in your school?...
Conclusion
Educational reform efforts have consistently purported student-
centered practices as the most effective way to...
Thank You
References
Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher Technology
Change: How Knowledge, Confidence, Belie...
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Teacher Technology Change : How Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs and Culture Intersect

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This presentation is provided for assignment 1 in "The effective use of ICT in Education"

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  • A thought provoking discussion, thinking about how not only each individual teacher's pedagogical beliefs influence their use of ICT but the senior staff controlling the content of what is taught and how it is taught in their schools is also influenced by that persons pedagogical beliefs. Thank you. Breanna
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  • Very true - all of these are factors which contribute to teachers integrating technology. Cultural norms, knowledge, confidence and beliefs all influence pedagogy. As discussed, managing this change is a big factor in how successful the use of technology will be in the classroom.
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  • I agree that the change should start from changing the beliefs. This is because good technology in the hand of technology enthusiast will be fabulous rather than in the hand of teachers who are not technology enthusiast.
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  • Teachers must recognize and reconsider the need of ICT for students bright future that starts from school....
    Thanks Hamzani for your presentation!
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  • Interesting presentation. I agreed that teachers are now obligated to teach students through the lense of ICT. ICT is the way of the future - ICT skills, ethics, responsibilities, research, knowledge, communication, and construction. These are all aspects of ICT that students will be required to draw on in life beyond school and every teacher now has a duty to do their best to give students the opportunity to learn and develop these skills.
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  • Did the police officer arrest the speeding driver who had a suspended license? Did the mechanic accurately identify the problem and get the car running again?
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  • Teacher Technology Change : How Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs and Culture Intersect

