Crim 409 Lecture 8


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Lifestyle
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Crim 409 Lecture 8

  2. 2. Why Is Hair Good Evidence? <ul><li>Abundant - average person has >100,000 hair follicles on their head alone </li></ul><ul><li>Easily transfer - average person loses 100 hairs per day </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable variability - comparing body area alone, human hair can be from the head, pubic, anal, eye, nose, ear, underarm, leg, arm, chest, trunk, or beard area, not including the fine hair covering the entire body except on a person’s palms and soles </li></ul><ul><li>Durable - hairs have been recovered from mummies dating back 2,000 years </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hair <ul><li>What crimes are hairs involved in? </li></ul><ul><li>Hairs are shed from people </li></ul><ul><li>Can link person to crime scene </li></ul><ul><li>Animal hair may also link person to crime scene </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Human hair frequently found at scene of violent crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Provides link between criminal and crime </li></ul><ul><li>From hair one can determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>human v. animal source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>race (sometimes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>origin from body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether hair was forcibly removed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If hair has been treated with chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If drugs have been ingested </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hair Evidence <ul><li>Found in many crimes, submitted to the laboratory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can include homicides, hit and runs, sexual assaults, kidnappings, burglaries, etc. </li></ul></ul>Suspect Object Scene Victim
  6. 6. Hair Shaft <ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuticle — outside covering, made of overlapping scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex — inner layer made of keratin and imbedded with pigment; also contains air sacs called cortical fusi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla — inside layer running down center of cortex </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hair <ul><li>How is hair analyzed? </li></ul>Look at class characteristics (microscope): <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla, Cortex, Cuticle </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Cuticle <ul><li>…… outermost layer of hair which is covered with scales. Scales point toward tip of the hair. Scales differ between species of animals and are named based on their appearance </li></ul><ul><li>The three basic patterns are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coronal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spinous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imbricate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Animal Hairs Coronal scale pattern is found in hairs of very fine diameter. Coronal scales are commonly found in the hairs of small rodents and bats
  10. 10. Animal Hairs Spinous or petal-like scales are triangular in shape and protrude from hair shaft. Found on hairs of seals, cats, and some other animals. They are never found in human hairs
  11. 11. Animal Hairs Imbricate or flattened-scale type consists of overlapping scales with narrow margins. Commonly found in human hairs and many animal hairs
  12. 12. The Cortex <ul><li>……… gives hair its shape and color </li></ul><ul><li>Contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melanin — pigment granules </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Hair Color
  14. 14. Dyed Hair
  15. 15. The Medulla <ul><li>…… is the hair core that is not always visible. The medulla comes in different types and patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermittent or interrupted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absent — not visible! </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Medulla Structure
  17. 17. Hair Shape <ul><li>Can be straight, curly or kinky depending on the cross-section, which may be round, oval or flat: </li></ul>Round (Straight) Oval (Curly) Flat (kinky)
  18. 18. Cross Section
  19. 19. Hair Growth Cycle
  20. 20. Hair Growth <ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anagen — hair that is actively growing; lasting up to 5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catagen — hair is not growing; a resting phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telogen — hair that is dying and ready to fall out; lasting two to six months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Length — about 0.5 mm per day or 1 centimeter per month; approximately one half inch per month </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Root Human roots look different based on whether they have been forcibly removed or if they are telogen hairs and have fallen out
  22. 22. Root Structure
  23. 23. Hair Comparison <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Length </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution, shape and color intensity of pigment granules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyed hair has color in cuticle and cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleaching removes pigment and gives a yellow tint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence or absence of medulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medullary pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medullary index </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. DNA from Hair <ul><li>The root contains nuclear DNA. If the hair has been forcibly removed, some folicular tissue may be attached containing DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>The hair shaft contains abundant mitochondrial DNA, inherited only from the mother. It can be typed by comparing relatives if no DNA from the body is available. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Collection of Hair <ul><li>Questioned hairs must be accompanied by an adequate number of control samples. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from possible suspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from others who may have deposited hair at the scene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 full-length hairs from all areas of scalp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 full-length pubic hairs </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Hair Toxicology <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to collect and store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is externally available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can provide information on the individual’s history of drug use or of poisoning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collections must be taken from different locations on the body to get accurate timeline </li></ul>
  27. 27. Hair Toxicology <ul><li>Napoleon died in exile in 1821. By analyzing his hair, some investigators suggest he was poisoned by the deliberate administration of arsenic; others suggest that the cause is attributed to vapors from dyes in the wallpaper </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary of Potential Results <ul><li>A qualified hair examiner can provide the following information </li></ul><ul><li>from a hair examination and comparison: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Whether there is hair(s) recovered from item(s) submitted. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Racial origin of hair (Caucasian-type, Negroid-type, Mongoloid-type) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Area of body that hair came from (head, pubic, body) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Whether hair has been artificially treated </li></ul><ul><li>6. Whether there has been damage to the hair </li></ul><ul><li>7. Whether there are similarities and/or differences between the questioned hair and known sample. </li></ul><ul><li>*How much information an examiner can provide depends upon suitability of hair. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Hair Examination Conclusions <ul><li>A hair examiner can conclude the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Questioned hair exhibits similar characteristics (no significant differences are present) to known sample. Thus, source of known sample cannot be excluded as being source of questioned hair. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Questioned hair exhibits dissimilar characteristics to the known sample. Thus, the source of known sample can be excluded as being source of questioned hair. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Questioned hair exhibits both similarities and differences to known sample. Thus, no conclusion can be reached </li></ul><ul><li>4. Known hairs insufficient or unsuitable for comparison purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Questioned hair(s) insufficient or unsuitable for comparison purposes. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Postmortem Root Banding