© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
The “Production4μ” Project
Ultra precision production for optics and beyond
October 14th
Seminar Micr...
Page 1© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
PresentationOutline
 The Production4μ Project
 The Precision Glass Moulding Technology
 The ...
Page 2© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
PresentationOutline
 The Production4μ Project
 The Precision Glass Moulding Technology
 The ...
Page 3© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
The Production4μ Project
General Budget distribution [Mio. €]
1,06
0,57
11,45
1,75 0,63
Researc...
Page 4© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Work packages of Production4μ
Relevant Innovations
 Reliable high volume
μ-manufacturing
techn...
Page 5© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
PresentationOutline
 The Production4μ Project
 The Precision Glass Moulding Technology
 The ...
Page 6© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
The precision glass moulding process
CoolingHeatingEvacuating and
flushing with gas
N2 gas
N2 g...
Page 7© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
High Precision Glass Moulding – Virtual Process Cycle
1. Loading and flushing
with N2
2. Heatin...
Page 8© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Material Requirements for High Precision Glass Moulding
Glass
- low transition temperature
- ad...
Page 9© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
PresentationOutline
 The Production4μ Project
 The Precision Glass Moulding Technology
 The ...
Page 10© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics
Handling /
Automation
Handli...
Page 11© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics
Design
Design /
Simulation
D...
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Design
Compensation of Form Deviations by Process Simulation
 Thermal shrinkage
dominates the...
Page 13© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Design /
Simulation
Design /
Simulation Raw Tool
Raw Tool Precision
Machining
Precision
Machin...
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Design /
Simulation
Design /
Simulation Raw Tool
Raw Tool Precision
Machining
Precision
Machin...
Page 15© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
 A nano coating facility was established at Fraunhofer
IPT, specializing on optical coatings....
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Design /
Simulation
Design /
Simulation Raw Tool
Raw Tool Precision
Machining
Precision
Machin...
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Design /
Simulation
Design /
Simulation Raw Tool
Raw Tool Precision
Machining
Precision
Machin...
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Design /
Simulation
Design /
Simulation Raw Tool
Raw Tool Precision
Machining
Precision
Machin...
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Metrology
Highlight Activities and Results
Profilometry for steep-sided optics
Taylor Hobson d...
Page 20© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Design /
Simulation
Design /
Simulation Raw Tool
Raw Tool Precision
Machining
Precision
Machin...
Page 21© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automation4μ
Need for Automation in Ultraprecision Mastering and Mould Making
Optics Design Re...
Page 22© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automated tool set upAutomated work piece alignment
Automation4μ
Automation Equipment which is...
Page 23© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment
State of the Art – Set-up for Linear Structuring Pr...
Page 24© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment
Active Work Piece Alignment – Final Design
xy
z
Opt...
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Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment
Technical Specifications of the Active Alignment De...
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Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment
Machine Integration of the Active Chuck and Alignme...
Page 27© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment
System 3R »MacroNano« Chuck
 System 3R provides hi...
Page 28© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment
New Perspectives in Production Enabled by the Activ...
Page 29© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automation4μ - Active Tool Alignment
Automation Approach - Tool Exchange System for UP-Turning...
Page 30© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automation4μ - Active Tool Alignment
Active Tool Alignment Device
Drive for
tilting
(A-Axis)
T...
Page 31© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automation4μ - Active Tool Alignment
Tool Magazine and Handling System
Swivel axis
Linear moti...
Page 32© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Automation4μ - Active Tool Alignment
New Perspectives in Production Enabled by the Automated T...
Page 33© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Design /
Simulation
Design /
Simulation Raw Tool
Raw Tool Precision
Machining
Precision
Machin...
Page 34© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Production4μ Demonstrator Products
-Rot.- symmetric
(aspherical)
Cylindrical
(asph./asph.)
mic...
Page 35© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Update
Demonstrator Usage and Application
-Rot.- symmetric
(aspherical)
Cylindrical
(asph./asp...
Page 36© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
PresentationOutline
 The Production4μ Project
 The Precision Glass Moulding Technology
 The...
Page 37© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
How does the new technology compare to conventional processes?
