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11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
11.50 dhr Meyer
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11.50 dhr Meyer

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  • 1. Science For A Better Life Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Plastics Themadag „Nanotechnology“ Mikrocentrum Feb. 4, 2010, Eindhoven
  • 2. 108,600 employees Full year sales: EUR 32.9 billion 316 subsidiaries R&D expenditures: EUR 2.7 billion As of December 31, 2008 BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 2
  • 3. Corporate History 1863 Company founded by F. Bayer and J.F. Weskott in Wuppertal 1912 Corporate headquarters established in Leverkusen 1951 Re-establishment of Farbenfabriken Bayer AG 2001 Acquisition of Aventis CropScience 2002 / 2003 Reorganization of the Bayer Group 2005 Lanxess AG is spun off from the Bayer Group 2006 Takeover of Schering AG, Berlin, Germany BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 3
  • 4. Business Areas BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 4
  • 5. Bayer MaterialScience Full Year 2008 Employees* 15,100 Sales (2008) EUR 9,738 million EBITDA before special items EUR 1,088 million Chairman of the Executive Committee Patrick Thomas * Employees in full-time equivalents. BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 5
  • 6. Bayer MaterialScience – Business Units Polycarbonates Polyurethanes Coatings, Adhesives, Specialties Bayblend Baydur Bayhydrol Makrolon Bayfill Baytubes Bayfit Desmodur Desmopan Desmophen Multitec Dispercoll S Vulkollan Makrofol BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 6
  • 7. Carbon Nanotubes Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Tear strength > 10 GPa E-modulus > 1 TPa Thermal conductivity > 2000 W/mK Electrical conductivity > 104 S/cm BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 7
  • 8. Mechanical Strength www.montrealhockey.com BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 8
  • 9. Carbon Nanotubes 20 nm 25 nm Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT): Diameter: 0,4 - 3 nm Ideal structure, low defects Complex manufacturing process, high prices (current medium term target >1000 $/kg) High catalyst residue if CVD process is applied BTS High carbon black residue (up to 50% if arc- discharge process is applied) 20 nm Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT): Diameter : 5 - 100 nm High defects, high aspect ratio Cost effective process possible (CCVD) (high yield, low catalyst residue) Already in use in polymers BTS BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 9
  • 10. Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition „Expanding Universe“ Mechanism Dp = 80 µm Dp = 1200 µm ρ = 2000 kg·m-3 ρ = ca. 150 kg·m-3 Agglomerated catalyst particles CNT-Agglomerate Scheme of the metal- catalyzed growth of a carbon nanofiber from Movie Source: Stig Helveg et al., Atomic-scale imaging of gaseous hydrocarbons carbon nanofiber growth, Nature 427 (2004), 426-429 BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 10
  • 11. CNT Synthesis: CCVD / Fluidized Bed H2 / inert gas High carbon yields of catalyst Filter & High space-time yield Incineration Agglomerated / entangled product easy to handle Catalyst Product agglomerates must be disentangled during processing Heating Agglomerates of CNT ( > 95 % C-purity) Agglomerated primary catalyst particles CNT-Agglomerate Hydrocarbons / H2 / inert gas BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 11
  • 12. CNT Synthesis: CVD / Fluidized Bed Magnification X1300 73,7 : 1 B096501RE101 500µm Particle-Size Distribution 100 93910 : 1 200nm c u m u la tiv e v o lu m e tric c o n te n t Q 3 [% ] 90 80 CNT-Agglomerate 70 (> 95 % purity) 60 100µm 50 40 30 20 10 0 0,1 1 10 100 1000 10000 BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 12
  • 13. Baytubes® - Properties Multi-wall carbon nanotube agglomerates of very high purity Low fraction of catalyst residues enables immediate application in most polymers without costly purification processes 1µm BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 13
  • 14. Production Scale Up – Fluidized Bed Bench Scale Pilot Scale-1 Pilot Scale-2 in operation 2006/07 2010 in operation In operation ID = 0.1 m Reactor 1 Fluidized bed reactor 30 tons p.a. 200 tons p.a. 3-5 tons p.a. Reactor 2 30 tons p.a BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 14
  • 15. Baytubes® - Applications CURRENT SHORT TERM MID TERM LONG TERM Conductive & Sporting Goods Reinforced Polymers EMV Shielding Automotive Metal Reinforcement Sensors and Actuators Li Ion Batteries Electro/Electronic Textiles and Fibers Solar Energy Converters Catalyst Support Aerospace Advanced Ceramics Fuel Cell Membranes Radar Absorbing coatings Self Assembling Yarns BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 15
  • 16. Baytubes® - Electrical Conductivity in Polymers Carbon nanotubes Spherical particles Quelle: Hyperion Baytubes® carbon nanotubes show higher conductivity at lower loadings compared to high end conductive carbon blacks BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 16
  • 17. Baytubes® - Electrical Conductivity in Polycarbonate Surface Resistivity [Ohm/sq] 1,E+11 Baytubes C150P 1,E+10 High End Conductive CB 1,E+09 1,E+08 1,E+07 1,E+06 1,E+05 1,E+04 1,E+03 Polymer: Makrolon 2805 Dispersion machine: ZSK 26Mc 1,E+02 Screw speed: 400 1/min Torque: 80% 1,E+01 Temperature profile: 280 ° (standard) C 1,E+00 Parts Injection Moulded 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Baytubes content [wt%] Baytubes® show higher conductivity at lower loadings compared to high end conductive carbon black in polycarbonate. BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 17
  • 18. Baytubes® Dispersion 50 µm 50 µm 50 µm High electrical conductivity can only be achieved when primary CNT agglomerates have been sufficiently dispersed in the polymer BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 18
