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Image Processing(Beta1)

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A presentation based on the fundamentals of image processing

A presentation based on the fundamentals of image processing


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  • 1. IMAGE PROCESSING Presented By:-
    • Niladri Sekhar Dutta
    • Anindya banerjee
    • Debasree Burman
    • Saswata Ghosh
  • 2.
    • A picture is “worth a thousand words”
    • Most people dislike going through pages of text specially on a computer screen so developers supplement words with pictures
    • Pictures impart large amount of information in a compact way
    • The pictures that we see in our everyday life can be broadly classified into two groups:
    • Image
    • Graphics
    INTRODUCTION
  • 3. An Image is a picture that depict some real world situation typically captured by a camera.An image can be Continuous Tone, Half-Tone or Bitone. Graphics implies a synthetic pictorial representation.Graphics can be categorized into Raster Graphic and Vector Graphic.
  • 4.
    • Image can either be black and white or greyscales having a number of grey shades or color containing a number of colour shades
  • 5.
    • Image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output of image processing gives us our desired modified image.
    Processing With the development of technology an image can be modified. Or in other words it can be processed.
  • 6.
    • Image processing involves three stages :
    • INPUT
    • EDITING
    • OUTPUT
    Three stages of Image Processing
  • 7.
    • Image input is the first stage of image processing.
    • It is concerned with getting the natural images into a computer system for subsequent work.
    • Essentially it deals with the conversion of analog image into digital form.
    • This is done using two devices :
    • Scanner
    • Digital Camera
    INPUT
  • 8.
    • Once a digital version of an image is generated ,it is edited to manipulate the image in various way.
    • In the editing stage many operations can be performed to transform the image as per the requirements of the application.Operations include:
    • Selection
    • Copying
    • Scaling
    • Rotation
    • Trimming
    • Changing the brightness ,contrast ,color tones.
    Editing
  • 9. Image Processing Software
    • An image processing software offers a wide variety of ways to manipulate images.Some of the tools are:
    • Selection Tool
    • Painting and Drawing Tools
    • Color Selection Tools
    • Gradient Tools
    • Clone Tools
    • Transformation Tools
    • Retouching Tools
    • Text Tools
  • 10.
    • Filters are mathematical algorithms which change images in certain pre-defined ways.
    • Using filters appearances of photographic images may be changed to resemble:
    • Emboss
    • Chalk and Charcoal
    • Distortion
    • Blur
    • Crystallize
    • The filters read in RBG values of the pixels and apply various mathematical operators to derive new values.
    Filters
  • 11. Applications Of Various Filters
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • Output stage involves saving the transformed image in a file format which can be displayed on the monitor screen or printed paper .
    • The image pixels are actually strings of binary numbers and therefore referred to as Logical Pixels.
    • When the image are displayed on the monitor however,the logical pixels are directly mapped on to the phosphor dots of the monitor,which is referred to as the physical pixels.
    • Parameters like resolution and bit-depth determine the appearance and final quality of the image.
    OUTPUT
  • 14.
    • The Analog to Digital conversion process involves three steps :
    • Sampling
    • Quantization
    • Code Generation
    Analog To Digital Conversion
  • 15.
    • Sampling involves breaking the continuous wave into discrete set of points.
    • This is done by examining the waves at certain points and recording the values of the waves at these points discarding the other values.
    Sampling
  • 16.
    • In sampling input analog value must be held constant during conversion process to avoid inconsistencies due to changeing values.This operation is called SAMPLE-AND-HOLD ,which holds the current sample value constant until the next sample is obtained.
    • This constant value gives the sampled output its characteristic staircase look.
    Sampling
  • 17. Original Signal Sampled Signal
  • 18. Sampling sampled real image
  • 19.
    • The output of the set of sampling step is a set of sample values, which represents the changing analog signal.
    • The next step is to represent values as numbers.
    • Quantization Level refers to the number of different sample values that can be used to represent a digital quantity.
    • Since sampling values represent the amplitudes of the analog waves at different time instants, the process of selecting a few number of amplitude levels from a large set is know as Amplitude-Discretization.
    Quantization
  • 20.
    • After quantization step, we have a set of values quantized to a specific number of levels, occurring at specific instants of time (or space).
    • Code generation involves expressing the amplitude levels in terms of binary codes or numbers because that is finally how data would be represented within a computer.
    Code-Word Generation
  • 21. Operations
    • Some important image processing operations are:
    • Geometric transformations
    • Color corrections
    • Digital compositing or optical compositing
    • Image registration
    • Image stabilization
    • Image segmentation
    • Extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed images
  • 22. Geometric transformations such as enlargement, reduction, and rotation
  • 23. Color corrections such as brightness and contrast adjustments, quantization, or conversion to a different color space
  • 24. Intensity Masking: Multiplying Two Images Digital compositing or optical compositing (combination of two or more images). Used in filmmaking to make a "matte"
  • 25. Extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed images
  • 26. Applied To
    • Face detection
    • Feature detection
    • Lane departure warning system
    • Medical image processing
    • Microscope image processing
    • Remote Sensing
  • 27.