Resource advantages of precisio...
Page 38© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
0%
50%
100%
150%
200%
250%
100 1000 10000
Production Volume
ProductionCost
Replicative
Non-rep...
Page 39© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
What is the status of the new technologies’ usage?
Current industrial usage of the precision g...
Page 40© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
PresentationOutline
 The Production4μ Project
 The Precision Glass Moulding Technology
 The...
Page 41© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Conclusion
Precision glass molding allows for:
 Shortening the process
 Shorter lead times
...
Page 42© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
Information on Upcoming Event
The colloquium will focus on three topics:
 Strategy and Market...
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15.30 dhr nollau

  1. 1. © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT The “Production4μ” Project Ultra precision production for optics and beyond October 14th Seminar Micro- en Precisiebewerkingen, Leuven, Belgium Sebastian Nollau Fraunhofer IPT, Aachen, Germany
  2. 2. Page 1© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT PresentationOutline  The Production4μ Project  The Precision Glass Moulding Technology  The Production4μ Process Chain  Precision Glass Moulding Cost Analysis  Conclusion
  3. 3. Page 2© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT PresentationOutline  The Production4μ Project  The Precision Glass Moulding Technology  The Production4μ Process Chain  Precision Glass Moulding Cost Analysis  Conclusion
  4. 4. Page 3© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT The Production4μ Project General Budget distribution [Mio. €] 1,06 0,57 11,45 1,75 0,63 Research Dissemination Training Demonstration Management Resources  Total Budget 15,43 Mio €  Total EC Funding 9,00 Mio €  Total man months 1306 May 2006 – October 2010 www.Poduction4micro.net
  5. 5. Page 4© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Work packages of Production4μ Relevant Innovations  Reliable high volume μ-manufacturing technologies for precision glass moulding  New systems for automated handling and alignment of μ-components  New standards for μ- production planning, cost estimation and “design for manufacture” Production4μ Technologies4μ Automation4μ Methodologies4μ glass μ-handling μ-alignment μ-metrology Key μ-components based on … plastic semi- conductor precision tooling precision glass moulding μ-moulding μ-manufacturing standardization Baugruppenebene 1 Zeitachse ProduktprojeProduktstruktur Komponentenebene 1 Ersteinsatzarchitektur Derivatarchitektur Ersteinsatzarchitektur Derivatarchitektur Projekt 1 Projekt 2 Architektur 1 FollowerArchitektur Neuentwicklung Produkt 3 und Derivate BaugruppenstrukturBaugruppenprojekte Baugruppe 1 … … Projekt Komponente A Baugruppe 2 Komponentenebene 2 Baugruppe 4 Produkt 7 Produkt 6 Neuentwicklung Produkt 2 Baugruppeneben2 2 Derivat fü r die Serienpflege Produkt 4 Produkt 5Prozesssynchropunkt Zeitachse Forschung Projekt 1 Projekt 2 Projekt 3 Projekt 4 Baugruppe 5 Baugruppenebene 1 Zeitachse ProduktprojeProduktstruktur Komponentenebene 1 Ersteinsatzarchitektur Derivatarchitektur Ersteinsatzarchitektur Derivatarchitektur Projekt 1 Projekt 2 Architektur 1 FollowerArchitektur Neuentwicklung Produkt 3 und Derivate BaugruppenstrukturBaugruppenprojekte Baugruppe 1 … … Projekt Komponente A Baugruppe 2 Komponentenebene 2 Baugruppe 4 Produkt 7 Produkt 6 Neuentwicklung Produkt 2 Baugruppeneben2 2 Derivat fü r die Serienpflege Produkt 4 Produkt 5Prozesssynchropunkt Zeitachse Forschung Projekt 1 Projekt 2 Projekt 3 Projekt 4 Baugruppe 5 μ-production planning Launch- and quality management
  6. 6. Page 5© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT PresentationOutline  The Production4μ Project  The Precision Glass Moulding Technology  The Production4μ Process Chain  Precision Glass Moulding Cost Analysis  Conclusion
  7. 7. Page 6© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT The precision glass moulding process CoolingHeatingEvacuating and flushing with gas N2 gas N2 gas Moulding force Loading of glass preform into moulding machine Source: Fraunhofer IPT Precision glass moulding machine, Source: Fraunhofer IPT / Toshiba Moulding chamber within machine Source: Fraunhofer IPT Moulding tool with finished lens Source: Fraunhofer IPT / Aixtooling Advantages of the precision glass moulding process are high precision, very good repeatability, ability to produce complex forms and low cost and resource-consupmtion.
