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Large area coating forflexible electronicsArjan Langen TNO/Holst CentreThemadag Mikrocentrum :Organic and printed electron...
Large area coating forflexible electronics•    OLED•    OPV•    R2R manufacturing•    Web handling•    Slot die coating•  ...
© Holst Centre                                                        5OLED Lighting: relevant to society and economy    ...
© Holst Centre                                                                              7OLED Lighting / Signage     ...
© Holst Centre                                         9Why Flexible OLED?                 “Hammer test” OLED Organic and...
© Holst Centre                                      Solar power: omnipresent                 Solar radiation on earth sp...
© Holst Centre                                                                      Improving efficiencies          Sour...
Presentation                                                  overview     R2R manufacturing     Organic and printed elect...
 17  © Holst Centre                                                                                                      ...
© Holst Centre                                                                                    19   Roll to Roll coati...
© Holst Centre                                                                              21 Roll to roll manufacturing...
Presentation                                              overview Slot die coating Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov...
© Holst Centre                                                                                         25  Slot die coati...
© Holst Centre                                                                                 27       Slot die coating ...
© Holst Centre                                                                                  29 Slot die - OPV module ...
Presentation                                                 overview Contamination Control Organic and printed electronic...
© Holst Centre                                                                                                         33...
Presentation                                                  overview     Summery     Organic and printed electronics 23 ...
Presentation                                                overview   Holst Centre – Large Area Printing   Organic and pr...
Thank you foryour attention!           Visit us at           www.holstcentre.com
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Arjan Langen - TNO/Holst Centre

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Transcript of "Arjan Langen - TNO/Holst Centre"

  1. 1. Large area coating forflexible electronicsArjan Langen TNO/Holst CentreThemadag Mikrocentrum :Organic and printed electronics23 November 2012
  2. 2. Large area coating forflexible electronics• OLED• OPV• R2R manufacturing• Web handling• Slot die coating• Contamination control• Summary• Holst Centre Large area printing Presentation overviewOLED - Organic light emitting diodeOrganic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  3. 3. © Holst Centre  5OLED Lighting: relevant to society and economy 19% of all generated electricity goes to lighting If OLED has 10% share in replacement market for lighting: 100.000.000 m2 OLEDs/year needed Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012© Holst Centre  62009: First OLED lamps for sale on glass Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  4. 4. © Holst Centre  7OLED Lighting / Signage OLED Display• Price competitive against: incandescent • High prices for high-end light bulb, fluorescent, non-organic led market (telephones, TV’S,• Pursue pixels as big as possible for monitors) more efficient light output • Pursue pixels as small as possible for better resolution Large size flexible OLED for lighting/signage OLED Display Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012© Holst Centre  8Why Flexible OLED?• Rollable, wearable, ultra-thin, low-weight, unbreakable• Easy integration in walls, ceilings, windows, cars etc.• Light color can be tuned• Enabling large area, low-cost R2R production• GOAL: R2R production for <100 €/m2 and 50 lm/W @ LT70=10kh in 2016 (light bulb 12 lm/W, fluorescent 55 lm/W) In bodywork integrated OLED OLED for lighting/signage Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  5. 5. © Holst Centre  9Why Flexible OLED? “Hammer test” OLED Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 Presentation overview OPV –Organic photo voltaic Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  6. 6. © Holst Centre Solar power: omnipresent Solar radiation on earth sphere 5,000,000 ExaJoule/year Global energy consumption circa 500 ExaJoule/Year Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012© Holst Centre  Capturing 0,01% covers total energy need Requires 750.000 km2 present day solar cells (Surface area of Spain = 500.000 km2 ) Present world wide installation <200 km2 Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  7. 7. © Holst Centre Improving efficiencies Source: NREL National renewable energy laboratory www.nrel.gov; Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012© Holst Centre  14Why Flexible OPV?