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Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
Jan Eite Bullema - TNO
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Jan Eite Bullema - TNO

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  • 1. Reliable Micro JoiningFor applications with long lifetime expectationsJan Eite Bullema 2 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningContentWhat are micro interconnections?Reliable electrical micro interconnections with long lifetime expectations?Solder micro interconnects and common failure mechanismsAdhesive micro interconnect and common failure mechanismsHow to achieve durability in a micro interconnectInnovative micro interconnection technologyConclusion
  • 2. 3 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningMicro JoiningMicro joining is the expression used for the joining of two metals wereone of the metals is thinner than 0.5 millimetre (metal sheets) or a crosssection smaller than 1 millimetre (wire)Examples of technologies for micro joining are: welding, adhesivebonding, ultrasonic bonding, soldering and brazing.In electronic manufacturing mainly wire bonding, soldering andadhesive bonding are usedJ.E. Bullema ‘Optimaliseren van processen voor microverbinden’, VM 116 , ISBN 9789075740127 4 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningQuality, Reliability, DurabilityMeaning Quality Reliability DurabilityConcept Conformance Failure Rate Product Life to SpecificationRecommended Per cent Per cent / Year Year orUnits or ppm Per cent / Hour HourProbability Density Normal Exponential WeibullFunctionDongsu Ryu ‘Novel Concepts for Reliability Technology’, Micro Electronics Reliability 45, 2005, 611-622
  • 3. 5 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningExample: Durability of a Space SystemThe Voyager 2 was launched on August 20, 1977. Its initial purposewas to explore Jupiter and Saturn, with an operational life of 5 yearsCurrently, after 35 years the Voyager 2 is about 15.000.000.000 kmfrom the earth and the electronics still function satisfactory 6 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningContentWhat are micro interconnections?Reliable micro interconnections with long lifetime expectations?Solder micro interconnects and common failure mechanismsAdhesive micro interconnect and common failure mechanismsHow to achieve durability in a micro interconnectConclusion
  • 4. 7 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningDurability of Silicon Solar ModulesThe European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) has set a targetin their solar energy roadmap for silicon solar modules from the current20 years useful life to 30 year in the near future.This increase in lifetime is expected to reduce the cost of solar energyfrom 0,18 Euro / kWh to 0,12 Euro / kWhEuropean Photovoltaic Industry Association, ‘On the road to competitiveness, Solar Photovoltaics’, September 2011 8 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningReliability Issues in PhotoVoltaic PanelsFirst Solar: 232.000 Panels need Repair The panels, made between October 2008 and June 2009, “may over time develop a loose cord-plate attachment,”
  • 5. 9 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningDurability of LED Systems Life time of a LED System has to be 25 000 – 50 000 hrs. Gielen et al, Development of an intelligent integrated LED system-in-package, EPMC 2011 10 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningContentWhat are micro interconnections?Reliable electrical micro interconnections with long lifetime expectations?Solder micro interconnects and common failure mechanismsAdhesive micro interconnect and common failure mechanismsHow to achieve durability in a micro interconnectInnovative micro interconnection technologyConclusion
  • 6. 11 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningSolder Joint ReliabilitySolder joint reliability is the ability of solder joints to function under givenconditions and to remain in conformance to both mechanical andelectrical specifications for a specified period of time (without failingwithin the intended operating time). Grossman et al., The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects, , ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3, Springer 2012 12 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningFailure Mechanisms in Solderand Related Stress Environments Failure Mech. Stress Environment Description Fatigue Temperature Cycling Initiates with micro crack Creep Permanent Load Global Plastic Deformation Corrosion Galvanic Pair Different Potential Brittle Fracture Drop or Shock Intermetallic Layer Solder Grossman et al., The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects, , ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3, Springer 2012
  • 7. 13 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningMicro Structure of a Solder JointCu | SnAgCu interface annealed at 250C for 1 h in order to detectthe Cu3Sn layer in between the Cu pad and the Cu6Sn5Grossman et al., The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-FreeSolder Interconnects, , ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3, Springer 2012 14 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningBrittle fractureCracks propagated inside the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound layerGrossman et al., The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-FreeSolder Interconnects, ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3, Springer 2012
  • 8. 15 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningComponent Interconnectionsin Temperature Cycling T0 T0 T Component Solder SubstrateGrossman et al., The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-FreeSolder Interconnects, ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3, Springer 2012 16 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningDevelopment of Fatigue Failure Grain Micro Micro Macro Growth Voids Cracks Cracks Crack Propagation Crack Initiation timeGrossman et al., The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-FreeSolder Interconnects, ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3, Springer 2012
  • 9. 17 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningFatigue Failure Cross section of thermally cycled SnAgCu solder joint Grossman et al., The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects, ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3, Springer 2012 18 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningExample: Realisation of ESIP LED systemBullema et al, ‘’Combination of a Bayesian Network and FEM models to predict Reliability of LED systems’ ESTC 2012
  • 10. 19 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningExample: Design FEM of ESIP LED systemExample of a very compact design of a LED system,Consequence are higher temperaturesCreep of solder interconnect chosen as failure mechanism Gielen et al, Development of an intelligent integrated LED system-in-package, EPMC 2011 20 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningExample: Calculation of a LED system Gielen et al, Development of an intelligent integrated LED system-in-package, EPMC 2011