  8. 8. Page 7© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT High Precision Glass Moulding – Virtual Process Cycle 1. Loading and flushing with N2 2. Heating up the inserts and glass blank 3. Pressing the glass blank N2 Gas IR -Lamps F N2 Gas 4. Cooling down and unloading the molded lens Process cycle Tg Time Temperature Force Homogenization Force Temperature Pressing Heating up Cooling down Temperature and force cycle
  9. 9. Page 8© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Material Requirements for High Precision Glass Moulding Glass - low transition temperature - adapted CTE - free from lead and arsenic - low crystallisation affinity - adapted temperature-viscosity behaviour Coating - thickness homogeneity - corrosion resistance - crack resistance - free of defects - form stability - thermal expansion - abrasion resistance - anti-sticking properties Mould - high form accuracy - good machinability - high material homogeneity - high hardness - high thermal conductivity - high corrosion resistance
  10. 10. Page 9© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT PresentationOutline  The Production4μ Project  The Precision Glass Moulding Technology  The Production4μ Process Chain  Precision Glass Moulding Cost Analysis  Conclusion
  11. 11. Page 10© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Handling / Automation Handling / AutomationMetrology Metrology Product ProductAssembly / Packaging Assembly / Packaging Fisba Ingeneric VTT Aixtooling IPT Schott Ceratizit Aixtooling IPT KU Leuven Ingeneric LT Ultra Cimatron Fidia Cemecon IPT Ceratizit Schott IPT Aixtooling Fisba Ingeneric Fisba IBS Taylor Hobson WZL KU Leuven KTH System3R IPT IPT Penta HT The full process chain is covered within the Production4μ project, requiring a large number of partners. Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Work Package 2 WP 4 Work Package 3 DemoWork Package 1
  12. 12. Page 11© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Design Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Metrology Metrology Handling / Automation Handling / Automation Assembly / Packaging Assembly / Packaging Product Product Optical design Mold design FE-Analysis  Mold and insert dimensions  Insert quality (form accuracy, roughness, etc) R 1 2 Height G Thickness R 2  Lens dimensions  Lens specifications (nd, , etc)  Lens quality (form accuracy, scratch/dig, etc.) Glass Insert 12.5 µm  Glass shrinkage  Temperature, stress
  13. 13. Page 12© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Design Compensation of Form Deviations by Process Simulation  Thermal shrinkage dominates the form error  Squeeze force reduces the form error significantly  Other factors build up about 10% of the total error, and may lead to different amount at different radius position Form error compensation:  Development of a simulation tool  Form deviation of pressed lens with simulated tool is ±1 μm Radius position [mm] -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 μm / deviation from desired form 0 2 4 6 8 10 Average of the calculation Compensated tool Pressed lens Calculated deviation  After contact  After 5 s  After 30 s
  14. 14. Page 13© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Metrology Metrology Handling / Automation Handling / Automation Assembly / Packaging Assembly / Packaging Product Product Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Raw Mould Tool Manufacturing Tungsten Carbide substrate material with low binder content  Tungsten carbide with grain size < 200 nm and almost no binder Co < 0,3 %  Interaction of this material with glass was analyzed.  No supplier in Europe before P4μ. Japanese manufacturers offer this kind of materials and keep the production process a secret.