• Rollable, wearable, ultra-thin, low-weight, unbreakable• Easy integration into walls, roofs, tents, mobile phones etc.• No use of scares metals (Cd, Te, In, Ga, Se, As, Mo)• Enabling large area, low-cost R2R production• Goal: R2R production for <50 €/m2 and >10% efficiency in 2016 (<0.5 €/Wp ) Roll to roll produced silver cathode Former generation OPV cells Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  8. 8. Presentation overview R2R manufacturing Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 © Holst Centre  16Lay out of the “bottom emissive“ OLED or OPV stack• Top Encapsulation to prevent water vapor / oxygen• Cathode• Functional layer 0,08-0,3µm (human hair≈0,02-0,2µm)  OPV: PAL = Photon Absorbing Layer  OLED: LEL = Light Emitting Layer• Anode• Metal grid to support surface power distribution/collection• Moisture barrier prevent water vapor / oxygen• Foil = Transparent Because of Ohms Law functional layer should be: • Homogeneous in film thickness Schematic overview of OLED/OPV stack Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  9. 9.  17 © Holst Centre 17 Inspection Inspection InspectionExample of Foil quality Particles Coating defects Defects Layer thickness Optical constantsmanufacturing foilprocess substrate production Barrier deposition half- SiN/OCP/SiN product Cleaning? Cleaning? Repair? Plasma Cleaning Inspection Inspection Inspection Inspection surface energy Coating Coating defects Coating defects Coating defects Inspection defects Layer thickness Layer thickness Layer thickness particles Plasma defects in barrier Cleaning Repair surface  energy metal grid organic organic organic (printing) layer I layer II layer n Cleaning? Cleaning? Inspection in dry and/or wet layer?Target processes for mass production:Vacuum and/or non vacuum R2R / S2S Vacuum / N2 atmosphere Inspection Inspection Inspection electrical defects Coating defects device Repair Layer thickness performanceCost modeling clearly shows that R2R hard shortsonly is more efficient if: Barrier deposition OLED• Yield process step is very high(>95%) Cathode (evaporation) end- SiN/OCP/SiN product In situ monitoring a necessity Inspection ?• Homogeneity requirement of OLEDs Particle (local) contamination favor slot die coating but patterning Cleaning? Cleaning? Repair? in tiles not straight forward. Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 © Holst Centre  18 R2R equipment for OLED or OPV manufacturing Anode deposition + Barrier Production Metal grid production Functional layers + Cathode depositionRoll to Roll barrier tool Roll to Roll flash sintering Roll to Roll coating line- Length 6 meter, 33ton - Length 10 meters - Length 14 meters- Width web 30-42 cm - Width web 30-40 cm - Width web 30-50 cm- Speed 0,1-5m/min - Speed 1-20 m/min - Speed 3-30 m/min- PECVD - Screen and inkjet printing - Slot die coating technology- Organic/anorganic - Metal sintering by flash - Intensive air dryingdeposition - Cleanroom compatible - Cleanroom compatible- Vacuum Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  10. 10. © Holst Centre  19 Roll to Roll coating line Splice Re-winderUn-winder30-60cm wide Corona Surface- Schematic overview table 30-60cm wide500mtr long treatment 500mtr longTacky roller forContamination Coating/print Hot Air Dryer Foil laminating unitcontrol Station 25-250°C - Modular - 5000m3/hour Stirring unit Stirring unit Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 Presentation overview Web Handling Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  11. 11. © Holst Centre  21 Roll to roll manufacturing: Production of a device on a flexible carrier or substrate (web) by rolling off and on. This is a very efficient way of production and transporting of large area materials.For R2R production you need of web handling. Web handling: Art and science of getting a web through a machine as fast/wide as possible with a minimum of waste. Force is applied on a web to induce tension Strain in tensioned web Stress-strain curve of Examples of E- plastic web modelus Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 © Holst Centre  22 Web handling Why do we need tension with web handling • Tensioning creates friction against rollers necessary for traction especially in the winding roller • Tensioning can pull out web bagginess. Every web has some amount of cross web length variations. • Accurate control of tensioning combined with speed control, sets the webs mass flow rate. Metal foil in R2R machine “Stripe coating” Web rewinder Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  12. 12. Presentation overview Slot die coating Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012© Holst Centre  24  A coating liquid is forced out from a Slot die coating reservoir through a slot die by pressure, and transferred to a moving web.  The fluid dynamics inside the slot die distribute the flow of the coating material homogeneous over the full width of the slot.  The wet layer thickness on the web is solely depending on the material flow, the width of the slot and the speed of the web. Independent of material viscosity or surface tension.Schematic view of slot die coater Slot die coater with vacuum box Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  13. 