  • 19. Baytubes® Dispersion Medium to low viscous materials High viscous materials •Three roll calander •Melt impregnation •Ultrasonic probe •High shear extrusion •Pearl mill •In-situ polymerization •High shear dispenser PC PA Polyol 200 nm 200 nm 200 nm BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 19
  • 20. Baytubes® Optimization of molding conditions Best surface conductivities can be obtained by: - high melt temperatures - reduced injection speed - high CNT content - lower polymer viscosity - higher part thickness BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 20
  • 21. PC-CNT Composites Optimization of molding conditions Polymer Makrolon M2200 Makrolon M2200 Part thickness [mm] 3 3 Injection speed [cm/sec] 10 40 Fast and efficient development of PC-CNT plastics parts with model for optimized molding conditions BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 21
  • 22. Baytubes® - Applications in Thermoplastics Addition of Baytubes results in • improved electrical conductivity • improved mechanical strength • at low CNT loadings BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 22
  • 23. Baytubes® - Electrical Conductivity in Thermosets Torus mill Three roll calander Baytubes® in epoxy; data from IVW Kaiserslautern BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 23
  • 24. Baytubes® - Mechanical Strength Applications in Sporting Goods „The worlds toughest Hockey Stick“ Ultra-light weight Exel sticks „lightest and stronges t xc-ski to day“ BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 24
  • 25. Baytubes® - Use in Lightweight Construction Addition of Baytubes® results in • 10 – 30% increase in mechanical strength … for improved mechanical stability at constant weight and/or distinct weight reduction (material savings) at constant strength BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 25
  • 26. Applications in Fibers and Textiles Carbon nanotube fibers • Ultra-high strength • Electrical conductivity • Lightweight CNT reinforced fibers CNT coated fibers CNT coated textiles • Electrical conductivity • Electrical conductivity • Antistatic / electrostatic • Mechanical reinforcement • Healing of surface flaws • Electrically conductive • Abrasion resistance • Improved crack resistance • Safety clothing • Wearable electronics • Sensing / defect warning • Electromagnetic shielding BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 26
  • 27. CNT-dyed Multifilament Yarns Dye-printing of polyester yarns by CNT dispersions for use in heating textiles voltage Filaments with CNT network Fugetsu et al., Carbon (2008), in press BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 27
  • 28. Health & Safety BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 28
  • 29. BMS Product Stewardship Our Goal: Safe Use “The safe and of Bayer environmentally Products sound handling is essential for every new technology.” Safety Concept Bayer Code on based on Nanomaterials Risk Assessment www.baycareonline.com Hazard x Exposition = Risk BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 29
  • 30. Product Stewardship for Nanomaterials Bayer MaterialScience is committed to the generation of knowledge for safety aspects for nanotechnology Work in Harmonisation Participation to Associations (DIN, ISO, research projects (DECHEMA, VCI, OECD) e.g. NanoCare, CEFIC, ACC) TRACER, CarboSafe Development and validation of Internal testing measurement programme Cooperations with for (eco)-tox profile methods academic institutes determination BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 30
  • 31. Safe Use of Baytubes® over the Whole Life Cycle Production e.g. closed system, automated filling, End of Life e.g. proper disposal; exhaust gases incinerated Baytubes® undergo complete combustion below 600° C 100 90 80 TGA 70 Product Gewicht [%] 60 50 40 30 Life B L Q 1 7 9 6 8 : M IV -0 5 -18 2 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 6 00 700 800 900 T e m p e ra tu r [°C ] Cycle Further Processing Use Phase e.g. proper use to ensure safe e.g. nanoparticles embedded in a polymer handling, use of engineering controls, matrix have a negligible exposure potential use of personal protection measures BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 31
  • 32. (Eco)-Toxicological Test Program Baytubes® Acute toxicity, oral (OECD 423) LD50 rat: >= 5.000 mg/kg Acute toxicity, dermal (OECD 402) All standard studies performed so LD50 rat: > 2.000 mg/kg far with Baytubes show no relevant Primary skin irritation (OECD 404) Non-irritant (rabbit) adverse effect at realistic exposure Primary eye irritation (OECD 405) level (GLP studies according to Non-irritant (rabbit) Sensitization (OECD 406) OECD Guidelines). Negative (Guinea pig) Genotoxicity in vitro Not clastogenic in chromosome aberration test in vitro (OECD 473) Not mutagenic in AMES Test (OECD 471) Acute bacterial toxicity (OECD 209) EC50 > 10.000 mg/l (activated sludge) Acute toxicity to fish (OECD 203) LC50 > 100 mg/l (Brachydanio rerio (zebra fish); 96 h) Acute toxicity for daphnia (OECD 202) EC50 > 100 mg/l (Daphnia magna (Water flea); 48 h) Acute toxicity for algae (OECD 201) EC50 134 mg/l (Desmodesmus subspicatus (Green algae); 72 h) BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 32
  • 33. Baytubes® - Inhalation Toxicology Toxicology : Acute inhalation toxicity: No mortality (micronized Baytubes) Baytubes® as sold (LC50 rat: > 241 mg/m³) Concentrations ≥11 mg/m³ cause a poorly soluble particle effect No effect outside lungs Pulmonary toxicity of Baytubes and Quartz are markedly different : micronization Sub-chronic inhalation toxicity (90d) no evidence of any toxicity outside the respiratory tract (mode of action was typical of other poorly soluble particles) Baytubes® as tested Bayer Occupational Exposure Limit: inhalative OEL (8-hour TWA): 0.05 mg/m3 BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 33
  • 34. The Winning Team BMS-CAS-INN-CNT Dr. Helmut Meyer • Page 34
  • 35. Science For A Better Life

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