  15. 15. Page 14© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Metrology Metrology Handling / Automation Handling / Automation Assembly / Packaging Assembly / Packaging Product Product Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Mold Making Grinding Polishing UP - grinding  Single point grinding  Profile grinding Polishing  2-dimensional polishing  Zonal polishing Diamond turning  Conv. diamond turning  Ultrasonic assisted diamond turning  Slow and fast tool servo turning Diamond turning
  16. 16. Page 15© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT  A nano coating facility was established at Fraunhofer IPT, specializing on optical coatings.  As most promising coatings have been identified by moulding tests: DLC, CrN, TiAlN and Pt/Ir  Coating thickness: ~300nm  Noble metals reduce chemical interactions Challenges – Preservation of surface quality – Coatings for different mold materials and glasses – Increased and predictable coated tool lifetime 2 μm Coating process 300 nm PtIr coating Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Metrology Metrology Handling / Automation Handling / Automation Assembly / Packaging Assembly / Packaging Product Product Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Mold Coating
  17. 17. Page 16© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Metrology Metrology Handling / Automation Handling / Automation Assembly / Packagin Assembly / Packagin Product Product Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Glass and Preform Manufacturing  Ultra Low Tg glass P-SK56 – Glass optimized and successfully pressed inhouse. Still in work: coating compatibility test / climate test, „re-pressing“ and repressing for final qualification.  Ultra Low Tg glass P-SK58 (L-BAL35) – One version with Tg < 390°C, two others with improved chem res. and Tg < 410°C developed. Two of the 3 versions successfully precise pressed inhouse. Further tests, see P-SK56.  Development and test processes for Low Tg – Test processes have been optimized to fit to the special requirements of Low Tg glasses. For the last period, coating and climate tests are planned, which are the most crucial for ultra Low Tg.
  18. 18. Page 17© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Metrology Metrology Handling / Automation Handling / Automation Assembly / Packaging Assembly / Packaging Product Product Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Precision Glass Moulding  Molding test of new glasses – Several melts of new glass material were evaluated in molding tests regarding suitability for glass molding and changes in surface quality.  Molding of diffractive structure – Complete diffractive structure with optical function was molded in low Tg glass with nickel silver moulds.
  19. 19. Page 18© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Metrology Metrology Handling / Automation Handling / Automation Assembly / Packaging Assembly / Packaging Product Product Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Metrology Chromatic Sensor  Scanning Measurement Method  Best fit radius  Error Maps Source: FRT GmbH White light interferometer  Surface topography  Roughness  Form Accuracy for micro- scale parts Tactile measurement device  Form accuracy  Best fit radius  Absolute radius Source: Veeco Source: Taylor Hobson Accuracy check Roughness check
  20. 20. Page 19© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Metrology Highlight Activities and Results Profilometry for steep-sided optics Taylor Hobson developed a tactile metrology device for measuring steep-sided aspheric optics and moulds. The system can measure slopes up to 85 degrees (with a tilted traverse unit). Machine integration of interferometric measurement system First interferometric measurements were carried out on the machine. To reduce the impact of external disturbances, modifications were realised by implementing software algorithms in order to decrease the measurement time. Realised pre-prototype of miniaturised tactile probe system IBS has realised a prototype of a new tactile probe system in order to measure smaller and more complex products.
  21. 21. Page 20© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Metrology Metrology Handling / Automation Handling / Automation Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Handling, Automation, Assembly and Packaging Assembly / Packaging Assembly / Packaging Product Product Objectives  Automation solutions for ultra precision machining  Automated work piece alignment as well as automated tool exchange and alignment  Handling and clamping of ultraprecise work pieces are addressed Test benches  Reference station  Active work piece alignment device  Automated work piece alignment on vacuum spindles  Tool exchange system for UP-lathe  Exchange system for rotating tools  Direct work piece transfer and handling  Clamping of pre-shaped parts  Gripper for direct work piece alignment Active alignment of work pieces for ultraprecision milling and grinding Automated tool alignment for diamond turning Transport box for long distance work piece transfer
