Virtual ground

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Virtual ground

  1. 2. Introduction <ul><li>A virtual ground is no more than a voltage divider where the divided network is the ground and the outer of the network are connected to the + & - of the single source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual ground is a point in a circuit which is at ground potential (0 volts) but is NOT connected to ground .  </li></ul>
  2. 3. Virtual Ground
  3. 4. Virtual Ground circuit
  4. 5. Virtual Ground Circuit 1
  5. 6. Circuit 1 <ul><li>In this circuit V1 (the left-hand battery) supplies +10 volts to the circuit while V2 (the right-hand battery) supplies -10 volts to the circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>The total difference in potential in the circuit is 20 volts . </li></ul>
  6. 7. Total Resistance of the circuit <ul><li>The total resistance of the circuit can be calculated: </li></ul>
  7. 8. Total Current of the circuit <ul><li>The total resistance of the circuit can be calculated: </li></ul>
  8. 9. Voltage drop across the R1 <ul><li>The voltage drop across R1 can be computed: </li></ul>
  9. 10. Voltage drop across the R2 <ul><li>To check this result, compute the voltage drop across R2 and subtract this from the voltage at point A . </li></ul><ul><li>The result should be the voltage of V2 . </li></ul>
  10. 11. Voltage at point A <ul><li>The voltage at point A would be equal to the voltage of V1 minus the voltage drop of R1 . </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>It is not necessary that the voltage supplies be equal to create a point of virtual ground . </li></ul>Voltage of the circuit
  12. 13. Virtual Ground Circuit 2
  13. 14. Total Resistance <ul><li>In this circuit V1 supplies +1 volt to the circuit while V2 supplies -10 volts. </li></ul><ul><li>The total difference in potential is 11 volts . </li></ul><ul><li>The total resistance of this circuit (R1 + R2) is 11 ohms . </li></ul>
  14. 15. Voltage drop <ul><li>The total current (I T ) is 1 ampere . </li></ul><ul><li>The voltage drop across R1 (E  R1  = R 1  X I T ) is 1 volt . </li></ul><ul><li>The voltage drop across R2 (E R2  = R2 X I  T ) is 10 volts . </li></ul>
  15. 16. Voltage at point A <ul><li>The voltage at point A can be computed: </li></ul>
  16. 17. Voltage at V2 <ul><li>So point A is at virtual ground in this circuit also. </li></ul><ul><li>To check the results, compute the voltage at V2 . </li></ul>
  17. 18. The End <ul><li>…… . Thank You …….. </li></ul>

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