  • 11. 21 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningPredicted Survival Rate R(t) of a LED SystemCalculation R(t) for Uncooled and Cooled (T = T Uncooled - 20 C) Design Uncooled ESIP Caveat: Presented Prediction based upon assumed FIT not on test dataBullema et al, ‘’Combination of a Bayesian Network and FEM models to predict Reliability of LED systems’ ESTC 2012 22 Titel van de presentatieExample: FEM Model of CSSL LED system LV@22 C LV@45 C HV@22 C HV@45 CExample of a retrofit Light Bulb type design of a LED system,Challenge here again: Thermal ManagementCreep of solder interconnect chosen as dominant failure mechanismBullema et al, ‘’Combination of a Bayesian Network and FEM models to predict Reliability of LED systems’ ESTC 2012
  • 12. 23 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro Joining Predicted Survival Rate R(t) of a LED System ESIP with and without heat pipe Caveat: Presented Prediction based upon assumed FIT not on test data CSSL Design A, B At Low and High TempBullema et al, ‘’Combination of a Bayesian Network and FEM models to predict Reliability of LED systems’ ESTC 2012 24 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro Joining Content What are micro interconnections? Reliable electrical micro interconnections with long lifetime expectations? Solder micro interconnects and common failure mechanisms Adhesive micro interconnect and common failure mechanisms How to achieve durability in a micro interconnect Innovative micro interconnection technology Conclusion
  • 13. 25 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningComparison Adhesive Micro Joiningversus Soldered Micro Joining Characteristic Sn/Pb Solder ECA / ICA Volume Resisitivity 15  / cm 350  / cm Typical Junction R 10 - 15 mW < 25 mW Thermal Conductivity 30 W / m.K 3,5W / m.K Shear Strength 15 MPa 14 MPa Finest Pitch 300 m 150 m Processing Temp. 215 ºC < 150 ºC Environmental Impact Negative Very Minor Thermal Fatigue Yes Minimal C.P. Wong, Nano-Bio- Electronic, Photonic and MEMS Packaging, Springer 2010, ISBN 9781441900395 26 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningConductive Adhesivesin Solar Panel InterconnectionsSymbolic representation of the Microscopic picture showing silverconducting mechanism of plated copper tab glued on silverconductive epoxy adhesives. plated silicon solar cell (upper right to lower left). Nieuwenhof et al., Conductive Adhesives for Low Stress Solar ICell interconnections, IEEE 2002
  • 14. 27 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningConductive Adhesives in Solar PanelInterconnections soldering with iron soldering with thermode glued at 80°C Stress on 80μm thin PhotoVoltaic cells interconnected to 70μm thick copper tabs with different micro joining technologies. Nieuwenhof et al., Conductive Adhesives for Low Stress Solar Cell interconnections, IEEE 2002 28 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningFailure Mechanisms in Adhesivesand Related Stress Environments Failure Mech. Stress Environment Description Swelling Moisture Initiates with micro crack Plasticization Moisture Depression of Tg Conductivity Moisture Different Potential Fracture Drop or Shock Loss of functionJohan Liu, Reliability of Micro Systems, Interconnects, Devices and Systems, Springer 2011 ISBN 978-1-4419-5759-7
  • 15. 29 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningContentWhat are micro interconnections?Reliable electrical micro interconnections with long lifetime expectations?Solder micro interconnects and common failure mechanismsAdhesive micro interconnect and common failure mechanismsHow to achieve durability in a micro interconnectInnovative micro interconnection technologyConclusion 30 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningImprove System DesignHow to Improve the Interconnect DesignAnalyse and Minimize Mechanical and Thermal Stress: Matching of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Keep it Cool (at Room Temperature)Analyse and Minimize Thermodynamic Stress: Galvanic Series, Pourbaix Diagrams, Ellingham DiagramsPrevent Moisture Ingress in adhesive interconnections
  • 16. 31 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningAnalyse and Minimize Stress Conditionse.g. FEM Analysis of Thermal StressMinimize Dissipation, Cooling, Optimize thermal paths Gielen et al, Development of an intelligent integrated LED system-in-package, EPMC 2011 32 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningContentWhat are micro interconnections?Reliable electrical micro interconnections with long lifetime expectations?Solder micro interconnects and common failure mechanismsAdhesive micro interconnect and common failure mechanismsHow to achieve durability in a micro interconnectInnovative micro interconnection technologyConclusion
  • 17. 33 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningInnovative Interconnection TechnologyInnovative TechnologiesLiquid Solder; Eutectic alloy of GaInInnolot Solder Alloy Alloy of Sn, Ag, Cu, Ni, Sb, BiSilver Sintering; Argomax, SKIN, Ablestick SP2000Nano Copper Filled Adhesives Applied NanotechLIFT Laser Induced Forward Transfer 34 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningLaser-Induced Forward Transfera technique for versatile micro-joining possible deposits, depending on process parameters: droplet splash pancake spray
  • 18. 35 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningLaser-Induced Forward TransferConductive copper lines small lines 36 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningContentWhat are micro interconnections?Reliable electrical micro interconnections with long lifetime expectations?Solder micro interconnects and common failure mechanismsAdhesive micro interconnect and common failure mechanismsHow to achieve durability in a micro interconnectConclusion
  • 19. 37 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningConclusionsIt is possible to create system with enhanced life time by careful designof interconnection technology, by• Appropriate Material choice (e.g. CTE matching, intermetallics)• Knowledge of Failure Mechanisms and Acceleration Mechanisms• Analysis of Stress Conditions (e.g. Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical)• Improve product designs based upon insight from advanced modelling• Explore new innovative interconnection technologies 38 Jan Eite Bullema Reliable Micro JoiningAknowledgementsThis work is supported by the ENIAC JU and the national authoritiesof the participating countries in the projects ESiP and CSSL.Thanks to Robert Werkhoven, Jos Kunen, Monique van denNieuwenhof, Marc Hoppenbrouwers and Sander Gielen from TNOfor their valuable discussions and contributions for this presentation.

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