  22. 22. Page 21© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ Need for Automation in Ultraprecision Mastering and Mould Making Optics Design ReplicationMetrology  Optical design and specifications  CAD mould modelling  NC program generation 1. Quality loop 2. Quality loop Correction of tool path Correction of mould design Mastering and Mould Making  Tool and work piece referencing  Diamond machining  Ultraprecision grinding  Tactile and optical measurement of mould inserts and lenses  Data handling (generation of error maps)  Shrinkage simulation and compensation  Adjustment of moulding parameters Automation interfaces Automation interfaces
  23. 23. Page 22© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automated tool set upAutomated work piece alignment Automation4μ Automation Equipment which is developed within Work Package 3 Automated handling Transport box for long distance work piece transfer Gripper for direct work piece handling Active alignment of work pieces for ultraprecision milling and grinding Automated centring of rotational symmetric work pieces Active alignment balancing of fly-cutting spindles Automated tool alignment for diamond turning Automation4μ:  Fully automated handling of tools and work pieces in ultraprecision machining  Increase of accuracy  Increase of efficiency  Increase of quality
  24. 24. Page 23© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment State of the Art – Set-up for Linear Structuring Processes Set-up procedure:  Distortion free clamping of the work piece (e.g. with screws, vacuum, adhesives)  Determination of the surface topography and leveling out of the work piece  Referencing: Alignment of the tool towards the work piece (e.g. by scratch mark) Set-up precision:  5 – 20 μm Set-up time:  Up to 1 hr Deficits:  Manual alignment capabilities  Visibility of the scratch mark  Material allowance is needed to compensate for work piece clamping and referencing inaccuracies Pre machining of the raw work piece Manual tilt alignment of the work piece Micro grooves in an ultraprecision machined surface
  25. 25. Page 24© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment Active Work Piece Alignment – Final Design xy z Optical detection of the reference mark position Active alignment device with optical referencing system  Referencing of work pieces to standardized System 3R pallets prior to machining  Indirect in-machine referencing of the work pieces by optical detection (CCD cameras) of the pallet position via reference marks  Active compensation of the tilt offsets using high resolution piezo actuators in combination with flexure joints  Compensation of the translational offset by forwarding the residual offsets to the NC of machine-tool control  Targeted precision < ± 0.25 μm
  26. 26. Page 25© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment Technical Specifications of the Active Alignment Device Actuators:  PI P237.30  Travel range +/-20 μm  Resolution: 2 nm CCD-Cameras:  Allied Vision Technology GUPPY F-146B  1/2" IT-CCD Progressive-Scan Sensor  Picture size: 1392 x 1040 pixels  Pixel size 4.65 μm x 4.65 μm Objectives:  SILL TZM-FO MINI 8465/4,0  Magnification: 4:1  Field of view: 1.6 x 1.2 mm²  Depth of focus: 0.13 mm  Working distance: 64.5 mm Software:  IPD »SHERLOCK«  Resolution: ± 0.15 μm Photo image of a reference mark Active work piece alignment device with piezo acutators and CCD cameras Recording of the reference mark positions with the »Sherlock« software
  27. 27. Page 26© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment Machine Integration of the Active Chuck and Alignment Procedure x1, y1 x2, y2 x3, y3 θx θy Reference data: Px, Py, Pz, θx, θy, θz Set point calculation  Determination of the work piece position on the pallet in relation to the reference marks -> generation of reference data  Read out of reference data after clamping the pallet at machining site  Retrieval of pallet position data from CCD Cameras  Set point calculation and generation of control signals for active alignment chuck  Levelling out of the work piece  Check of the reference marks on the pallet  Tool alignment using compensation coordinates provided by set point algorithm x, y, z, θz Fidia CNC
  28. 28. Page 27© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment System 3R »MacroNano« Chuck  System 3R provides high precision palletized work piece clamping systems based on the principle of elastic averaging  For conventional machining the System 3R »Macro« chuck enables a work piece relocation accuracy of ± 2 μm within the global machine- tool coordinate system  The System 3R »MacroNano« chuck is based on the design and the functionality of the conventional »Macro« chuck  Advanced understanding and expertise in design, materials and processing technology allow for a further improvement of the relocation accuracy of the pallet: – Pre-machining of the rigid contact surfaces on the chuck and the pallet through high precision grinding – Finishing of the interfaces by lapping operation  Advanced pallet design avoids sub-micron deflection due to clamping forces Features of the »MacroNano« chuck:  Relocation of the work piece within ± 0.5 μm  Indexing of the work piece at 90° with four indexing positions System3R »MacroNano« chuck Work piece pallet with flexible references