    1. 1. Teacher Technology Change: How Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs, and Culture Intersect Peggy A. Ertmer & Anne T. Ottenbreit-Leftwich
    2. 2. Technology Integration for 21 "- Century Learners Professionals of the 21st century think and act differently than those of previous centuries, due at least in part to the radically different tools they use to perform their jobs
    3. 3. Police DoctorMechanic
    4. 4. Communication Task, 86% Administrative Task , 88% Communication with Colleagues & Parents, 93% Teachers use the technology based on survey (Project Tomorrow, 2008)
    5. 5. we have yet not achieved high levels of effective technology use, either in the United States or internationally (Kozma, 2003; Mueller, Wood, Willoughby, Ross, & Specht, 2008; Smeets, 2005; Tondeur, van Braak, & Valcke, 2007a) it typically is not used to support the kinds of instruction(e.g., student- centered) believed to be most powerful for facilitating student learning (Cuban, Kirkpatrick, & Peck; 2001) Issues
    6. 6. Issues cont.. uses still tend to be "low- level" (Maddux 8c Johnson, 2006; Russell, Bebell, O'Dwyer, 8c O'Connor, 2003)- that is, those that support traditional, teacher-directed instruction (e.g., using PowerPoint to present a lesson, searching the Web for information resources) or that focus on the development of students' technical skills (Tondeur, van Braak, & Valcke, 2007b)
    7. 7. Why change is important? teachers' mindsets must change to include the idea that "teaching is not effective without the appropriate use of information and communication technologies (ICT) resources to facilitate student learning." teachers' uses of technology are rarely linked to the student learning outcomes they are designed to facilitate (Lawless & Pellegrino, 2007) technology is essential to successful performance outcomes
    8. 8. What are the necessary characteristics, or qualities, that enable teachers to leverage technology resources as meaningful pedagogical tools? Question
    9. 9. the lack of relevant knowledge (Lawless & Pellegrino, 2007), low self-efficacy (Mueller et al, 2008) existing belief systems (Ertmer, 2005; Hew & Brush, 2007; Subramaniam, 2007) the context in which teachers work often constrains or limits individual efforts (Roehrig, Kruse, 8c Kern, 2007; Somekh, 2008) Why the low-level of technology use happened?
    10. 10. Addressing Teacher Change
    11. 11. Knowledge as a Key Variables • Know how to teach specific content to specific learners • Curricular Knowledge • Learner Knowledge • Context Knowledge • Teaching Method • Classroom Management • Subject Content Knowledge Pedagogical Knowledge Pedagogical Content Knowledge Knowledge Base of Teaching
    12. 12. Additional Knowledge • Teachers need knowledge of the technology itself • Teaching with technology requires teachers to expand their knowledge of pedagogical practices across multiple aspects of the planning, implementation, and evaluation processes • To use technology to support meaningful student learning, teachers need additional knowledge of the content they are required to teach, the pedagogical methods that facilitate student learning, and the specific ways in which technology can support those methods. Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich (2010)
    13. 13. Technology Content Pedagogy Angeli 8c Valanides,( 2009) The common principle for effective technology integration
    14. 14. To achieve technology integration that targets student learning, teachers need knowledge that enables them to: • Identify which technologies are needed to support specific curricular goals • Specify how the tools will be used to help students meet and demonstrate those goals • Enable students to use appropriate technologies in all phases of the learning process including exploration, analysis, and production • Select and use appropriate technologies to address needs, solve problems, and resolve issues related to their own professional practice and growth. (P- 10) Cennamo, Ross and Ertmer (2010)
    15. 15. Self-Efficacy as a Key Variable Personal Mastery Vicarious Experience Teachers
    16. 16. Building Self-efficacy 1. Giving teachers time to play with the technology (Somekh, 2008) 2. Focusing new uses on teachers' immediate needs (Kanaya, Light, 8c CuIp, 2005; Zhao 8c Cziko, 2001) 3. Starting with small successful experiences (Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2007) 4. Working with knowledgeable peers (Ertmer, Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 8c York, 2006) 5. Providing access to suitable models (Albion, 1999; Ertmer, 2005) 6. Participating in a professional learning community (Putnam 8c Borko, 2000) 7. Situating professional development programs within the context of teachers' ongoing work (Cole, Simkins, 8c Penul, 2002; Snoeyink & Ertmer, 2001/2002).
    17. 17. Pedagogical Belief as a Key Variable "Belief systems consist of an eclectic mix of rules of thumb, generalizations, opinions, values, and expectations grouped in a more or less structured way" (p. 1500). belief systems influence how teachers use technology in the classroom (Angers & Machtmes, 2005; Hermans et al, 2008; Windschitl 8c Sahl, 2002) teachers with more traditional beliefs will implement more traditional or "low-level" technology uses, whereas teachers with more constructivist beliefs will implement more student-centered or "high- level" technology uses (Judson, 2006; Roehrig et al., 2007).
    18. 18. Subject and School Culture as a Key Variable Challenges Teachers are not 'free agents' and their use of ICT for teaching and learning depends on the interlocking cultural, social, and organizational contexts in which they live and work" (Somekh, 2008, p. 450). Routines of classroom life norms of time and space" (Somekh, 2008, p. 452) Teachers experiences teachers who don't see the value of integrating technology into their classrooms can negatively impact the use of instructional technologies by newer teachers (Abbott 8c Faris, 2000; Hazzan, 2003). Peer Pressure
    19. 19. The Intersection of Knowledge, Beliefs, and Culture: Implications for Practice (a) during teacher education programs (b) during professional development programs for practicing teachers.
    20. 20. Knowledge New Learning Definition (engagement, participation, knowledge creation) Know how to facilitate Learning Know how to Use the Technology for the current education climate and standards Understand the technology integration Self-Efficacy Pre-service teachers still need opportunities to develop skills using technology as an instructional tool (microteaching and simulated lesson) having access to a wide variety of models can build knowledge of what meaningful technology integration looks like Pedagogical Beliefs teacher educators need to engage pre-service teachers in activities that explicate and challenge these beliefs. even if pre-service teachers leave their teacher education programs with student- centered beliefs, they tend to revert to traditional practices when faced with the realities of the classroom (Roehrig et al, 2007). Culture Pre-service teachers need to understand the challenge, pressure and the school culture they enter Presenting models of teaching with technology to support new definitions, providing opportunities to implement new practices and receive feedback, and providing opportunities to reflect on those practices Pre-service teachers need to see themselves as both intellectuals and scholars who have the potential to change future practice. Implication for Teachers Education
    21. 21. Implication for Professional Development Knowledge Change Combining the prior knowledge with the technology The need to connect the existing knowledge with their curricular needs Teachers need to manage a technology rich-classroom Self-Efficacy Change teachers can develop confidence by hearing about or observing other teachers' successful efforts to provide opportunities for in-service teachers to share their success stories at grade-level or discipline-based teacher meetings Pedagogical Belief Change In-service teachers are likely to have strong pedagogical beliefs built from their previous experiences in the classroom If teachers are going to adopt new beliefs about teaching and learning, they need to understand how these beliefs translate into innovative classroom practices To truly change beliefs, teachers need to feel comfortable testing new ideas, based on these beliefs, in their classrooms. Culture Change In-service teachers' beliefs and practices shift to align with the current school culture in which they are working (Zhao 8c Frank, 2003). Giving teachers opportunities to engage in professional goal setting specifically related to technology is important to teacher change (Somekh, 2008) to creating a shared vision and building a supportive culture to encourage innovation, schools must also provide adequate resources to support successful technology use.
    22. 22. to be discussed.. a. How pedagogical belief and culture influence the use of ICT for teaching and learning in your school? b. ICT is like a double- edged blade for education, what do you think the best strategy to safe the negative side of technology for students within your school?
    23. 23. Conclusion Educational reform efforts have consistently purported student- centered practices as the most effective way to prepare our students for the 21st century (Voogt, 2008). These reform efforts are based on a new definition of "good" teaching - that is, teaching that facilitates student learning by leveraging relevant ICT resources as meaningful pedagogical tools. Implementing a new definition of effective teaching requires teacher knowledge change, teacher beliefs change, and teacher culture change.
    24. 24. Thank You
    25. 25. References Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher Technology Change: How Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs, and Culture Intersect. Journal of research on Technology in Education, 42(3). Pictures are taken from : http://www.virginmedia.com/motoring/features/10-fibs-mechanics- tell.php?ssid=7 http://www.itpro.co.uk/desktop-software/voice-recognition/20758/doctors- use-speech-recognition-cut-nhs-waiting-times http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/industry-and-economy/info-tech/ap- police-rope-in-experts-to-tackle-cyber-crimes/article1485787.ece

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