13. © Holst Centre  25 Slot die coatingGeometric parameters  Design variables of the coating die: shape, position, die lips, feed slot, web, gap clearance, radius of application roll  Design variables define shape of slot dieOperating parameters  Web speed  Wet film thickness  External forces e.g. gravity electric or magnetic fields  Gas pressure at upstream and downstream menisci Important parameters in slot coating flow experiment. L: lip length, H: coating gap, W: slot gap, θs1: static contact angle, θs2: separation angle, θd: dynamic contact angle. Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 © Holst Centre  26 Slot die coating – geometric parametersBecause of Ohms Law the functional layers should be:• Extreme homogeneous in thickness! Slot die coater with vacuum box Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  14. 14. © Holst Centre  27 Slot die coating – fluid and material propertiesFluid and material properties  The wetting behavior of the coating fluid on the web and the coating die.  The rheological properties of the coating fluid  The surface tension  The density  Properties of substrate Inhomogeneous coating because of wetting problems! Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 © Holst Centre  28 Slot die – OPV module OPV Module • To obtain sufficient voltage the individual cells are serie connected in a solar module. • The surface area ratio active zone/inactive zone gives the module efficiency Flexible OPV module Cross section of the layer structure of an OPV module Vtot ≈ 3xVcel Active zone Inactieve zone -OPV cell- serie connection Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  15. 15. © Holst Centre  29 Slot die - OPV module  Multiple-pass thin film slot die coating for stacking functional layers  Stripe coating a.k.a. R2R homogeneous patterning of thin film coating in machine direction  Accurate 2mm shifted thin layer stack  Up to 5 layers Slot die with shims for stripe Flexible OPV module coating Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 © Holst Centre  30Slot die - OPV module The surface tension at the edges of a stripe could differ a lot. Dewetting, coffee stain effects and rough edges could occur! Overview of surface tension at layer edges Wetting envelope for coating material to predict wettability Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  16. 16. Presentation overview Contamination Control Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012© Holst Centre 32   32Particle defects in OLEDs.Particle contamination during production causes fast degradation of OLEDS.The contamination control should be an integral part of OLED production.Defects in OLED:1. Fast growing in time: Barrier defect2. Non growing: defect in active structure, covered by bulk cathode3. Slow growing: defects in cathode covered by barrier 4 Barrier Cathode 3 1 Light Emitting Layer 2 Anode Schematic of some of the many particle defect that could occur. Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  17. 17. © Holst Centre  33 Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 © Holst Centre  34 Toolbox for measuring particles Particle card Particle roller Particle (SEM) probe Particle fall out box Technique lower detection lower detection large area SEM Remark limit size sampling possible #/cm2 micron (> 100 cm2) Particle card 0,5 2--3 no yes general use Particle roller < 0,1 2--3 yes yes large area sampling Particle probe 0,5 0,3 no yes identification on shape, size .. Particle fall out box 0,01/(hour) 2--3 -- yes finding local sourcesQ3-2012-SIF-TP1
  18. 18. Presentation overview Summery Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 © Holst Centre  36 Summery• There is a huge market for OLED for lighting if prices are made competitive• OPV high potential if cell efficiencies go up or scares metals are unavailable• R2R production is necessary for a competitive price• The main challenge is to get a high production yield with many complex production steps• Functional layer homogeneity is very imported and difficult to obtain• In-line OPV module production is easy to produce with slot die coating• Contamination control should be integrated part of the production process Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  19. 19. Presentation overview Holst Centre – Large Area Printing Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012 © Holst Centre  38 Holst Centre Large Area Printing & Coating ProgramThe general goal of the Technical Program Large Area Printing, is to develop wetdeposition process technologies for R2R compatible application of patterned thinand homogeneous layers of electro-active materials on flexible supports. The electro-active materials currently envisaged in large area coating are mainly used in OLED devices for lighting and signage and OPV modules. The approach of large area coating program is generic, meaning that for possible future new materials and applications, the technologies currently studied should be (easily) adaptable to serve these new applications as well.Some of the many prototypes made at the HOLST CENTRE. Organic and printed electronics 23 Nov 2012
  20. 20. Thank you foryour attention! Visit us at www.holstcentre.com

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