  29. 29. Page 28© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Work Piece Alignment New Perspectives in Production Enabled by the Active Alignment Chuck  Continuous level of quality of ultraprecision machined work pieces  No material allowance is needed to compensate for alignment errors  Reduced set up time for ultraprecision machined processes New Products  Serial production of ultraprecision machined moulding and stamping tools  Mass production of high precision micro system components New Processes  Ultraprecision finishing of pre machined steel parts with thin nickel coatings (< 100 μm) Steel work piece with 100 μm nickel coating V-grooves in an amorphous nickel layer 10 μm 250 µm 2 – D Fibre array composed out of carrier plates with passive alignment structures for light guides Single carrier plate with mounted light guides
  30. 30. Page 29© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Tool Alignment Automation Approach - Tool Exchange System for UP-Turning Realisation:  Tool magazine and handling  Measuring of tool position and angular orientation  Automated correction of misalignment in sensitive DOF Environment:  Precitech Nanoform 350  Hydrostatic linear axes: X, Z  Aerostatic spindle Main components:  Active tool alignment device  Tool magazine and handling system  Tool referencing station Machine base Alignment unit X-Slide Tool magazine Z-Slide Spindle Measurement systemMachine housing
  31. 31. Page 30© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Tool Alignment Active Tool Alignment Device Drive for tilting (A-Axis) Tool holder Drive for height adjustment (Y-Axis) Tool release cylinder  Clamping and alignment of tools (three degree of freedom)  A-axis (rake angle adjustment) – Stroke: +/- 1°  B-axis (tool orientation) – Stroke: -5° < b < 95° (110°)  Y-axis (height adjustment) – Stroke: 2,5 mm – Accuracy: 0,2 μm Base Rotary table (B-Axis) Linear guides Z-Slide CAD-Model
  32. 32. Page 31© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Tool Alignment Tool Magazine and Handling System Swivel axis Linear motion  Tasks of tool exchange system – Storage of two tools – Realization of tool handling  Operated automatically by PLC of control unit  Clamping accuracy of HSK (measured at tool tip): +/- 1 μm
  33. 33. Page 32© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Automation4μ - Active Tool Alignment New Perspectives in Production Enabled by the Automated Tool Alignment Backlight system using diffractive structures 10 μmNew Products  Microstructured films for LED-backlight systems  Precise and burr-free diffractive optics New Processes  Machining and structuring of drums and rollers with different structure and tool geometries Machining of drums Spindle Drum Tool alignment unit Z-slide Drum with v-grooves
  34. 34. Page 33© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Design / Simulation Design / Simulation Raw Tool Raw Tool Precision Machining Precision Machining Coating Coating Glass/ Preform Glass/ Preform Moulding Moulding Metrology Metrology Handling / Automation Handling / Automation Assembly / Packaging Assembly / Packaging Product Product Complete process chain for the moulding of precision glass optics Final Product: Production4μ Demonstrator Products Aspheric feature Cylindric feature Diffractive feature PV Ra PV Ra PV, Ra step height May2008 Aspheric micro lense Cylinder lense array Diffractive aspheric lense October 2010 Feature-based demonstrators Product-based demonstrators Similar systems and components for other applications aspect ratio aspect ratio Transfer tootherμ-areas Microfluidics ScopeofProduction4μIP
  35. 35. Page 34© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Production4μ Demonstrator Products -Rot.- symmetric (aspherical) Cylindrical (asph./asph.) microstructured (diffractive optical elements) DEMO 1 by Ingeneric  Aspherical-spherical lens  Glass material: P-LASF47  Form specifications: 3/ 3(0.5) @1030nm for sphere and asphere  Surface defects: 5/ 5 x 0,063 L6x0,0025 (max. ¼ Ø) for sphere and asphere DEMO 2 by FISBA  Double side aspherical cylinder lens array  Glass material: P-LASF47  Form specifications: 3/ < 0.1 μm RMS  Surface defects: 5/ 5x0.04 DEMO 3 by VTT  Aspheric-diffractive lens  Glass material: P-SK56  Specifications: < 10 % step height difference Ø 27 4 R 0.3 apex rad. 0.35355 ± 0,0003 P-SK56
