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Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
Image Processing(Beta1)
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Image Processing(Beta1)

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A presentation based on the fundamentals of image processing

A presentation based on the fundamentals of image processing

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  • 1. IMAGE PROCESSING Presented By:- <ul><li>Niladri Sekhar Dutta </li></ul><ul><li>Anindya banerjee </li></ul><ul><li>Debasree Burman </li></ul><ul><li>Saswata Ghosh </li></ul>
  • 2. <ul><li>A picture is “worth a thousand words” </li></ul><ul><li>Most people dislike going through pages of text specially on a computer screen so developers supplement words with pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures impart large amount of information in a compact way </li></ul><ul><li>The pictures that we see in our everyday life can be broadly classified into two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Image </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul>INTRODUCTION
  • 3. An Image is a picture that depict some real world situation typically captured by a camera.An image can be Continuous Tone, Half-Tone or Bitone. Graphics implies a synthetic pictorial representation.Graphics can be categorized into Raster Graphic and Vector Graphic.
  • 4. <ul><li>Image can either be black and white or greyscales having a number of grey shades or color containing a number of colour shades </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output of image processing gives us our desired modified image. </li></ul>Processing With the development of technology an image can be modified. Or in other words it can be processed.
  • 6. <ul><li>Image processing involves three stages : </li></ul><ul><li>INPUT </li></ul><ul><li>EDITING </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT </li></ul>Three stages of Image Processing
  • 7. <ul><li>Image input is the first stage of image processing. </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with getting the natural images into a computer system for subsequent work. </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially it deals with the conversion of analog image into digital form. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done using two devices : </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Camera </li></ul>INPUT
  • 8. <ul><li>Once a digital version of an image is generated ,it is edited to manipulate the image in various way. </li></ul><ul><li>In the editing stage many operations can be performed to transform the image as per the requirements of the application.Operations include: </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Copying </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Trimming </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the brightness ,contrast ,color tones. </li></ul>Editing
  • 9. Image Processing Software <ul><li>An image processing software offers a wide variety of ways to manipulate images.Some of the tools are: </li></ul><ul><li>Selection Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Painting and Drawing Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Color Selection Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Gradient Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Clone Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Retouching Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Text Tools </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Filters are mathematical algorithms which change images in certain pre-defined ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Using filters appearances of photographic images may be changed to resemble: </li></ul><ul><li>Emboss </li></ul><ul><li>Chalk and Charcoal </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Blur </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallize </li></ul><ul><li>The filters read in RBG values of the pixels and apply various mathematical operators to derive new values. </li></ul>Filters
  • 11. Applications Of Various Filters
  • 12.  
  • 13. <ul><li>Output stage involves saving the transformed image in a file format which can be displayed on the monitor screen or printed paper . </li></ul><ul><li>The image pixels are actually strings of binary numbers and therefore referred to as Logical Pixels. </li></ul><ul><li>When the image are displayed on the monitor however,the logical pixels are directly mapped on to the phosphor dots of the monitor,which is referred to as the physical pixels. </li></ul><ul><li>Parameters like resolution and bit-depth determine the appearance and final quality of the image. </li></ul>OUTPUT
  • 14. <ul><li>The Analog to Digital conversion process involves three steps : </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Quantization </li></ul><ul><li>Code Generation </li></ul>Analog To Digital Conversion
  • 15. <ul><li>Sampling involves breaking the continuous wave into discrete set of points. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done by examining the waves at certain points and recording the values of the waves at these points discarding the other values. </li></ul>Sampling
  • 16. <ul><li>In sampling input analog value must be held constant during conversion process to avoid inconsistencies due to changeing values.This operation is called SAMPLE-AND-HOLD ,which holds the current sample value constant until the next sample is obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>This constant value gives the sampled output its characteristic staircase look. </li></ul>Sampling
  • 17. Original Signal Sampled Signal
  • 18. Sampling sampled real image
  • 19. <ul><li>The output of the set of sampling step is a set of sample values, which represents the changing analog signal. </li></ul><ul><li>The next step is to represent values as numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantization Level refers to the number of different sample values that can be used to represent a digital quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>Since sampling values represent the amplitudes of the analog waves at different time instants, the process of selecting a few number of amplitude levels from a large set is know as Amplitude-Discretization. </li></ul>Quantization
  • 20. <ul><li>After quantization step, we have a set of values quantized to a specific number of levels, occurring at specific instants of time (or space). </li></ul><ul><li>Code generation involves expressing the amplitude levels in terms of binary codes or numbers because that is finally how data would be represented within a computer. </li></ul>Code-Word Generation
  • 21. Operations <ul><li>Some important image processing operations are: </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric transformations </li></ul><ul><li>Color corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Digital compositing or optical compositing </li></ul><ul><li>Image registration </li></ul><ul><li>Image stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>Image segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed images </li></ul>
  • 22. Geometric transformations such as enlargement, reduction, and rotation
  • 23. Color corrections such as brightness and contrast adjustments, quantization, or conversion to a different color space
  • 24. Intensity Masking: Multiplying Two Images Digital compositing or optical compositing (combination of two or more images). Used in filmmaking to make a &quot;matte&quot;
  • 25. Extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed images
  • 26. Applied To <ul><li>Face detection </li></ul><ul><li>Feature detection </li></ul><ul><li>Lane departure warning system </li></ul><ul><li>Medical image processing </li></ul><ul><li>Microscope image processing </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Sensing </li></ul>
  • 27.  

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