  36. 36. Page 35© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Update Demonstrator Usage and Application -Rot.- symmetric (aspherical) Cylindrical (asph./asph.) microstructured (diffractive optical elements) DEMO48-1 by Ingeneric  Focussing of high-power laser beams (applications similar to DEMO 48-2)  Usage of plastic lenses impossible due to high power densities  Until now, only Quartz glass has been used  Similar lenses are relevant for imaging optics DEMO48-2 by FISBA  Laser beam symmetrization for high power diode lasers  Industrial applications: Cutting, Writing, Welding, etc.  Application in medical technology DEMO48-3 by VTT  Improved image quality with less lens elements  High Quality Photography Optics  Mobile Phone Cameras  Medical Imaging and Metrology
  37. 37. Page 36© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT PresentationOutline  The Production4μ Project  The Precision Glass Moulding Technology  The Production4μ Process Chain  Precision Glass Moulding Cost Analysis  Conclusion
  38. 38. Page 37© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT How does the new technology compare to conventional processes? Resource advantages of precision glass moulding Energy Water Raw Material Milling PolishingGrinding Precision Glass Moulding Energy consumption of precision glass moulding compared to conventional optics production  Precision glass moulding requires electricity for heating and pressing, but has a low resource consumption other than that.  The conventional process chain requires water and / or lubricants for all steps and removes waste raw material, while also consuming electricity. The reduction of the number of process steps from three to one, which is additionally less resource consuming, enables a large saving of resources. Source: resource calculation / estimation of Fraunhofer IPT within the Production4μ project
  39. 39. Page 38© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% 100 1000 10000 Production Volume ProductionCost Replicative Non-replicative 100 % base  The calculation for one example product is shown, calculations for variuos sample products yielded similar results.  The production was assumed to take place in Europe (Germany).  However, similar values will also be correct for Asian production facilities since the main share of costs is not caused by personnel, but by expensive machines and tools. The break-even for moulding versus non-replicative manufacturing is located between 500 and 800 pieces of production volume. A break-even on a resource-only level of comparison is even reached at smaller numbers. Cost comparison of non-replicative and replicative manufacturing* *replicative: Precision glass moulding non-replicative: typically milling, grinding and polishing
  40. 40. Page 39© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT What is the status of the new technologies’ usage? Current industrial usage of the precision glass moulding technology 0 20 40 60 80 100 geometry functional configuration diameter curvature spectralrange application Percentage of total sales (%) Suitablefor moulding regarding… Polished glass 81% Plastic Moulded glass 1% Others 10% 8% Percentage of moulded glass lenses in optics sales of the study participants Percentage of products that could potentially be produced with glass moulding Results of a survey of the German optics industry by Fraunhofer IPT and Spectaris  Very low share of optics that were produced with precision glass moulding! While the number of optics produced by precision glass moulding is still very low, the potential for this technology is very high.
  41. 41. Page 40© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT PresentationOutline  The Production4μ Project  The Precision Glass Moulding Technology  The Production4μ Process Chain  Precision Glass Moulding Cost Analysis  Conclusion
  42. 42. Page 41© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Conclusion Precision glass molding allows for:  Shortening the process  Shorter lead times  Lower costs and resource consumption  Forming all surfaces of complex shaped optical elements in one process step (asphere, cylinder array etc.)  High form accuracy (/4 - /8) combined with high reproducibility of molding results  Precision glass moulding has a large industrial potential.  The Production4μ project aims at developing solutions to help industry access this potential. Your Contact: www.production4micro.net Fraunhofer IPT Sebastian Nollau sebastian.nollau@ipt.fraunhofer.de Tel. +49 241 8904 271
  43. 43. Page 42© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Information on Upcoming Event The colloquium will focus on three topics:  Strategy and Markets  Technology and Production  Products and Innovation Programme  Two-day conference with speakers from industry and research  Social program: conference dinner, shop floor visit at Fraunhofer IPT and Fraunhofer ILT  Conference venue: Pullman Aachen Quellenhof Information  www.optik-kolloquium.de 6th International Colloquium on Optics October 19 and 20, 2010 in Aachen

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